Presentation on theme: "they both _________________________________, however they"— Presentation transcript:
1they both _________________________________, however they 1. Compare how trade transformed Classic Greek and Roman society.2. Compare the evolution of political systems in classic Greece and Rome.3. Compare gender roles in Classic Greece and Rome.they both _________________________________, however theydiffer in terms of _____________________________. The reasonfor this difference is ___________________________.The evolution of political systems in Classic Greece and Rome is similar inin terms _________________________________.However because __________________ they differ interms of ______________.
3C 11: Mediterranean Society: The Roman Phase C 12: Cross Cultural Exchanges on the Silk RoadsKingdom of Rome: 8th C BCE – 509 BCERoman Republic: 509 BCE – 49 BCEPunic Wars: BCECivil Wars: 87 BCE – 49 BCERoman Empire: 49 BCE – 476 CE
4Punic Wars: BCE70,000 soldiers and 37elephants crossed the Alpsinto ItalyRomans spread salt in CarthageRome eventually defeatsCarthage for control ofMediterraneanHannibal drinks poisonrather than be controlled by theRomans (50,000 = slavery)
5Two Consuls: One military, one civil Twelve Tables: 449 BCE Innocent until proven guiltyRight to face accuser in courtRight for judges to set aside unfair verdicts
6Structure of Government ConsulsSenateChosen by the Senate2 chosen each yearHead of State – commanded armyCould become Dictator for 6 months in times of needVeto (I forbid) power over SenateMain lawmaking body300 Patricians appointed for lifeControlled foreign affairsSelected DictatorDemocracyAssemblyTribunesElected by the PlebeiansApproved ConsulsLater given power to pass laws2 to 10 Chosen by Plebeian CouncilCould Veto actions of the Consuls and the Senate(For Adult White Male Citizens)
7Roman Law: The Twelve Tables Finally in 450B.C. the laws were engraved on 12 bronzetablets called the Twelve Tables. They were displayedin the Forum, so all citizens could see their rights.First written law code in Rome – written in 451 B.C.E.All Free citizens had equal protection under the law.Protected the rights of the PlebeiansMarriages between plebeians and patricians are forbiddenAn obviously deformed child must be put to death.A person who admits to owing money or has been adjudged to owe money must be given 30 days to pay.If a father sells his son into slavery three times, the son shall be free of his father
8How did the Roman Republic treat conquered peoples? How did this change with thetransformation to empire?Expansion of Republic w/ military threats and incentives: taxIncentives/ trade privileges/ promise of citizenship/ let them governtheir own affairs/ couldn’t make a military alliance with anyone else/had to provide soldiers and military support for the empire (Private armies??)Empire (Caesar): gave citizenship to provinces/ confiscated land from conservativearistocrats and gave to veterans and supporters/ eased the suffering of the poorEmpire (Augustus): more centralized…Gracchi Bros?
10TEST: 100 points/ 40 Multiple Choice/ 20 matching C 10/11/12 on FRIDAY OCTOBER 25Matching will come directly from the People/Terms from yourHomework question sheetsComparative Essay (In class Blue Book): 75 pointsTUESDAY October 29I will give you 4 questions to prepare.On test day, I will randomly choose one for you to write.
16Roman Road: PompeiiAt peak: Roman Roads = 54,000 milesPantheon: temple of the godsRoman MilestoneRoman Milestone
17S P I C E Pater Familias!! Social: Development and Transformation of social structuresPater Familias!!Patricians/ Plebeians/ Women did have influence in domestic sphere/ one third of the population were slavesInternal unrest: rebellions of the plebeians/ land issues/ slave revolts (Spartacus: army of 70,000 slaves)Immigrants were attracted to Rome/population at height= millionPolitical:State-building,expansion and conflictMonarchy>Republic:>Empire/ Punic Wars/Carthage?Expansion of republic? /Gracchi Bros/ Sulla? Civil WarsJulius Caesar? Killed 44 BCE /Augustus? (Octavian) 27 BCE“monarchy disguised as a republic” died 14 CENo private armies/ well organized army and navy12 Tables/ “Innocent Until Proven Guilty”, right to challenge your accuser in courtPax Romana 117 CE-period of great expansion/ no policy for dealing with domestic unrest…..Only “Bread and Circuses”(Evolution of treatment of conquered peoples??)InteractionBetween humans and the environmentMediterranean- eventually would include are as far east as Anatolia/Armenia, south to Egypt, present day Morocco, Britain and Wales: 2.2 million square miles at its height* Architecture: Concrete, Arch, Aqueducts, Fountains, Forum, Stadiums, Public Baths and Sewers/Postal System (greatly expanded during period of empire)SPICEPatrician?Plebians?Consuls?Senate?(Effects?)Tribune?Dictator?Policies?
