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Foto: smno.kampus.ub.agst2012. Sumber: DIUNDUH DARI: PERTANIAN ORGANIK Ada dua macam pengertian tentang.

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Presentation on theme: "Foto: smno.kampus.ub.agst2012. Sumber: DIUNDUH DARI: PERTANIAN ORGANIK Ada dua macam pengertian tentang."— Presentation transcript:

1 Foto: smno.kampus.ub.agst2012

2 Sumber: DIUNDUH DARI: PERTANIAN ORGANIK Ada dua macam pengertian tentang pertanian organik yaitu dalam arti sempit dan dalam arti luas. Pertanian organik dalam arti sempit yaitu pertanian yang bebas dari bahan – bahan kimia. Mulai dari perlakuan untuk mendapatkan benih, penggunaan pupuk, pengendalian hama dan penyakit sampai perlakuan pascapanen tidak sedikiti pun melibatkan zat kimia, semua harus bahan hayati, alami. Pertanian organik dalam arti yang luas, adalah sistem produksi pertanian yang mengandalkan bahan-bahan alami dan menghindari atau membatasi penggunaan bahan kimia sintetis (pupuk kimia/pabrik, pestisida, herbisida, zat pengatur tumbuh dan aditif pakan). Tujuannya untuk menyediakan produk – produk pertanian (terutama bahan pangan) yang aman bagi kesehatan produsen dan konsumen serta menjaga keseimbangan lingkungan dengan menjaga siklus alaminya.

3 PERTANIAN ORGANIK Prinsip-prinsip pertanian organik merupakan dasar bagi pertumbuhan dan perkembangan pertanian organik. Prinsip – prinsip ini berisi tentang sumbangan yang dapat diberikan pertanian organik bagi dunia, dan merupakan sebuah visi untuk meningkatkan keseluruhan aspek pertanian secara global. Pertanian merupakan salah satu kegiatan paling mendasar bagi manusia, karena semua orang perlu makan setiap hari. Nilai – nilai sejarah, budaya dan komunitas menyatu dalam pertanian. Prinsip-prinsip ini diterapkan dalam pertanian dengan pengertian luas, termasuk bagaimana manusia memelihara tanah, air, tanaman, dan hewan untuk menghasilkan, mempersiapkan dan menyalurkan pangan dan produk lainnya. Prinsip – prinsip tersebut menyangkut bagaimana manusia berhubungan dengan lingkungan hidup, berhubungan satu sama lain dan menentukan warisan untuk generasi mendatang. Sumber: DIUNDUH DARI:

4 PERTANIAN ORGANIK Pengembangan pertanian organik harus mengacu kepada prinsip – prinsip organik (prinsip kesehatan, prinsip ekologi, prinsip keadilan dan prinsip perlindungan) agar mendapatkan hasil pangan yang bermutu serta aman dikonsumsi. Berdasarkan pertimbangan pelaksanaan pembangunan pertanian di Indonesia pada saat ini, ada beberapa faktor yang perlu diperhatikan dalam mengembangkan pertanian alternatif: 1.Keragaman daur-ulang limbah organik dan pemanfaatannya untuk memperbaiki sifat fisik, kimia, dan biologi tanah. 2.Memadukan sumber daya organik dan anorganik pada sistem pertanian di lahan basah dan lahan kering. 3.Mengemangkan sistem pertanian berwawasan konservasi di lahan basah dan lahan kering. 4.Memanfaatkan bermacam – macam jenis limbah sebagai sumber nutrisi tanaman. 5.Reklamasi dan rehabilitasi lahan dengan menerapkan konsep pertanian organik. 6.Perubahan dari tanaman semusim menjadi tanaman keras di lahan kering harus dipadukan dengan pengembangan ternak, pengolahan minimum dan pengolahan residu pertanaman. 7.Mempromosikan pendidikan dan pelatihan bagi penyuluh pertanian untuk memperbaiki citra dan tujuan pertanian organik. 8.Memanfaatkan kotoran ternak yang berasal dari unggas, babi, ayam, itik, kambing, dan kelinci sebagai sumber pakan ikan. Sumber: DIUNDUH DARI:

5 Sumber: Ananata Ghimire. June, A REVIEW ON ORGANIC FARMING FOR SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE. Department of Agriculture Extension and Rural Sociology, Institute of Agriculture and Animal Science, Rampur, Chitwan, Nepal PERTANIAN ORGANIK Organic farming seems to be more appropriate as it considered the important aspects like sustainable. Agriculture is the most important sector for ensuring food security, alleviating poverty and conserving the vital natural resources that the world’s present and future generation will be entirely dependent upon for their survival and well being, in the name of development, the environmental resources have been beyond comprehension. Acid rain, deforestation, depletion, smog due to automobiles and discharge of industrial pollution, soil degradation, depletion of ozone layer and discharge of toxic wastage by industrial units into rivers and oceans are some environmental problematic issues. Intensive use of inorganic fertilizers and pesticides has been an important tool in the drive for increased crop production. In fact more fertilizers consumption is a good indication of agricultural productivity but depletion of soil fertility is commonly observed in soils. Due to heavy use of chemical herbicides, pesticides and intensification of agricultural production during the past few decades has led to other harmful effects like nitrate in the ground water, contamination of fooding materials, eutrophication, stratospheric changes etc. High agricultural inputs are unlikely to be sustainable for very long unless the inputs are correctly judged in terms of both their quality and quantity. To escape from these harmful effects, the concept of organic farming was emerged from the conference of Atlanta in Organic Farming seems to be more appropriate as it considered the important aspects like sustainable natural resources and environment. It is a production system, which favors maximum use of organic materials like crop residues, FYM, compost, green manure, oil cakes, bio-fertilizers, bio-gas slurry etc. to improve soil health from the different experiment, microbial fertilizers like Rhizomic, Azotobacter, Blue green algae, Azolla etc. have increased the yield and also played important role for minimizing the harmful effect of pesticides and herbicides. Organic farming is a practical proposition for sustainable agriculture if adequate attention is paid to this issue. There is urgent need to involve more and more scientist to identify the thrust area of research for the development of eco-friendly production technology.

6 Sumber: Ananata Ghimire. June, A REVIEW ON ORGANIC FARMING FOR SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE. Department of Agriculture Extension and Rural Sociology, Institute of Agriculture and Animal Science, Rampur, Chitwan, Nepal PERTANIAN ORGANIK Adverese effect of agro-chemicals on soil, water, food and atmospheric environment When adverse use of agro chemicals takes place in modern farming by many developed and under develpoed countries, there are various adverse effest on soil, water, food and atmospheric environment which are reviewed below. Fertilizer Pollution In the developed countries, there has been intensive fertilizer use for the last four decades. If the polluting effects of fertilizers are being observed now, similar problems in developing countries should be expected in the near future. Some important problems associated in fertilizers pollution are summarized below.

