111.MAIN FEATURES OF THE EARLY BRITISH ADMINISTRATION
12Formation of the board of Administration Lord Dalhousie constituted the board of administration by inducting into it the most experienced and seasoned British officers. Henry Lawrence worked as British resident at Lahore Darbar before the second Anglo-Sikh war of A.D.The second member of the Board of Administration was his brother John Lawrence the art of administration like his brother but differed widely in respect of various policies about Punjab. The third member was Charles Mansel who was equally competent. Henry Lawrence was made the President. Board of administration set up by Lord Dalhousie consisted of a President and two member. The Board Administration worked from 1849 to 1853 A.DThe only change made in the Board was that in 1851 A.D. Charles mansel was replased by Robert Montogomery as its member.
13Division of work between the members Henry Lawrence, was to handle the military and political affairs. John Lawrence was given the charge of land revenue and financial matters. Charles Mansel was to supervise and look after the administration of jistice.Powers of the Board of AdministrationUnlimited powers it was made the final court of appeal with powers of life and death. British officers drawn from the civil and military services.Problems faced by the Board on its formation in 1849 A.D.To establish in Punjab peace, law and order.Disband the sikh army.Disarm the sikhs in Punjab.Defensive arrangements for the North-Western Frontiers.Punjab financially sound by increasing the sources of income.Organise the administrative set-up of Punjab.
14Achievements of the Board of Administration New innovations affected in the Administration Structure of Punjab.Disband the Khalsa Army.General Disarmament of the Sikhs.Defense and Security of the people.Re-shaping the financial System of Punjab.Measures to boost Agriculture.Works of Public Welfare.Development of Education.Judicial Reforms.Prohibition of Female Infanticide.
15John Lawrence as the Chief Commisioner of Punjab John Lawrence was born on 4th March,1811 at Richmond in Yorkshire, England. He was educated at Bristol, London berry, Bath and Haley bury. In took up appointment under the East India Company and served from as a civil administrator, as Magistrate and as a Collector of Delhi. In 1864, he was appointed Commissioner of the newly annexed Jullundur Doab by Governor General Lord Harding. In 1849, he joined the Punjab Board of Administration as a member and after its dissolution in 1853, became the chief commissioner of the Punjab. The Board during its tenure of four years had accomplished much success in numerous field. It had framed many policies to carry on the development works in Punjab.
16He enjoyed vast and unlimited powers and he took keen interest in all the departments of administration by personally supervising them and bringing them to a successful pass.Punjab rolled into a splendid set of administration.Established personal rapport between the Government and the masses.Introduced necessary reforms in the Police System.Checked and crushed the evil of ‘Thugee’.Efforts to solve the ever turbulent North-Western Frontier.Land Revenue System and encouragement to Agriculture.A change in policy towards the Jagirdars .Reforms in education.Judicial Reforms.Works of Public Welfare.Launched a campaign against Female Infanticide.
172. BRITISH POLICY TOWARDS THE ARMY, AGRICULTURE, INDUSTRY, TRADE AND COMMERECE
18Army of the English East India Company English East India Company came to India as a trading company, soon started recruiting the native Indians in their security force to safeguard their trade interests. As time rolled by Europeans as soldiers along with the Indians. The company made rapid strides as a trading company and became a strong political power, they started raising their own army on a large scale. The Indigenous army constituted an important pillar and backbone of the British regime in India. It was instrumental in making the British a supreme power in India in due course of time.
19Features of the British policy towards army The officers in the East India Company’s army were all British However, the bulk of the company’s sepoys consisted of Indian soldiers, who were subordinate to the lowest class of English officers These soldiers were recruited from different parts of India and were known as Native Indians. The British enlisted them in the army because of the following main reasons:As compared to the English soldiers, the Indian soldiers low salaries.The population of England was perhaps too small to provide the large soldiers needed for the conquest of India. So the recruitment of English soldiers for India could not be made in England.The strength of the of British army in India was more than three lakhs, out of which more than two and a half lakhs were Indians
20Discontent in the army before the Revolt of 1857 Discontent in the army before the Revolt of The British policy after the Great Revolt of The British policy towards Sikhs soldiers. A change in the old policies. British policy towards industry in India Indian economy on the eve of British conquest. India had also developed her own banking system with shroffs and mahajans at the lower level and Zamindars at higher level. British policy of colonial exploitation: The 18th century. De-industrialization: The decline of Handicraft industry. .
21Rise of Modern Industry. British policy toward modern industry.Causes of the growth of Modern Indian Industry.Charter Act of 1813.Rebellion of 1857 A.D.Change in the administrative set-up in 1858 A.D.British government abolished import duties1879 A.D.Famine commissions of 1880 and 1901 A.D.In 1882 A.D. all import levies.Railway for coal.Indian national movement 1885 A.D.Swadeshi movement of 1905 A.D.The first world war ( ).Many of the English capitalists evinced a great deal of interest in plantation, textile and mining industries.English wanted to win over the Indians and secure their support in order to meet their own selfish ends.
