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1 they both _________________________________, however they
1. Compare how trade transformed Classic Greek and Roman society. 2. Compare the evolution of political systems in classic Greece and Rome. 3. Compare gender roles in Classic Greece and Rome. they both _________________________________, however they differ in terms of _____________________________. The reason for this difference is ___________________________. The evolution of political systems in Classic Greece and Rome is similar in in terms _________________________________. However because __________________ they differ in terms of ______________.


3 C 11: Mediterranean Society: The Roman Phase
C 12: Cross Cultural Exchanges on the Silk Roads Kingdom of Rome: 8th C BCE – 509 BCE Roman Republic: 509 BCE – 49 BCE Punic Wars: BCE Civil Wars: 87 BCE – 49 BCE Roman Empire: 49 BCE – 476 CE

4 Punic Wars: BCE 70,000 soldiers and 37 elephants crossed the Alps into Italy Romans spread salt in Carthage Rome eventually defeats Carthage for control of Mediterranean Hannibal drinks poison rather than be controlled by the Romans (50,000 = slavery)

5 Two Consuls: One military, one civil Twelve Tables: 449 BCE
Innocent until proven guilty Right to face accuser in court Right for judges to set aside unfair verdicts

6 Structure of Government
Consuls Senate Chosen by the Senate 2 chosen each year Head of State – commanded army Could become Dictator for 6 months in times of need Veto (I forbid) power over Senate Main lawmaking body 300 Patricians appointed for life Controlled foreign affairs Selected Dictator Democracy Assembly Tribunes Elected by the Plebeians Approved Consuls Later given power to pass laws 2 to 10 Chosen by Plebeian Council Could Veto actions of the Consuls and the Senate (For Adult White Male Citizens)

7 Roman Law: The Twelve Tables
Finally in 450B.C. the laws were engraved on 12 bronze tablets called the Twelve Tables. They were displayed in the Forum, so all citizens could see their rights. First written law code in Rome – written in 451 B.C.E. All Free citizens had equal protection under the law. Protected the rights of the Plebeians Marriages between plebeians and patricians are forbidden An obviously deformed child must be put to death. A person who admits to owing money or has been adjudged to owe money must be given 30 days to pay. If a father sells his son into slavery three times, the son shall be free of his father

8 How did the Roman Republic treat conquered peoples?
How did this change with the transformation to empire? Expansion of Republic w/ military threats and incentives: tax Incentives/ trade privileges/ promise of citizenship/ let them govern their own affairs/ couldn’t make a military alliance with anyone else/ had to provide soldiers and military support for the empire (Private armies??) Empire (Caesar): gave citizenship to provinces/ confiscated land from conservative aristocrats and gave to veterans and supporters/ eased the suffering of the poor Empire (Augustus): more centralized… Gracchi Bros?


10 TEST: 100 points/ 40 Multiple Choice/ 20 matching
C 10/11/12 on FRIDAY OCTOBER 25 Matching will come directly from the People/Terms from your Homework question sheets Comparative Essay (In class Blue Book): 75 points TUESDAY October 29 I will give you 4 questions to prepare. On test day, I will randomly choose one for you to write.

11 Innovation: The Arch and the Dome
Colosseum: CE

12 Roman Arch: Spain Corbel Arch: Mesoamerica

13 Naumachia: simulated naval battles in the Colosseum
Romans: heavy use of slave labor to sustain the empire: how does a heavy reliance on slave labor discourage technological innovation?

14 Roman Baths Circus Maximus: Chariot race track 2000 ft long/ 400 ft wide: 27,000 spectators


16 Roman Road: Pompeii At peak: Roman Roads = 54,000 miles Pantheon: temple of the gods Roman Milestone Roman Milestone

17 S P I C E Pater Familias!! Social:
Development and Transformation of social structures Pater Familias!! Patricians/ Plebeians/ Women did have influence in domestic sphere/ one third of the population were slaves Internal unrest: rebellions of the plebeians/ land issues/ slave revolts (Spartacus: army of 70,000 slaves) Immigrants were attracted to Rome/ population at height= million Political: State-building, expansion and conflict Monarchy>Republic:>Empire/ Punic Wars/Carthage? Expansion of republic? /Gracchi Bros/ Sulla? Civil Wars Julius Caesar? Killed 44 BCE /Augustus? (Octavian) 27 BCE “monarchy disguised as a republic” died 14 CE No private armies/ well organized army and navy 12 Tables/ “Innocent Until Proven Guilty”, right to challenge your accuser in court Pax Romana 117 CE- period of great expansion/ no policy for dealing with domestic unrest….. Only “Bread and Circuses” (Evolution of treatment of conquered peoples??) Interaction Between humans and the environment Mediterranean- eventually would include are as far east as Anatolia/Armenia, south to Egypt, present day Morocco, Britain and Wales: 2.2 million square miles at its height * Architecture: Concrete, Arch, Aqueducts, Fountains, Forum, Stadiums, Public Baths and Sewers/Postal System (greatly expanded during period of empire) S P I C E Patrician? Plebians? Consuls? Senate? (Effects?) Tribune? Dictator? Policies?