7 Sumber: Ananata Ghimire. June, A REVIEW ON ORGANIC FARMING FOR SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE. Department of Agriculture Extension and Rural Sociology, Institute of Agriculture and Animal Science, Rampur, Chitwan, Nepal PERTANIAN ORGANIK Nitrate Pollution Application of N 2 fertilizers such as urea and ammonium sulphate to soils produces acid by two processes. Firstly, the natural process of oxidation of ammonia ions to nitrate ions release acid. Part of acid produced is neutralized by alkaline ions released by plants during the subsequent uptake of the nitrate ions. Secondly, since nitrate ions are not strongly absorbed by the soil they are liable to leach or move down through the soil. The negatively charged nitrate ions carry positively charged basic cations such as Ca, K, Mg and Na in order to maintain the electric charge on the soil particles. A high nitrate concentration indicates likely presence of harmful bateria as well. In condition, to high enrichment, NO 3 may produce as state known as methamoglobinema (blue babics) which generally affects the infants under six months of age. Repeated heavy dose of nitrate on ingestion may likely to cause carcinogenic diseases. Consumption of high dose of NO 3 may develop symptoms of dizziness, abdominal cramps, vomitting, weakness, convulsion, mental inpairment and even nitrosamine which causes stomach cancer. Apart from this, over use of N 2 fertilizers leads to swindling of earthworms from the particular area, earthworms have always been considered a farmers friends and their absence mean loss to the soil fertility.

8 Sumber: Ananata Ghimire. June, A REVIEW ON ORGANIC FARMING FOR SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE. Department of Agriculture Extension and Rural Sociology, Institute of Agriculture and Animal Science, Rampur, Chitwan, Nepal PERTANIAN ORGANIK. Accumulation of Heavy Metals Contamination of soil by heavy metal through fertilizers such as cadmium from phosphatic fertilizers is also getting increasing attention of environmentalists (Kostial, 1986). Health hazards associated with heavy metals entering the food chain through soil is demanding attention. Fertilizers contain heavy metals as impurities. The application of rock phosphate or its produce to soil always implies the addition of significant amount of lead and cadmium into the soil. Analysis of several commercial fertilizers commonly used revealed that a combination of low analysis and straight fertilzers can add more lead and cadmium to soil than high analysis and mixed fertilizers (Arora et al. 1995). 1.Arora, C.L., Nayaar V.K. and Randhuwa S.S., Note on Secondary and Micro Nutrient Content of Fertilizers and Manures, Indian J. Agric. S. 45: Kostial, K., Cadmium. In: W. Mertz (ed.). Trace Elements in Human and Animal Nutrition, Academic PRESS LONDON. pp

9 Sumber: Ananata Ghimire. June, A REVIEW ON ORGANIC FARMING FOR SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE. Department of Agriculture Extension and Rural Sociology, Institute of Agriculture and Animal Science, Rampur, Chitwan, Nepal PERTANIAN ORGANIK Eutrophication of Water It is the process of enrichment of surface water bodies like lakes, reserviors and dreams with nutrients. Nutrient enrichment of water bodies results in intense proliferation and accumulation of algae and higher aquatic platns in excessive quantities which can result in detrimental changes in water quality and can significantly interfere with the use of water resources. The excessive accumulation of dissolve nutrients such as phosphorus, nitrogen, silicon and other element in water leads to an excess production of algal biomass. This requires a corresponding increased supply of oxygen for decomposition of organic materials when the algae and their remnants sink to bottom, reduced O 2 content and eventually anaerobic condition may prevail. This is syptomatic a severe eutrophication and may leads to a serious loss of marine life, blockage and aquatic passages and a major reduction in real estate value of the affected areas. The normal N:P ratio in water is around 20:1. Algal growth increase when this ratio drops to around 7:1 (Asmed, 1993). 1.Asmed, S., Agriculture-Fertilizer Interference in Asia. Issue of Growth and Sustainability, Oxford and IBH Publishers, New Delhi, India.

10 Sumber: Ananata Ghimire. June, A REVIEW ON ORGANIC FARMING FOR SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE. Department of Agriculture Extension and Rural Sociology, Institute of Agriculture and Animal Science, Rampur, Chitwan, Nepal PERTANIAN ORGANIK Insecticide Pollution The presence of residues of insecticide in food commodities and other component of the environment is a matter of serious concern. Even small quantities of the residues ingested daily along with food can build up to high levels in body fat (Dhaliwal and Singh, 1993). There is therefore a contant fear that society is being slowly poisoned by the intake of food contaminated with pesticide residues. During the 1900's, there was little information available on he bad impose of pesticide on soil and water quality. Organochlorine insecticides such as chlorine, dieldrin, DDT and heptachlor were widely used in agriculture to control insect/pests in different countries like Nepal. Since 1960's, the organochlorine use was progressively restricted and finally banded now. Nevertheless, their residues still found in soil and continue to cause problems of food and food contamination. The metabolite of DDT still occur in the top 150 mm of the soil profile Centerbury region in Switzerland (Bould, 1994). 1.Bould, C., Diagnosis of Mineral Disorders in Plants, Vol. 1,2, 3 Principles. Chemical Publishing, New Delhi, India.

11 Sumber: Ananata Ghimire. June, A REVIEW ON ORGANIC FARMING FOR SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE. Department of Agriculture Extension and Rural Sociology, Institute of Agriculture and Animal Science, Rampur, Chitwan, Nepal PRINSIP PERTANIAN ORGANIK The major widely used term "organic farming" describes two major aspects of alternative agriculture. 1.The substitution of manure and other oranic matter as organic fertilizers. 2.The use of biological pest control instead of chemical pest control. Organic farmers emphasize using only organic fertlilzers for fertility maintenance. In many aspects, inorganic farming is a way of life as it is a method of farming. The profitability of organic farms depends on the higher prices that their products demand in the market place. To stimulate inorganic farming, some government have passed laws that create a demand for organic foods, for example, in some states of USA, poor people who receive food aid get coupon only redeemable at organic markets. Cities have created farmers market, where inorganic producer can sell their goods (Dahama, 1997). 1.Dahama, A.K., Organic Farming for Sustainable Agriculture, Ashila Offset Printers, Daruagung, New Delhi, India.

12 Sumber: Ananata Ghimire. June, A REVIEW ON ORGANIC FARMING FOR SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE. Department of Agriculture Extension and Rural Sociology, Institute of Agriculture and Animal Science, Rampur, Chitwan, Nepal PRINSIP PERTANIAN ORGANIK Organic agriculture is not based exclusively on short term economics, but also considers ecological concepts. It utilizes appropriate technology and appropriate traditional farming methods. This form of farming can also be called sustainable form of farming or sustainable agriculture. The principles of this method are: 1.Organize the production of crops and livestock and the management of farm resources so that they harmonize rather than conflict with natural sysem. 2.Use and develop appropriate technologies based upon an understanding of biological systems. 3.Achieve and maintain soil fertility for optimum production by relying primarily on renewable resources. 4.Use diversification to pursue optimum production. 5.Aim for optimum nutritional value of staple food. 6.Use decentralized structures for processing, distributing and marketing of products. 7.Strive for equitable relationship between those who work and live on the land. 8.Maintain and preserve wildlife and their habitats.