22A brief review of the growth of Modern Industries Cotton Textile IndustryJute IndustryCoal Mining IndustryIron and Steel IndustrySugar IndustryPlantation IndustriesIndigo IndustryTea IndustryCoffee Plantation IndustryThe advent of First World War,Protection during Inter War Period( )Industrial Development, State Policy and Indian CapitalistClass( )
23Main flaws of Industrial Development Indian craftsmen and artisans reduced to wage earnersAbsence of capitalImbalanced development or unfair distribution of industriesPriority was given to the need based industriesMonopoly of European capitalists over the industryLack or encouragement to the small scale industriesPolicy of discrimination adopted by the GovernmentExport of raw material to EnglandAbsence of Industrial facilitiesUndeveloped means of transport and communicationRise of two new classesSlow pace of Industrial Progress
24Important Cottage Industries of Punjab upto 1947 Handloom IndustryHosiery Industry – The Pride of PunjabIron and Steel IndustryCotton and Woolen Textile IndustryBrass and Copper IndustryCarving IndustryMining IndustryOther Industry which were operating in PunjabProcedure adopted to sell the items of Cottage IndustriesSetting up the Industry Department
25Causes for the slow growth of the Industries in Punjab Paucity o Industrial laborScarcity of coal and mineral productsLack of sound finances and business techniquesApathy of the GovernmentOld-dated tools and methods of productionNot keeping pace with the fast changing timesLack of Technical EducationAbsence of a separate Director of Industry till 1920 A.D.
26Causes of Backwardness of the Indian Agriculture Indifferent attitude of the British Government towards the Peasants.Excessive land revenueGrowth of landlordismLack of adequate fundsFragmentation of holdingsIncreasing indebtnessMeans of irrigationOld techniques of farmingLack of marketing facilitiesExploitation of farmersAbsence of better means of transportations
27British policy towards the agriculture New land tenuresLand settlement in conquered areasRegulation VII of 1822Regulation IX of 1833Commercialization of agricultureCanal irrigationLack of mechanizationImpact of the British Policies towards Agriculture
28Punjab Land Alienation Act of 1901 Miserable plight of the peasantryJudicial Repots about the exploitation of the peasantryPolitical necessityProvisions of the Punjab Land Alienation ActImpact of the Punjab Land Alienation Act of 1901It failed to check the real problem of rural indebtednessUnwillingness of money-lenders to advance loansInefficiency of this actObstacle in the way of rich classes willing to buy landEmergence of a new class of agriculturist money-lendersIt created a wedge between the agriculturists and non-agriculturistsGrowth of political consciousnessIt sowed the seeds of racial separatismThe Act increased the hardships of the peasantry
29Development of Trade and Commerce in Punjab 1850-1947 A. D Development of Trade and Commerce in Punjab A.D. Position of trade in Punjab under the English East India Company Colonial manipulation of Indian trade and commerce Position of trade and commerce after 1850 A.D. Factors which helped the trade and commerce to flourish Internal trade in Punjab Import and exports of Punjab External trade Conclusion.
303. SPREAD OF MODERN EDUCATION AT PRIMARY, SECONDARY AND HIGHER LEVELS
31History of western education in Punjab till 1947 History of western education in Punjab till During the medieval period, education was in a dismal state and hardly any attempt was made by a individual or king to educate the masses. This was because the state never considered itself responsible to educate the masses nor there was any department of education organized and maintained by the state. But this was his personal choice and liking and as such he was not bound to assist such institutions and individuals. One such magnificent and towering personality was Maharaja Ranjit Singh of Punjab, who inspite of this being illiterate, had great fascination and love for education. Under his personal care, education received full government support and steps were taken for spread of literacy. British found to their surprise that percentage of literacy was much higher in Punjab than in many other parts of the British Empire. However, education received a great setback due to the death of Maharaja Ranjit singh
32Education in Punjab at the time of its annexation Three different types of indigenous schools which imparted education to the people. In the schools, managed by the Hindu institution and individuals, the medium of instruction was Hindi. These institutions laid emphasis on the teaching of Arithmetic and Sanskrit. Mohammedan schools taught the Holy Quran, Persian and Arabic. Sikhs institutions laid stress on Adi Granth and it was taught in Gurumukhi through Punjabi script.