18S P I C E Culture: Economic: Development and interaction of cultures Polytheism: Roman deities/ many adopted from Greece/Stoicism: adopted from the Greeks: active life, help others, scorn accumulation of wealth, live by reason according to natureCults: IsisJudaism (Romans had problems w monotheism & refusal to accept state gods) Romans eventually crush Jews (66-70CE); Essenes/ Dead Sea ScrollsReligions of Salvation:Mithraism: no women, appealed to military, adopted from Zorastrianism and emphasized strength and courageChristianity: moral code, divine nature of Jesus, New Testament records teachings= Romans crucify him (Paul of Tarsus??) Variation on doctrine/ rituals/ resurrection/ role of women…Economic:Creation, expansion and interaction of economic systems Republic: agriculture/ latifundia?/ problems with land distribution/Empire: Mare Nostrum: Navy = trade free from pirates/ economicSpecialization/ wealth of Rome fueled great urban development/ Roads, communication, mileposts, services encouraged growth of tradeTaxes and tribute collectedGreat wealth encouraged conspicuous consumption/ wealth in provinces encouraged growth of cities there/ development of infrastructure thereSPICE
19Collapse of the Gupta Empire: Internal Decay and External Pressures Regional states?Buddhism/Nalanda?Later rulers:Weak in character/ineffectiveCEExternal Pressures?:The White Huns
20Social: Culture: Political: Economic: Interaction Development and Transformation of social structures RISECulture:Development andinteraction of cultures“Golden Age”: math (pi and zero) science, medicine, literature, poetry, decimal systemMahayana Buddhism (vs Theraveda Buddhism),Bodhisattvas, JainismPolitical:State-building,expansion and conflictChandra Gupta- period of relative peace ( CE)Forged alliances with strong regional familiesPolitical support form of popular Hinduism (devotional Hinduism)Economic:Creation, expansionand interaction ofeconomic systemsGuilds/ jati / became strong, powerful and wealthyMarketplaces, market towns, long distance trade across Hindu Kush, (pepper- key commodity that established direct trade with Rome)InteractionBetween humans and the environmentmonsoonsObservance of caste duties could lead to salvation(Bhagavad Gita 300 CE)Women lost rights (no property, no ritual, no study of religion) (child marriage)
21Buddhism declines/ Nalanda abandoned By 1000 CE Social:Development and Transformation of social structures FALLCulture:Buddhism declines/ Nalanda abandonedBy 1000 CEHinduism survives the fallCaste system survives the fallPolitical:State-building,expansion and conflictInvasion of the White Huns(550 CE)- unable to defend themselvesAble to fend them off for the first half of the 5th C CE but at huge cost/ military defense was expensive/ led to weakness in centralized authority- empire easily split along lines of regional provincesEconomic:Creation, expansionand interaction ofeconomic systemsNot enough taxes for military defense/ regional provinces resisted tax increasesNew wealth and prestige of the jati may have undermined traditional high status of Brahmins= internal decayInteractionBetween humans and the environmentmonsoonsLand divisions increased the power of the provincial officialsCaste system remained very strong- undermined need forCentralized authority
22Collapse of the Roman Empire: Internal Decay and External Pressures Constantine r CEInternal Decay:26 Barracks EmperorsEpidemicsDisintegration of Imperial EconomyRegional Self Sufficiency favoredGreat wealth in provinces encouragedgrowth of cities there (infrastructure)Rise of Christianity?TetrarchsDiocletian r CE
23Constantinople the capital 330 CE:Constantinople the capital
24External Pressures:Nature of barbarianrelationship with RomanEmpire during times ofstability?Visigoths sackedRome 410CEAttila the Hun(Died 453CE)Germanic nomadsEstablish GermanicEmperor in 476 CE(Odovacer)Germanic invasions and the fall of theWestern Roman empire: CE
26Effects?Roman Empire survives another1000 years as the Byzantine Empirenomadic groups build successorstates in the WestChristianity survivesEdict of Milan 313 CE?Constantine’s ConversionCouncil of Nicea 325 CE?(Consensus on doctrine)Emperor Theodosius proclaimedChristianity the official religion ofthe Roman empirepope as spiritual leader ofchurch in the West
28Collapse of the Han Dynasty: Internal Decay and External Pressures Spread of Epidemic DiseaseSets the Stage……Internal Decay:Generals assume authority, reduce Emperor to puppet figureMarriage alliances led toConflictContinued problem of land distributiondiseaseYellow Turban Uprising 184CE200 CE Han Dynasty abolished, replaced by 3 kingdomsExternal Pressures:Immigration of northern nomads increases
29Collapse of the Han Dynasty: Internal Decay and External PressuresEffects?sinicization of nomadic peoples(adoption of sedentary lifestyle, adoption of Chinese names, dress, intermarriagerise in Buddhism and Daoism (Confucianism loses credibility: WHY?)disintegration into 3 regional states
30C 12: Cross Cultural Exchanges on the Silk Roads Hellenistic era as stage forSilk Road Boom?Why safe to travel nowduring the Classic Era?Han/ Rome/ Khushan/ ParthiansThe Silk Road: 200 BCE – 300 CE
32From East Asia: From South Asia: From Central Asia: Ginger, cinnamon, silkFrom South Asia:Pepper, sesame oilFrom Central Asia:Horses, jadeFrom South East Asia:Clove, nutmeg, maceFrom theMediterranean:Glassware, jewelry,Textiles, pottery
33Effects of this Boom in Trade: Economic activities become more sophisticated and productivecultural exchange (art, language, religion)/ role of oasis townsspread of Buddhism, Hinduism and ChristianityManichaeism (Best example of religious syncretism along Silk Road)spread of disease weakened Han and Roman empires in particularreduction in trade with collapseManichaeismElements of: Zoroastrianism (Zarathustra), Christianity (Jesus) andBuddhism (Buddha)Prophet Mani ( CE): a prophet for all of humanityDualism and cosmic struggle (strong rationale for presence of good and evil)Personal salvationStrong missionary componentAscetic lifestyle (no marriage, no sex, no alcohol)High ethical standardsManichaeism Priests (3rd – 7th CE)
34Spread of Hinduism, Buddhism and Christianity: 200 BCE -400 CE