13 Sumber: Ananata Ghimire. June, A REVIEW ON ORGANIC FARMING FOR SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE. Department of Agriculture Extension and Rural Sociology, Institute of Agriculture and Animal Science, Rampur, Chitwan, Nepal KOMPONEN PERTANIAN ORGANIK There are assumtions throughout the organic literature of differences between organic and conventional systems with respect to their effects on soil physical properties, soil insect fauna and nurient flow within the soil, crop health and nutritional value of the harvested crop. Different components of organic farming are as follows: Crop and Soil Management Organic farming system encourages the use of rotations and measures to maintain soil fertility. Carefully managed soil with a high production of humus offer essential advantages with respect to water retention ion exchange, soil erosion and animal life in the soil. Green manuring and inter-cropping of legumes is another important aspect for biological farming systems not only in regard to weed control but also in reducing the leaching of nutrients and in reducing soil erosion. A green cover throuthout most of the year is one of the main goals of such farming methods. Depending on the green manure mixture or the legumes used for under sowing, there may be an increased soil organice matter and soil N 2 as well as in other nutrients.

14 Sumber: Ananata Ghimire. June, A REVIEW ON ORGANIC FARMING FOR SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE. Department of Agriculture Extension and Rural Sociology, Institute of Agriculture and Animal Science, Rampur, Chitwan, Nepal KOMPONEN PERTANIAN ORGANIK On-farm Waste Recycling Increase price of chemical fertilizers have enables organic wastes to regain an important role in the fertilizer practices on the farm. Good manure management means improved fertilizers value of manure and slurry and less nutrient losses. Composting of all organic wastes in general and of Farm Yard Manure (FYM) or feedlot manure in particular is important in organic farming.

15 Sumber: Ananata Ghimire. June, A REVIEW ON ORGANIC FARMING FOR SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE. Department of Agriculture Extension and Rural Sociology, Institute of Agriculture and Animal Science, Rampur, Chitwan, Nepal KOMPONEN PERTANIAN ORGANIK Non-chemical Weed Management Weed management is one of the main concern in organic agriculture. Generally, all aspeects of arable crop production play an important role in a system approach to problems. The elements to consider in preventing weed problems are crop rotation, green manuring, manure management and tillage. Mulching on a large scale by using manure spreaders may also be useful in weed control. Domestic and Industrial Waste Recycling Sewage and sludge use for crop production can form an important component of organic farming if treatment and application methods are improved further.

16 Sumber: Ananata Ghimire. June, A REVIEW ON ORGANIC FARMING FOR SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE. Department of Agriculture Extension and Rural Sociology, Institute of Agriculture and Animal Science, Rampur, Chitwan, Nepal KOMPONEN PERTANIAN ORGANIK Energy Use In the energy requirement for production measured per rupees of produce for organic farms is only one third of what it is for their conventional counterparts. Because N-fertilizer and pesticides are not used by biological farmers, the comparison of total energy input/ha. with total energy output favors biological farming systems. Food Quality Food quality is one of the main issues, which concerns both scientists and consumers. Nitrates in water and farm produce, desirable components, pesticides residues, keeping quality and physiological imbalances are some of the important aspects of food quality.

17 Sumber: Ananata Ghimire. June, A REVIEW ON ORGANIC FARMING FOR SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE. Department of Agriculture Extension and Rural Sociology, Institute of Agriculture and Animal Science, Rampur, Chitwan, Nepal KOMPONEN PERTANIAN ORGANIK Ecological Agriculture The growing concern about environmental degradation, dwindling natural resources and urgency to meet the food needs of the increasing population are nompelling farm scientist and policy makers to seriously examine alternative to chemical agriculture. As reported by Vankataramani (1995) case studies shows that when chemical farm incurred about towards the cost of cultivation of rice. An organic farm spend rupees 10,590 to produce 5625 kg paddy and 8 tonnes of straw/ha. The net returns from the ecological farming system at the current cost of rupees 3.34/kg paddy is rupees 8, In chemical farming, the net profit is rupees If one gets a premium price for the poison force, organically grown rice, the economic returns from the ecological farming system will highly encouraging.

18 Sumber: Ananata Ghimire. June, A REVIEW ON ORGANIC FARMING FOR SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE. Department of Agriculture Extension and Rural Sociology, Institute of Agriculture and Animal Science, Rampur, Chitwan, Nepal KOMPONEN PERTANIAN ORGANIK Integrated Intensive Farming System (IIFS) IIFS involves intensive use of farm resources. To be ecologically sustainable, such intensification should be based on techniques which are knowledge intensive and which replace to the extent possible, market purchased chemical inputs with farm grown biological inputs (Venkataramani, 1996).

19 Sumber: Ananata Ghimire. June, A REVIEW ON ORGANIC FARMING FOR SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE. Department of Agriculture Extension and Rural Sociology, Institute of Agriculture and Animal Science, Rampur, Chitwan, Nepal NILAI PERTANIAN ORGANIK The value of organic materials as fertilizers and soil conditions is often misunderstood and has been the source of some controversy. The simplest and the most common means of estimating the value of organic amendments is by assigning the market value of the potentially available plant nutrients, they contain nitrogen-phosphorus-potash (NPK) and other micro-organisms. Benefits of Soil Organic Matter 1.It serves as a slow release of nitrogen, phosphorus and sulphur for plant nutrition and microbial growth 2.It posses considerable water holding capacity and thereby helps to maintain the water regime of the soil. 3.It acts as a buffer against in pH of the soil. 4.Its dark color contributes to absorption of energy from the sun and heating of the soil 5.It acts as "cement" for holding clay and silt particles together, thus contributing to the crumb structure of the soil and resistance against soil erosion 6.It binds micro-nutrients metal ion in the soil that otherwise might be leached out of the surface soil 7.Organic contituents in the humic substances may act as plant growth stimulants

20 Sumber: Ananata Ghimire. June, A REVIEW ON ORGANIC FARMING FOR SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE. Department of Agriculture Extension and Rural Sociology, Institute of Agriculture and Animal Science, Rampur, Chitwan, Nepal PERTANIAN ORGANIK Use of Traditional Additives for Organic Farming Most countries have traditionally utilized various kinds of organic materials to maintain or improve the tilth, fertility and productivity of their agricultural soils. However, several decades ago, organic recycling practices in some countries were largely replaced with chemical fertilizer which were applied to high yielding cereal crops that responded to a high level of fertility and adequate moisture, including irrigation. Consequently, the importance of organic matter to crop production received less emphasis and its proper use in soil management sometimes neglected or even forgotten. With these changes and the failure to implement effective soil conservation practices, agricultural soils in a number of developed and developing countries have undergone serious degradation and decline in productivity because of excessive soil erosion and nutrient run-off and decreased soil organic matter levels. To achieve sufficiency utilization of organic materials such as agricultural residue and urban wastes to protect agricultural soils from wind and water erosion and to prevent nutrient losses through run-off and leaching.

21 Sumber: Ananata Ghimire. June, A REVIEW ON ORGANIC FARMING FOR SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE. Department of Agriculture Extension and Rural Sociology, Institute of Agriculture and Animal Science, Rampur, Chitwan, Nepal PERTANIAN ORGANIK Bulky Organic Manure FYM, farm compost, night soil, sludge and green manure are bulky in nature and supply large quantities of organic matter but small quantities of plant nutrients in comparison to the inorganic fertilizers.

22 Sumber: Ananata Ghimire. June, A REVIEW ON ORGANIC FARMING FOR SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE. Department of Agriculture Extension and Rural Sociology, Institute of Agriculture and Animal Science, Rampur, Chitwan, Nepal PERTANIAN ORGANIK Concentrated Organic Manure Concentrated organic manures are those materials that are organic in nature and contain higher percentage of essential plant nutrients such as nitrogen, phosphorus and potash as compared to bulky organic manure. The concentrated manures are made from raw materials of animal or plant origin. The concentrated organic manure commonly used are oil-cakes, blood meal, fish meal, meat meal and horn and hoof meal.