33Problems faced by the British Government with regard to education Development of Modern EducationEarly efforts for the spread of Western EducationThe Charter Act of 1813 A.D.Sir Charles Wood’s Despatch of 1854 and the Re-organization of the education systemAppointment of an Education Commission in 1882 or Hunter’s Commission, 1882As a result of recommendation, the indigenous Maktabs and Pathshalas were to receive grants in aid if they submitted to state inspection.Local bodies recently created were entrusted with the care of primary education.The schools had to be recognized and indigenous schools were to be encouraged.
344. High schools were handed over to the Municipalities in places where they had been set up. 5. A revision in the system of scholarships was recommended and these were to be open for all students. 6. Emphasis was laid on the moral and physical training of the students. 7. Periodic conferences of the education department and officers of the aided schools were to be held to further the cause of education. 8. The education commission drew attention to the inadequate facilities for female education outside the Presidency towns and made recommendation for its spread.
35Sargent Scheme (1944) or Post-war Education Sir john Sargant, educational adviser to the government of India, drew up a scheme of University.Free and compulsory primary education for all children between the age of 6 and 14. The cost of the scheme was estimated at Rs.300 crores.Intermediate stage should be included in high schools.Degree course should be of three years.Admission to colleges should be given to selected students who might benefit from higher education.
365. A university degree should not be considered as essential for the administrative services. 6. A national youth movement, to inculcate among the students the spirit of service to the country, be started. 7. A university grants commission should be constituted which should co-ordinate the work of the various institutions in the country.
37Liberal or Graded Education Primary stageSecondary stageHigher levelEstablishment of the Punjab UniversityThe Indian Universities Act of 1904Ti enabled the universities to undertake teaching and research work and thus become real seats of learning. But this did not in any way encourage mass education.Inspection of the colleges was introduced and the affiliation was made more difficult.
383. It also attempted to bring the universities under greater governmental control through largely nominated Senates. The educated indians resented this attempt of introducing official elements in the university. 4. It laid more stress on the teaching of science. This policy of Lord Curzon continued to be followed till The act laid down that the number of pellows of a university shall not be less than fifty nor more than a hundred and a fellow would normally hold office for a period of six years instead for life.
39Other features of the Education System Basic education Training institutes in Punjab Position of Technical education in Punjab Women education Position of Muslim education in Punjab Contribution of Non-official Institutions Conclusion
404. THE FOUNDATION, PROGRAMME AND IMPACT OF SOCIO-RELIGIOUS REFORM MOVEMENTS: ARYA SAMAJ, SINGH SABHA, ANJUMANS
41Swami Dayandad Saraswati Swami Dayanand was born in 1824 A. D Swami Dayandad Saraswati Swami Dayanand was born in 1824 A.D. in village of “Tankara” in Gujrat. His father Shri Amba Shanker and mother was Amrita Ben. Swami Dayanand ‘s childhood name was Mool Shankar. Early in his childhood he left his family and took up Sanyas. His moto was “Back to the Vedas”.His memorable granth called the “Satyarath Prakash” which he compiled in Swami Dayanand died at Ajmer in 1883 A.D.
42Arya Samaj Movement The Arya Samaj Movement was a great socio-religious movement which aimed at reconstructing the modern Hindu Society on the ideas Contained in the four vedas. It was founded by Swami Dayanan, who was one of the most socio-religious reformers in the history of India. Foundation of the Arya samaj1875 The greatest achievement of Swami Dayanand was the Foundation of the Arya Samaj in Bombay in 1875 A.D. Two year later its another branch was opened at Lahore in 1877 where it achieved a great success. Soon the branches of Arya Samaj were opened in Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, Gujrat and Maharashtra
43Teachings of Arya Samaj Ten principles of Arya SamajGod is primary sources of all true knowledge.God is formless, omnipotent, just, kind, birthless, limitless, timeless, omnipresent, fearless and creator of the universes.The veda is the source of all true knowledge.TruthDharmaThe welfare of the world.Love and justice.
448. Knowledge of science.9. Individualism and altruism.10.Subordination of liberty.Opposed idol worshipNo belief in useless religious practiceOpposed the caste systemEquality to the women
45Programmes of the Arya Samaj Social Programmes and ActivitiesOpposed to caste system and untouchability.Opposed to child marriage, sati system, purdah system, dowry system.It promoted quality between men and women.Progress of depressed classes.Simple ceremonies for marriage, birth and death.Creation of a feeling of social service.Opening of old age home, widow home and orphanages.It advocated widow remarriage.
46Religious Programmes and Activities Arya Samaj restored the lost glory of Vedas.It took up the task of “Shuddhi” reconversion of non-hindus to hindus.It advocates “Sandhya” (worship of god) every morning and evening.Also the importance of “Swadhya” (self-study).It recommended the ideal of service to mankind.
