Presentation on theme: "V IOLENCE A GAINST W OMEN, G ENDER R EPRESENTATION, AND G ENDER E MPOWERMENT Ferdaouis Bagga American University School of International."— Presentation transcript:
V IOLENCE A GAINST W OMEN, G ENDER R EPRESENTATION, AND G ENDER E MPOWERMENT Ferdaouis Bagga American University School of International Service
R ESEARCH Q UESTION Basic premise: women help other women Original RQ: Will there be less violence against women in a state which has more female representation in its parliament/lower house? Adjusted RQ: Will there be more substantive legislative action on violence against women when the state has higher female empowerment?
An Australian researcher who says that women work harder in parliament.
H YPOTHESES H a = Countries with higher levels of female empowerment will feature more legislation on violence against women. H o = There is no relationship between level of female empowerment and legislation on violence against women.
B ACKGROUND S OURCES Violence Against Women: An International Perspective, by Johnson, H., Ollus, N, and Nevala, S. The European Institute for Crime Prevention and Control, affiliated with the United Nations (HEUNI) IVAWS – commenced 2003, by countries Escobar-Lemmon, M. & Taylor-Robinson, M. M. (2005). “Women Ministers in Latin American Government: When, Where, and Why?” Iyer, L., Mani, A., Mishra, P., & Topalova, P. (2011). “The Power of Political Voice: Women’s Political Representation and Crime in India” Tremblay, M. (1998). “Do Female MPs Substantively Represent Women? A Study of Legislative Behaviour in Canada’s 35 th Parliament” Yoon, M. Y. (2004). “Explaining Women’s Legislative Representation in Sub-Saharan Africa”
D ESCRIPTION OF V ARIABLES 1. Gender empowerment measure: “gem2005” From Human Development Report of 2007/2008 Assigns countries a value indicating how empowered women are based on political, economic, and societal factors Dependent Unit of Analysis = Country LOM = Interval-Ratio
D ESCRIPTION OF V ARIABLES 1. Legislation on violence against women: “LegislationVAW” From OECD =yes, 1=no 2. Percentage of women in parliament: “Women2008” From Inter-Parliamentary Union (IPU) 3. Gender-related development index: “GDIValue2005” From UNDP Assesses life expectancy, adult literacy rate, gross enrolment ratios, estimated income Independent
I F DEPENDENT VARIABLE WAS “W OMEN 2008”…
D ATA … D ESCRIPTIVE S TATISTICS Variable Observations (N) Mean Standard Deviation MinMax gem LegislationVAW Women GDIValue
G RAPH M ATRIX
D ATA … SAMPLE LegislationVAWWomen2008 Afghanistan127.7 Albania Algeria Angola0.515 Argentina Armenia Azerbaijan Bahrain Bangladesh Belarus Benin Bhutan
L INEAR R EGRESSION A NALYSIS Independent Variables Model 1Model 2Model 3 Legislation on violence against women (LegislationVAW) Coef: Sig: Coef: Sig: Coef: Sig: Percentage of women in lower house of parliament (Women2008) Coef: Sig: Coef: Sig: Gender development index (GDI2005) Coef: Sig: Observations:50 46 R-squared Using dependent variable gender empowerment measure (gem2005)
C ONCLUSIONS & P OLICY S UGGESTIONS There is a statistically significant relationship between the gender empowerment variable and legislation on violence against women in all three models. Sample size is a problem, with less than half the world’s countries represented by this data. The coefficient for legislation on violence against women appears negative, but this is because the range of values is between 0 and 1, with 0 being the ideal “yes, there is legislation on violence against women.” Thus, when gender empowerment rises, the value of “LegislationVAW” decreases, getting closer to a solid yes, and countries more frequently have legislation on violence against women. Model three is the strongest with an R 2 of , meaning that when percentage of women in parliament and level of gender development are also taken into account, there is a strong positive relationship. When more women are empowered, especially politically, there will be more substantive legislative action to combat violence against women.