23 Sumber: Ananata Ghimire. June, A REVIEW ON ORGANIC FARMING FOR SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE. Department of Agriculture Extension and Rural Sociology, Institute of Agriculture and Animal Science, Rampur, Chitwan, Nepal NILAI PERTANIAN ORGANIK Use of Non-Traditional Additives for Organic Farming: A number of products are now available that are generally referred to as soil and plant additives of non-traditional nature. These products include: 1.Microbial fertilizers and soil inoculate which are reported to contain unique and beneficial strains of soil micro-organisms 2.Microbial activators that supposedly contains special chemical formulations for increasing the numbers and activity of beneficial micro-organisms in soil 3.Soil conditioners that claim to created favorable soil physical and chemical conditions that result in increased growth and yield of crops 4.Vermmi-compost which help in improving soil health and fertility.

24 Sumber: Ananata Ghimire. June, A REVIEW ON ORGANIC FARMING FOR SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE. Department of Agriculture Extension and Rural Sociology, Institute of Agriculture and Animal Science, Rampur, Chitwan, Nepal PERTANIAN ORGANIK Microbial Fertilizers or Boi-fertilizer as a Non-traditional Additive for Organic Farming Bio-fertilizers are the biological active product called microbial inoculates containing active strain of selective micro-organisms like bacteria, fungi, algae or in combination. The bio-fertilizers containing biological nitrogen fixing organisms are of upmost importance in agriculture in the view of the following advantages. Advantages of Bio-fertilizers 1. They enhance bio-mass production and grain yield by 10-20% 2. They are cheap and can help to reduce the consumption of chemical fertilizer 3. They make available nitrogn directly to the plant 4. They solubilize phosphorus and increase phosphorus uptake to the plants 5. They enhance plant growth due to release of hormones, vitamins, auxins etc. 6. They improve the soil properties and sustain the soil fertility 7. They control and suppress soil borne diseases 8. They are suitable in organic farming

25 Sumber: Ananata Ghimire. June, A REVIEW ON ORGANIC FARMING FOR SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE. Department of Agriculture Extension and Rural Sociology, Institute of Agriculture and Animal Science, Rampur, Chitwan, Nepal PERTANIAN ORGANIK Types of Bio-fertilizers : Rhizobium The most widely used bio-fertilizer is Rhizobium which colonizes the roots of specific legumes to form tumor like growth, called root nodules. These nodules act as factories of ammonia production. The Rhizobium legume association can fix upto kgN/ha. in one crop season and in certain situation can leave behind substantial nitrogen for following crops (Dahama, A.K., Organic Farming for Sustainable Agriculture, Ashila Offset Printers, Daruagung, New Delhi, India.).

26 Sumber: Ananata Ghimire. June, A REVIEW ON ORGANIC FARMING FOR SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE. Department of Agriculture Extension and Rural Sociology, Institute of Agriculture and Animal Science, Rampur, Chitwan, Nepal PERTANIAN ORGANIK Azotobacter The beneficial effects of Azotobacter bio-fertilizers on cereals, millets, vegetables, cotton and sugarcane under both irrigated and rainfed field condition have been subestimated and documented (Pandey and Sushil, 1989). Application of Azotobacter has been found to increase the yield of wheat, rice, maize, pearlmillet and sorghum by 0-30% over control. Apart from N, these organisms are also capable of producing antibacterial and anti-fungal compounds, hormones and siderophones (Dahama, 1997). Research done in Nepal shows that the amount of nitrogen to be applied to wheat can be cut down to 15% of inoculation with effective strain of Azotobacter is practiced (Karki and Baral, 1997). 1.Dahama, A.K., Organic Farming for Sustainable Agriculture, Ashila Offset Printers, Daruagung, New Delhi, India. 2.Karki, A. B. and Baral J.B., Status of Bio-fertilizer in Nepal: A Revieww, J.Inst. Agric. Anim. Sci. 1: pp Pandey, S.P., Green Manuring in Paddy with Sesbania aculeata (Daincha) at Various Levels of Fertilizers-Nitrogen: J. Inst. Agric. Anim. Sci. 2 (land 2): pp Pandey, R.K. and Sharma S., A Farmer's Primer on Growing Soybean on Riceland, Los. Banos. IRRI.

27 Sumber: Ananata Ghimire. June, A REVIEW ON ORGANIC FARMING FOR SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE. Department of Agriculture Extension and Rural Sociology, Institute of Agriculture and Animal Science, Rampur, Chitwan, Nepal PERTANIAN ORGANIK Azospirillum A very important bacterium discovered by Brazilian Scientists in 1970's. The crops which respond to Azospirillum inoculation are maize, barley, sorghum, pealmillet and forage crops. Its application increase grain productivity of cereals by 5-20% and of fodders by over 50%. Blue Green Algae (BGA) The utilization of BGA as a bio-fertilizer for rice is very promising. BGA have contributed greatly to the enrichment maintenance of soil fertility in rice fields. On farm level, the algae can contribute to about 25-30kgN/ha. Recent researches have shown that algae also help to reduce soil alkalinity and this opens up possibilities for bio-reclamation of such inhabitalbe environment.

28 Sumber: Ananata Ghimire. June, A REVIEW ON ORGANIC FARMING FOR SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE. Department of Agriculture Extension and Rural Sociology, Institute of Agriculture and Animal Science, Rampur, Chitwan, Nepal PERTANIAN ORGANIK Azolla A small floating water fern, azolla is commonly seen in low land fields and shallow fresh water bodies. This fern harbors a blue green algae and anabaena azolla. This azolla- anabaena association is a live floating nitrogen factory using energy from photosynthesis to fix atmospheric nitrogen amounting to kgN/ha. nitrogen from about tonnes of biomass (Singh, 1993). Effects of Azolla on Soil Fertility Patel et al. (1980) have reported while summerizing the responses of rice to azolla inoculation in Model Agronomic Trials conducted at four locations, the rice yields obtained from azolla inoculated plots are comparable to that of 60 kgN/ha. 1.Patel, N.T., Herbert, S. and Parekh, P.K., Inputs Productivitiy in Agricultural with an Emphasis on Irrigation and Farm Size, Oxford and IBH, Vol. XII, New Delhi, India. 2.Singh, C., Modern Techniques of Raising Field Crops, Oxford and IBh, New Delhi, pp

29 Sumber: Ananata Ghimire. June, A REVIEW ON ORGANIC FARMING FOR SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE. Department of Agriculture Extension and Rural Sociology, Institute of Agriculture and Animal Science, Rampur, Chitwan, Nepal PERTANIAN ORGANIK Mycorrhizae Mycorrhiza is the symbiotic association of roots with roots of vascular plants. The main advantages of mycorrhiza to the host plants lies in the extension of the penetration zone of the root fungus system in the soil, facilitating an increased phosphorus uptake. Mycorrhizal fungi assist the uptake of phosphorus (Tinker, 1980) and trace metals and possibly influence water and nutrients via hormonal influences is not in doubt. 1.Tinker, T., Agriculture and World Development, Overseas Development Council, India, pp

30 Sumber: Ananata Ghimire. June, A REVIEW ON ORGANIC FARMING FOR SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE. Department of Agriculture Extension and Rural Sociology, Institute of Agriculture and Animal Science, Rampur, Chitwan, Nepal PERTANIAN ORGANIK Economics of Bio-fertilizers Mani Ram and Megh Singh (1994), reported that following are the economics of bio-fertilizers in agriculture 1. Saving kg inorganic nitrogen per hectare 2. One tonne Rhizobium inoculant is equivalent to 100 tonnes nitrogen considering minimum fixation of 50 kg/ha. application dose 3. One tonne of Azotobacter and Azospirillum each equivalent to 40 tonnes of nitrogen considering minimum fixation of 20 kgN/ha. from 0.5 kg/ha. application dosse 4. One tonne of BGA is equivalent to two tonnes of nitrogen considering minimum fixation of 20 kg/ha from 10 kg BGA/ha. application dose.