18 S P I C E Culture: Economic:
Development and interaction of cultures  Polytheism: Roman deities/ many adopted from Greece/ Stoicism: adopted from the Greeks: active life, help others, scorn accumulation of wealth, live by reason according to nature Cults: Isis Judaism (Romans had problems w monotheism & refusal to accept state gods) Romans eventually crush Jews (66-70CE); Essenes/ Dead Sea Scrolls Religions of Salvation: Mithraism: no women, appealed to military, adopted from Zorastrianism and emphasized strength and courage Christianity: moral code, divine nature of Jesus, New Testament records teachings= Romans crucify him (Paul of Tarsus??) Variation on doctrine/ rituals/ resurrection/ role of women… Economic: Creation, expansion and interaction of economic systems  Republic: agriculture/ latifundia?/ problems with land distribution/ Empire: Mare Nostrum: Navy = trade free from pirates/ economic Specialization/ wealth of Rome fueled great urban development/ Roads, communication, mileposts, services encouraged growth of trade Taxes and tribute collected Great wealth encouraged conspicuous consumption/ wealth in provinces encouraged growth of cities there/ development of infrastructure there S P I C E

19 Collapse of the Gupta Empire: Internal Decay and External Pressures
Regional states? Buddhism/ Nalanda? Later rulers: Weak in character/ ineffective CE External Pressures?: The White Huns

20 Social: Culture: Political: Economic: Interaction
Development and Transformation of social structures  RISE Culture: Development and interaction of cultures “Golden Age”: math (pi and zero) science, medicine, literature, poetry, decimal system Mahayana Buddhism (vs Theraveda Buddhism), Bodhisattvas, Jainism Political: State-building, expansion and conflict Chandra Gupta- period of relative peace ( CE) Forged alliances with strong regional families Political support form of popular Hinduism (devotional Hinduism) Economic: Creation, expansion and interaction of economic systems Guilds/ jati / became strong, powerful and wealthy Marketplaces, market towns, long distance trade across Hindu Kush, (pepper- key commodity that established direct trade with Rome) Interaction Between humans and the environment monsoons Observance of caste duties could lead to salvation (Bhagavad Gita 300 CE) Women lost rights (no property, no ritual, no study of religion) (child marriage)

21 Buddhism declines/ Nalanda abandoned By 1000 CE
Social: Development and Transformation of social structures  FALL Culture: Buddhism declines/ Nalanda abandoned By 1000 CE Hinduism survives the fall Caste system survives the fall Political: State-building, expansion and conflict Invasion of the White Huns (550 CE)- unable to defend themselves Able to fend them off for the first half of the 5th C CE but at huge cost/ military defense was expensive/ led to weakness in centralized authority- empire easily split along lines of regional provinces Economic: Creation, expansion and interaction of economic systems Not enough taxes for military defense/ regional provinces resisted tax increases New wealth and prestige of the jati may have undermined traditional high status of Brahmins= internal decay Interaction Between humans and the environment monsoons Land divisions increased the power of the provincial officials Caste system remained very strong- undermined need for Centralized authority

22 Collapse of the Roman Empire: Internal Decay and External Pressures
Constantine r CE Internal Decay: 26 Barracks Emperors Epidemics Disintegration of Imperial Economy Regional Self Sufficiency favored Great wealth in provinces encouraged growth of cities there (infrastructure) Rise of Christianity? Tetrarchs Diocletian r CE

23 Constantinople the capital
330 CE: Constantinople the capital

24 External Pressures: Nature of barbarian relationship with Roman Empire during times of stability? Visigoths sacked Rome 410CE Attila the Hun (Died 453CE) Germanic nomads Establish Germanic Emperor in 476 CE (Odovacer) Germanic invasions and the fall of the Western Roman empire: CE


26 Effects? Roman Empire survives another 1000 years as the Byzantine Empire nomadic groups build successor states in the West Christianity survives Edict of Milan 313 CE? Constantine’s Conversion Council of Nicea 325 CE? (Consensus on doctrine) Emperor Theodosius proclaimed Christianity the official religion of the Roman empire pope as spiritual leader of church in the West

27 Epidemics in the Han and Roman Empires

28 Collapse of the Han Dynasty: Internal Decay and External Pressures
Spread of Epidemic Disease Sets the Stage…… Internal Decay: Generals assume authority, reduce Emperor to puppet figure Marriage alliances led to Conflict Continued problem of land distribution disease Yellow Turban Uprising 184CE 200 CE Han Dynasty abolished, replaced by 3 kingdoms External Pressures: Immigration of northern nomads increases

29 Collapse of the Han Dynasty:
Internal Decay and External Pressures Effects? sinicization of nomadic peoples (adoption of sedentary lifestyle, adoption of Chinese names, dress, intermarriage rise in Buddhism and Daoism (Confucianism loses credibility: WHY?) disintegration into 3 regional states

30 C 12: Cross Cultural Exchanges on the Silk Roads
Hellenistic era as stage for Silk Road Boom? Why safe to travel now during the Classic Era? Han/ Rome/ Khushan/ Parthians The Silk Road: 200 BCE – 300 CE

31 Products?

32 From East Asia: From South Asia: From Central Asia:
Ginger, cinnamon, silk From South Asia: Pepper, sesame oil From Central Asia: Horses, jade From South East Asia: Clove, nutmeg, mace From the Mediterranean: Glassware, jewelry, Textiles, pottery

33 Effects of this Boom in Trade:
Economic activities become more sophisticated and productive cultural exchange (art, language, religion)/ role of oasis towns spread of Buddhism, Hinduism and Christianity Manichaeism (Best example of religious syncretism along Silk Road) spread of disease weakened Han and Roman empires in particular reduction in trade with collapse Manichaeism Elements of: Zoroastrianism (Zarathustra), Christianity (Jesus) and Buddhism (Buddha) Prophet Mani ( CE): a prophet for all of humanity Dualism and cosmic struggle (strong rationale for presence of good and evil) Personal salvation Strong missionary component Ascetic lifestyle (no marriage, no sex, no alcohol) High ethical standards Manichaeism Priests (3rd – 7th CE)

34 Spread of Hinduism, Buddhism and Christianity:
200 BCE -400 CE

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