31 Sumber: Ananata Ghimire. June, A REVIEW ON ORGANIC FARMING FOR SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE. Department of Agriculture Extension and Rural Sociology, Institute of Agriculture and Animal Science, Rampur, Chitwan, Nepal PERTANIAN ORGANIK Utilization of Green Manuring Crops in Organic Farming Green Manuring Green manuring is a practice of ploughing or turning undecomposed green plant materials into the soil for improving the physical condition of soil or for adding nitrogen where the green manure crop is legume (Cheema S.S., Agronomy (Theory and Digest), Kalyani Publishing, New Delhi, India). The process of green manure is of two types: Green Manuring In-situ A practice of ploughing or turning into the soil of undecomposed green manure crop in the same field where the crop is grown eg. Sunhemp, sesbania etc. Green Leaf Manuring This refers to turning of green leaves and tender green twigs collected from shrubs and trees grown on bunds, waste lands and hereby forest areas. The common shrubs and trees useful for this purpose are glyricidia, sesbabia etc.

32 Sumber: Ananata Ghimire. June, A REVIEW ON ORGANIC FARMING FOR SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE. Department of Agriculture Extension and Rural Sociology, Institute of Agriculture and Animal Science, Rampur, Chitwan, Nepal PERTANIAN ORGANIK Advantages of Green Manuring 1.It adds organic matter to the soil 2.The green manure crop return to the upper top soil, plant nutrients taken up by the crop from deeper layers 3.It improves the structure of soil and other physical properties 4.It facilitates penetration of rain water, thus decreasing run-off and erosion 5.The green manuring crops hold plant nutrient that would otherwise be lost by leaching 6.Leguminous plants add nitrogen to the soil 7.It increases the availability of certain plant nutrients like phosphorus, calcium, potassium, magnesium and iron.

33 Sumber: Ananata Ghimire. June, A REVIEW ON ORGANIC FARMING FOR SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE. Department of Agriculture Extension and Rural Sociology, Institute of Agriculture and Animal Science, Rampur, Chitwan, Nepal PERTANIAN ORGANIK Methods for Minimizing the Adverse Effect of Pesticides Biological Pest Control In Korea, by using inorganically method of pest control in the rice is becoming popular nowadays. Current biological control research is mainly concerned with the brown plant hopper (BPH) on rice. Biological control of the BPH is best by the spider and fungal pathogens. A number of leaf hopper and BPH are controlled by using different types of spiders in Koreas was reported by Choi and Lee (Choi, K.M. and Lee M. II., Use of Natural Enemies to Control Agricultural Pests in Korea, FFTC Ext. Bull. 304: ). Biological Weed Control One aspect of biological control of weeds is direct use of natural enemies to reduce weed populations. They are usually plant pathogens but may be insects or various herbicides, for eg. the tadpole, ducks etc. are used for weed control in Japan, as in the grass carp in Indonesia and the apple snails in Taiwan. Bio-pesticides for Insect-pest and Disease Management The growing public awareness of the chemical insecticides used to control insect-pests has urgent the scientists to develop new bio-pesticides as an alternative. Bio-pesticides are destinguished from conventional chemical pesticides by their non-toxic action.

34 Sumber: Ananata Ghimire. June, A REVIEW ON ORGANIC FARMING FOR SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE. Department of Agriculture Extension and Rural Sociology, Institute of Agriculture and Animal Science, Rampur, Chitwan, Nepal PERTANIAN ORGANIK Microbial Pesticides Microbial pesticides are naturally occuring organisms which include bacteria, fungi, protozoa or viruses eg. BT (Bacillus thuringiensis), Baculoviruses etc. Some of the successful examples to control crop pests are as follows: 1.Entomogenus fungi eg. Netarhizium anisopliae and Isaria sinclavii were tested and applied to control sugarcane grass cicada. 2.Verticillum lecani was infective to corn aphids 3.Entimophthora spp. were reported to be highly pathogenic to the tiger moth, Creatonotos gangis and the green leaf hopper (Roger, 1987) Baculoviruses are promising agent for the control of insects of order Lepidoptera (Butterflieds and moths), Hymenoptera (Sawflies) and Coleoptera (Beetles). 1.Roger, F.H., Importance of Bio-fertilizers in Intensive Cropping, Haryana Farming, Gundhi Bhawan, CCSHAU, Hisar, India.

35 Sumber: Ananata Ghimire. June, A REVIEW ON ORGANIC FARMING FOR SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE. Department of Agriculture Extension and Rural Sociology, Institute of Agriculture and Animal Science, Rampur, Chitwan, Nepal PERTANIAN ORGANIK Biochemical Pesticides Biochemical pesticides from insect and plants which can be used to modify insects' behavior and physiology and even affect insect control. These include semio-chemicals, hormones, natural plant regulators, enzymes etc. Sex pheromones are one kind of semio- chemicals that attract the pests and controlled by mechanical damage. About 1000 insect pheromones have been isolate and identified and synthesized in Taiwan (Kao, 1999). Among them, botanical pesticides investigated, neem has justifistically received the maximum attention during the last two decades. More than 300 species of insects have been reported to be affected by the neem components (Singh, 1993). Advantages of Bio-pesticides 1.Lack of residues and pollutants in the soil 2.High level of safety to human and non-target organisms 3.Low livelihood of pest resistance 4.Environmentally safe 5.The are selective, biodegradable, ecological and renewable alternative for the use of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) programs. Singh, C., Modern Techniques of Raising Field Crops, Oxford and IBh, New Delhi, pp

36 Sumber: Ananata Ghimire. June, A REVIEW ON ORGANIC FARMING FOR SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE. Department of Agriculture Extension and Rural Sociology, Institute of Agriculture and Animal Science, Rampur, Chitwan, Nepal PERTANIAN ORGANIK Constraints on Popularity of Bio and Organic Fertilizers 1.Though the usefulness of bio and organic fertilizers has been demonstrated, beyond doubly, the farmer's acceptance of this practice has been far from satisfactory in spite of low cost of these inputs. Being biological materials, they are subject to various environmental stress once introduces into the soil. 2.Moisture regime level of available nitrogen, phosphorus and molybdenum salinity and alkalinity. These influence the response of legumes to bio-fertilizers. 3.Non-availability of quality inoculants is another constraint in the culture with low shelf life and commonly are often being marketed. 4.Lack of suitable transport and storage facilities, optimum temperatures and humidity conditions are often not maintained. 5.Farmers are not aware of advantage of non-traditional organic manures such as poultry manures, urban wastes etc. The use of bio-fertilizers and organic manures can be improved substantially.

37 Sumber: Ananata Ghimire. June, A REVIEW ON ORGANIC FARMING FOR SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE. Department of Agriculture Extension and Rural Sociology, Institute of Agriculture and Animal Science, Rampur, Chitwan, Nepal PERTANIAN ORGANIK Packages for the Development of Organic Farming in Nepal The following priorities areas for research and development under organic farming as a package in Nepal are given below: 1.Research priorities for formulating organic farming practices should be framed by NARC (National Agriculture Research Council) and other agencies. 2.Establishment of national centre for organic farming will be useful in undertaking and co-ordinating basic research on organic farming systmes. 3.Development of pesticides of plant origin (eg. neem) and use of bio-agents especially under IPM systems need to be promoted. 4.Linkages between the Ministry of Agriculture, Government of Nepal, NARC and IAAS (Institute of Agriculture and Animal Science), Rampur Chitwan need strengthening in respect of developing organic farming systems. 5.NARC and IAAS institutes should be restructured their courses on organic farming. 6.Incentives for production of good quality organic manure, bio-pesticides, bio-fertilizers and green manuring crops may be considered. 7.Encourage the visit of farmers to model organic farms, organic seminars, workshops, conferences and lectures to create awareness regarding the improvement component of organic farming. 8.The indiscriminate use of inorganic fertilizers and pesticides nedd to be discouraged. 9.Steps are needed to avoid hazardous chemical residues in feeds, fodder, food products and milk. 10.Develop marketing infrastructure for organically produced commodities. 11.Financial marketing can come forward to provide appropriate support.

38 Sumber: diunduh dari: https://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&q=cache:VNsDj932G- wJ:www.ifoam.org/about_ifoam/pdfs/POA_folder_indonesian.pdfhttps://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&q=cache:VNsDj932G- wJ:www.ifoam.org/about_ifoam/pdfs/POA_folder_indonesian.pdf PRINSIP PERTANIAN ORGANIK Prinsip KESEHATAN Pertanian organik harus melestarikan dan meningkatkan kesehatan tanah, tanaman, hewan, manusia dan bumi sebagai satu kesatuan dan tak terpisahkan. Prinsip ini menunjukkan bahwa kesehatan tiap individu dankomunitas tak dapat dipisahkan dari kesehatan ekosistem; tanah yang sehat akan menghasilkan tanaman sehat yang dapat mendukung kesehatan hewan dan manusia. Kesehatan merupakan bagian yang tak terpisahkan dari sistem kehidupan. Hal ini tidak saja sekedar bebas dari penyakit, tetapi juga dengan memelihara kesejahteraan fisik, mental, sosial dan ekologi. Ketahanan tubuh, keceriaan dan pembaharuan diri merupakan hal mendasar untuk menuju sehat. Peran pertanian organik baik dalam produksi, pengolahan, distribusi dan konsumsi bertujuan untuk melestarikan dan meningkatkan kesehatan ekosistem dan organisme, dari yang terkecil yang berada di dalam tanah hingga manusia. Secara khusus, pertanian organik dimaksudkan untuk menghasilkan makanan bermutu tinggi dan bergizi yang mendukung pemeliharaan kesehatan dan kesejahteraan. Mengingat hal tersebut, maka harus dihindari penggunaan pupuk, pestisida, obat-obatan bagi hewan dan bahan aditif makanan yang dapat berefek merugikan kesehatan.

39 Sumber: diunduh dari: https://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&q=cache:VNsDj932G- wJ:www.ifoam.org/about_ifoam/pdfs/POA_folder_indonesian.pdfhttps://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&q=cache:VNsDj932G- wJ:www.ifoam.org/about_ifoam/pdfs/POA_folder_indonesian.pdf PRINSIP PERTANIAN ORGANIK Prinsip EKOLOGI Pertanian organik harus didasarkan pada sistem dan siklus ekologi kehidupan. Bekerja, meniru dan berusaha memelihara sistem dan siklus ekologi kehidupan. Prinsip ekologi meletakkan pertanian organik dalam sistem ekologi kehidupan. Prinsip ini menyatakan bahwa produksi didasarkan pada proses dan daur ulang ekologis. Makanan dan kesejahteraan diperoleh melalui ekologi suatu lingkungan produksi yang khusus; sebagai contoh, tanaman membutuhkan tanah yang subur, hewan membutuhkan ekosistem peternakan, ikan dan organisme laut membutuhkan lingkungan perairan. Budidaya pertanian, peternakan dan pemanenan produk liar organik haruslah sesuai dengan siklus dan keseimbangan ekologi di alam. Siklus-siklus ini bersifat universal tetapi pengoperasiannya bersifat spesifik-lokal. Pengelolaan organik harus disesuaikan dengan kondisi, ekologi, budaya dan skala lokal. Bahan-bahan asupan sebaiknya dikurangi dengan cara dipakai kembali, didaur ulang dan dengan pengelolaan bahan-bahan dan energi secara efisien guna memelihara, meningkatkan kualitas dan melindungi sumber daya alam. Pertanian organik dapat mencapai keseimbangan ekologis melalui pola sistem pertanian, membangun habitat, pemeliharaan keragaman genetika dan pertanian. Mereka yang menghasilkan, memproses, memasarkan atau mengkonsumsi produk-produk organik harus melindungi dan memberikan keuntungan bagi lingkungan secara umum, termasuk di dalamnya tanah, iklim, habitat, keragaman hayati, udara dan air.

40 Sumber: diunduh dari: https://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&q=cache:VNsDj932G- wJ:www.ifoam.org/about_ifoam/pdfs/POA_folder_indonesian.pdfhttps://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&q=cache:VNsDj932G- wJ:www.ifoam.org/about_ifoam/pdfs/POA_folder_indonesian.pdf PRINSIP PERTANIAN ORGANIK Prinsip KEADILAN Pertanian organik harus membangun hubungan yang mampu menjamin keadilan terkait dengan lingkungan dan kesempatan hidup bersama. Keadilan dicirikan dengan kesetaraan, saling menghormati, berkeadilan dan pengelolaan dunia secara bersama, baik antar manusia dan dalam hubungannya dengan makhluk hidup yang lain. Prinsip ini menekankan bahwa mereka yang terlibat dalam pertanian organik harus membangun hubungan yang manusiawi untuk memastikan adanya keadilan bagi semua pihak di segala tingkatan; seperti petani, pekerja, pemroses, penyalur, pedagang dan konsumen. Pertanian organik harus memberikan kualitas hidup yang baik bagi setiap orang yang terlibat, menyumbang bagi kedaulatan pangan dan pengurangan kemiskinan. Pertanian organik bertujuan untuk menghasilkan kecukupan dan ketersediaan pangan maupun produk lainnya dengan kualitas yang baik. Prinsip keadilan juga menekankan bahwa ternak harus dipelihara dalam kondisi dan habitat yang sesuai dengan sifat-sifat fisik, alamiah dan terjamin kesejahteraannya. Sumber daya alam dan lingkungan yang digunakan untuk produksi dan konsumsi harus dikelola dengan cara yang adil secara sosial dan ekologis, dan dipelihara untuk generasi mendatang. Keadilan memerlukan sistem produksi, distribusi dan perdagangan yang terbuka, adil, dan mempertimbangkan biaya sosial dan lingkungan yang sebenarnya.

41 Sumber: diunduh dari: https://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&q=cache:VNsDj932G- wJ:www.ifoam.org/about_ifoam/pdfs/POA_folder_indonesian.pdfhttps://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&q=cache:VNsDj932G- wJ:www.ifoam.org/about_ifoam/pdfs/POA_folder_indonesian.pdf PRINSIP PERTANIAN ORGANIK Prinsip PERLINDUNGAN Pertanian organik harus dikelola secara hati-hati dan bertanggung jawab untuk melindungi kesehatan dan kesejahteraan generasi sekarang dan mendatang serta lingkungan hidup. Pertanian organik merupakan suatu sistem yang hidup dan dinamis yang menjawab tuntutan dan kondisi yang bersifat internal maupun eksternal. Para pelaku pertanian organik didorong meningkatkan efisiensi dan produktifitas, tetapi tidak boleh membahayakan kesehatan dan kesejahteraannya. Karenanya, teknologi baru dan metode-metode yang sudah ada perlu dikaji dan ditinjau ulang. Maka, harus ada penanganan atas pemahaman ekosistem dan pertanian yang tidak utuh. Prinsip ini menyatakan bahwa pencegahan dan tanggung jawab merupakan hal mendasar dalam pengelolaan, pengembangan dan pemilihan teknologi di pertanian organik. Ilmu pengetahuan diperlukan untuk menjamin bahwa pertanian organik bersifat menyehatkan, aman dan ramah lingkungan. Tetapi pengetahuan ilmiah saja tidaklah cukup. Seiring waktu, pengalaman praktis yang dipadukan dengan kebijakan dan kearifan tradisional menjadi solusi tepat. Pertanian organik harus mampu mencegah terjadinya resiko merugikan dengan menerapkan teknologi tepat guna dan menolak teknologi yang tak dapat diramalkan akibatnya, seperti rekayasa genetika (genetic engineering). Segala keputusan harus mempertimbangkan nilai-nilai dan kebutuhan dari semua aspek yang mungkin dapat terkena dampaknya, melalui proses-proses yang transparan dan partisipatif

42 Pertanian organik dan tantangan multidimensional sistem pertanian dan pangan masa mendatang Sumber: Niels Halberg & Lise Andreasen (International Centre for Research in Organic Food Systems) Organic Agriculture, Climate Change and Environment

43 Abundant food insecurity (FAO, 2006) Demand for food will increase (Evans, 2009, and others) Unsustainable use of natural production factors such as soil, biological diversity and water (Pimentel et al., 1995; FAO, 2003) 60 % of ecosystem services are degraded (Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, 2005) Intensive agriculture is depends on high energy but could be energy self-reliant and could mitigate GHG emission considerably (Smith et al., 2007) Agriculture is insufficiently prepared to cope with unpredictability and adaptation to climate change (Lobell et al., 2008) Challenges for Sustainable Agricultural Production and Farming Systems Dev. Sumber: Niels Halberg & Lise Andreasen (International Centre for Research in Organic Food Systems)

44 IAASTD Executive summary (2009): 1.Degradation of ecosystems limits or reverses productivity gains 2.A fundamental shift in AKST is required to successfully meeting development and sustainability goals 3.Recognition and increased importance to the multifunctionality of agriculture is necessary 4.Accounting for the complexity of agricultural systems within the diverse social and ecological contexts 5.Success requires increased public and private investment in Agricultural Knowledge Science and Technology 6.An interdisciplinary and Agro-ecosystems approach to knowledge production and sharing will be important International Assessment of AKST for development (IAASTD) Sumber: Niels Halberg & Lise Andreasen (International Centre for Research in Organic Food Systems)

45 From focus on increased productivity alone To holistic integration of Natural Ressource Management with food and nutritional security Main challenge (IAASTD): ”increased productivity of agri- culture in a sustainable manner” Organic principles may contribute to a valuable framework for a future sustainable agricultural production! Sumber: Niels Halberg & Lise Andreasen (International Centre for Research in Organic Food Systems)

46 70% of the world’s poor live in rural areas (< USD 2/day) 90% of farms in the world are less than 2 ha covering 60% of the arable land worldwide Widespread subsistence production in isolated and marginal locations with low levels of technology Widespread food insecurity in spite of sufficient food being produced at global level food Thus….. Main challenge (IAASTD): ”increased productivity of agri culture in a sustainable manner” Organic principles may contribute to a valuable framework for a future sustainable agricultural production! Sumber: Niels Halberg & Lise Andreasen (International Centre for Research in Organic Food Systems)

47 1.Organic agriculture is a production system that sustains the health of soils, ecosystems and people. 2.It relies on ecological processes, biodiversity and cycles adapted to local conditions, rather than the use of inputs with adverse effects. 3.Organic agriculture combines tradition, innovation and science to benefit the shared environment and promote fair relationships and a good quality of life for all involved. Definition of Organic Agriculture IFOAM, 2008 Sumber: Niels Halberg & Lise Andreasen (International Centre for Research in Organic Food Systems)

48 Agro-ecology Diversity Recycling Healthy soil Healthy crops Healthy livestock Healthy people The four basic principles of organic agriculture Endorsed by IFOAM, September 2005 Ecological and social justice Fari Trade? Precaution Sumber: Niels Halberg & Lise Andreasen (International Centre for Research in Organic Food Systems)

49 What is OA in developing countries? Certified OA: Oriented towards products Focused on few high- value crops and quality Agro-organic methods used in varying degrees Gives access to the market and better prices Increasing market, globally Will remain a niche in the great number of small householders Non-certified/informal OA: Agro-ecological farming systems Conscious use of organic methods Follows the principles or ideas of IFOAM, - but is not neccesarily certified 1.Improving the soil fertility 2.Using primarily local resources 3.Using diversity in time and space 4.Promote natural regulation and recycling 5.Decreasing the use of limited ressources Sumber: Niels Halberg & Lise Andreasen (International Centre for Research in Organic Food Systems)

50 Particularly useful in difficult environments Reduces risk by encouraging localized input production Fostering soil and water conservation Encouraging the diversification of production (IFAD, 2005) ”There seems to be a strong indication that the proliferation of organic agriculture could be a viable strategy to improve livelihoods in Asia’s rural areas.” (ESCAP, 2002) OA is a viable approach that can be suitable for smallholders. Sumber: Niels Halberg & Lise Andreasen (International Centre for Research in Organic Food Systems)

51 Organic Exports – A way to a Better Life? Export Promotion of Organic Products from Africa Organic Agriculture and Value Chains Linking smallholders to markets: The EPOPA Experience Pilot project in Eastern Africa Cocoa, coffee, tea, fresh and dried fruit, cotton and spices 80,000 farmers involved and trained, Price premiums and improved productivity Farm gate value of certified cash crop production: 15 Mio US$ yearly Local processing factories for drying, canning etc. Total export value > 30 Mio US$ (last season) Need for more innovation, uptake of agro-ecological methods and for institutional support

52 Making diverse use of the certified organic land in a Chinese village, - attracting new market players Transplanting strawberries in paddy fields for export of freeze dried berries to the US market Organic Agriculture and Value Chains Sumber: Niels Halberg & Lise Andreasen (International Centre for Research in Organic Food Systems)

53 1.Mendoza, A 25% price premium was obtained in certified organic 3.Giovannucci, Own calculations based on 2 years prices given in Giovannucci (2005) 5.Eyhorn et al., Numbers presented are averages of two years, own calculations 6.Includes value of pulse intercrop and a 20% price premium on organic 7.Mainly opportunity costs of own labour Selected examples of comparisons between organic vs. conventional cash crop production in smallholder farms in Asia Organic Agriculture and farm economy Sumber: Niels Halberg & Lise Andreasen (International Centre for Research in Organic Food Systems)

54 "… organic agriculture can be more conducive to food security than most conventional systems, and.. it is more likely to be sustainable in the long term." (UNEP-UNCTAD, 2008). Organic Agriculture is a ”good option for food security in Africa” Sumber: Niels Halberg & Lise Andreasen (International Centre for Research in Organic Food Systems)

55 RegionNumber of countries represented Number of projects analysed Number of farmers in projects (millon) Number of hectares* million ha Average change in crop yields** per cent Africa***241141,900, East Africa7711,600, Tanzania1927, Uganda117241, *Organic and near-organic agriculture, million ha **compared with beginning of projects, per cent ***all countries with data After Pretty et al., 2005 Yields of organic and Agro-ecological agriculture in Africa Sumber: Niels Halberg & Lise Andreasen (International Centre for Research in Organic Food Systems)

56 Soil degradation – Erosion – Compaction – Crusting and salinization – Nutrient mining – Loss of soil organic matter Food security – Yield reduction – Efficiency of input use reduced – Micro nutrient deficiency S oil degradation and food security Need for paradigm shift in land husbandry and Principles and practices for soil management R. Lal, Food Security journal, 2009 Sumber: Niels Halberg & Lise Andreasen (International Centre for Research in Organic Food Systems)

57 1.Mulching and recycling organic residues 2.improve soil structure and quality 3.Water conservation and water use efficiency 4.Adoption of diversified cropping systems, indigenous foods, GMO’s high in nutrients 5.Agro-forestry and mixed farming 6.No-till agriculture 7.On-farm experimentation and adaptation 1.Use of micronutrient rich fertilisers, nano-enhanced, Zeolites 2.Inoculating soils for improved Biological Nitrogen Fixation 3.Microbial processes to increase P-uptake Solutions for soil and food quality improvements With adoption of proven management options, global soil resources are adequate to meet food and nutritional needs of the present and future population R. Lal, 2009; Okalebo et al., 2006 Sumber: Niels Halberg & Lise Andreasen (International Centre for Research in Organic Food Systems)

58 The organically treated soils were physically more stable, contained smaller amounts of soluble nutrients and were found to be biologically more active than conventional. (DOK trials, Mäder et al., 2002) Under organic farming the soil organic matter captures and retains more water in the crop root zone. Water capture in organic fields can also be 100% higher than in conventional fields during torrential rains. (Rodale Institute, 2008) Organic Agriculture and soil quality Results from different long term experiments: Sumber: Niels Halberg & Lise Andreasen (International Centre for Research in Organic Food Systems)

59 OA is good for biodiversity and biodiversity is good for OA Organic farmers use more Agro-ecological methods: Mixed crop rotations, intercropping, … Grasslands and green manure, Habitats and non-farmed areas Non-chemical pest management Promoting functional diversity means enhancing and benefitting from Ecological service functions: 1.Pollination 2.Pest and disease prevention 3.Biodiversity preservation, 4.Soil quality 5.Resilience 6.In situ conservation of genes Sumber: Niels Halberg & Lise Andreasen (International Centre for Research in Organic Food Systems)

60 Meta analysis of comparative studies (Bengtsson et al., 2005): Species richness 30% higher in organic farms (n=32) – Birds, Plants – Predatory insects, carabidae Species abundance 50% higher in organic farms (n=117) – Weeds, Soil organisms (earthworms) – Predatory insects, carabidae – Not potential pest species! Same picture in review Hole et al., 2005 (n=76) Causes for higher diversity and abundance under organic farming: Non use of pesticides & fertiliser Friendly treatment of hedgerows and non-crop habitats on organic farms Preservation of mixed farming and diversified land use Agro-ecological methods could also be used in non-organic - but in reality is not! Organic Agriculture promotes biodiversity Scienific evidence….. Sumber: Niels Halberg & Lise Andreasen (International Centre for Research in Organic Food Systems)

61 Competitive productivity in low input Improved farm economy (less costly inputs and premium prices in certified OA) Improved food security (availability, access, stability, utilization) Improved soil health (fertility, stability, water-holding capacity) Improved biodiversity and landscape preservation Reduced risk of pesticide toxication and residues in food Reduced nutrient lossess from intensive systems Climate change adaptation and mitigation Organic Agriculture contributes to eco-functional intensification Potentials of OA: Innovation, adaptation of agro-ecological methods is needed to obtain the full potential of OA Sumber: Niels Halberg & Lise Andreasen (International Centre for Research in Organic Food Systems)

62 Needs for Research and Innovation in Organic Agriculture Improved integrated Crop / Livestock manage- ment Improved Soil manage- ment Improved biodiversity for Pest manage- ment Agroecology & Environment Improved Food & Fibre Production Value Chains & Economics Improved Market linkages and chains Social Capital Improved Health & Empow- erment in rural communi- ties Eco-functional intensification is knowledge intensive Sumber: Niels Halberg & Lise Andreasen (International Centre for Research in Organic Food Systems)

63 Centre without walls Coordinator of research programmes Disseminating organic research results and knowledge: Organic E-prints International board Asia, Africa, America, Europe, IFOAM Core Organic II Collaboration with international funding bodies and research organisations interested in supporting development of Organic food systems International Centre for Research in Organic Food Systems (ICROFS) New multipartner initiative: ORCA….. Sumber: Niels Halberg & Lise Andreasen (International Centre for Research in Organic Food Systems)

64 `vuta sukuma’ = pull - push system for reducing stem borer and striga infestation’ in Maize and Sorghum in Eastern Africa Trap crops to attract moths to reduced pest problems in crops: Napier and other fodder grasses Intercrops with repellant properties: legumes Striga control by intercropping with Desmodium species (legumes) ”Opportunities for breeding and use of molecular genetics” Example: Science for development of agro-ecological methods Sumber: Niels Halberg & Lise Andreasen (International Centre for Research in Organic Food Systems)

65 Needs for Research and Innovation in Organic Agriculture Improved integrated Crop / Livestock manage-ment Improved Soil manage- ment Improved biodiversity for Pest manage- ment Agroecology & Environment Improved Food & Fibre Production Value Chains & Economics Improved Market linkages and chains Social Capital Improved Health & Empower- ment in rural communities Sumber: Niels Halberg & Lise Andreasen (International Centre for Research in Organic Food Systems)

66 1.Eco-functional intensification is knowledge intensive 2.Develoment of agro-ecological methods 3.Adoption of agro-ecological methods 4.Value chain development for various markets 5.Organic agriculture’s place in development strategies 6.Evidence for decision makers 7.Global collaboration in research and innovation The multi-dimensional challenges of OA Sumber: Niels Halberg & Lise Andreasen (International Centre for Research in Organic Food Systems)


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