47Educational work of the Arya Samaj They prayed to God(O God, lead us unto light i.e. knowledge).In 1886 A.D., a Dayanand Anglo Vedic (DAV) School was founded at Lahore (Punjab).In 1889 A.D the D.A.V. Colleges was started at Lahore itself.Afterwards D.A.V. Schools and College were founded at places like Jalandhar, Hoshiarpur, Kanpur, Amritsar, Lusdhiana, Batala, Moga, Nawanshahr, Patiala, Chandigarh etc.In 1902 established Gurukul Mahavidyalaya at Haridwar by Swami Shradhanand.
48Arya Samaj and Policies It was he who first of all, by raising the slogans “India for Indians” and “Swaraj” i.e. own government.”He wrote in “Satyarth Prakash” that no foreign government, howsoever good, can be equal to self government.Singh Sabha MovementAfter the Nirankari and Namdhari movements of 19th century, the fresh century was about to witness the rise of a new movement called Singh Sabha. Sardar Harbans singh in The Heritage of Sikhs says that, “The Singh Sabha which followed them had a much deeper impact. It influenced the entire Sikh community and re-oriented its outlook and spirit. Since the days of the Gurus,
49nothing so vital had transpired to fertilize the consciousness of the Sikhs. The Singh Sabha by leavening the intellectual and cultural processes brought a new dimension to the inner life of the community and enlarged its heritage. Starting in the seventies of the last century, it marked a turning point in the Sikh history. It touched Sikhism to its very roots and made it a living force once again. The stimulus it provided has shaped the sikhs attitude and aspiration over the past one hundred years.”
50The rise of the Singh Sabha Movement The emergence of the Namdhari MovementMoral degradation and degeneration of the SikhsEfforts of the Christian Missionaries to propagate their faith in PunjabThreat from the Arya SamajThe two rival groups: Sanatam Sikhs and the Tat KhalsaImmediate reasons
51Establisment of Singh Sabha, Amritsar The dominant objectives of the Singh sabha, AmritsarThe objectives o the Singh Sabha, Amritsar were to inculcate love for Sikhism among those who called themselves as Sikhs or Khalsa. It aimed at preaching the principles of the Sikh religion among its followers.To publish historical and religious books and periodicals.To propagate knowledge using Punjabi.To return Sikh apostles to their faith.To establish Sikh schools and collages in order to educate the Sikh youth about the Sikh way of life.No to make any vile propaganda against other religions.To keep away from politics as far as possible.To involve Englishmen in the educational programmes of the Sikhs.
52The Establishment of the Singh Sabha Lahore, in 1879 A. D The Establishment of the Singh Sabha Lahore, in 1879 A.D. The Singh Sabha of Amritsar was emulated by a new organisation, The Lahore Singh Sabha, which held its first meeting on November 2,1879. Its prominent members were Jawahar Singh Kapur, Thakur Singh Sandhanwalia, Prince Bikram Singh of Kapurthala, Professor Gurmukh Singh and Giani Ditt Singh. The Lahore Sabha was even more democratic than the Amritsar Sabha and accepted members of all castes including untouchables.
53Some new principalsTo define and preach the principles of Sikh religion.To encourage the development of Punjabi language by publishing magazines a and journals.To produce such Sikh literature which praised the Sikh religion.Europeans, if prepared to adhere to its programmes, could become its members.Not to criticise any other faith.The opponents of the Sikh religion and those who a had accepted other faiths could become its members only if they atone for their sins and embrace the Sikh faith again.To stay faithful to the British Government.
54The General Sabha in 1880 and Khalsa Dewan in 1883 On April 11,1880 a General Sabha was set up at Amritsar to supervise the activities of Amritsar and Lahore Singh Sabhas. But later on, its was te[;aced nu a mew organisation called Khalsa Dewan on April 11,1883. Its office bearers were Raja Bikram Singh of Faridkot, Parton; Baba Khan Singh Bedi, President and Professor Furmukh Singh, Chief Secretary. One of the major achievements of Lahore Khalsa Diwan was to take Sikhs out of Arya-Samajist grip. Both Bhai Jawahar Singh and Bhai Ditt Singh, who were men of great dynamic personalities, had intense desire to serve the cause of Sikhism.
55Educational and literary activities of the Chief Khalsa Dewan Khalsa College, Amritsar had been established on 1892 A.D.In 1908 A.D. Sikh Educational CommitteeEducation ConferencesKhalsa College, Gujranwala, Sikh Kanya MahavidiyalaKhalsa Akhbar, and Khalsa Samachar, Khalsa tract society in 1894 A.D.Causes for the failure of the Singh Sabha MovementFoundations, Programmes and impact of AnjumansAnjuman-i-Himayat-i-IslamOrigin of Anjuman-i-Himayat-i-IslamImportant works of Anjumans-i-Himayat-i-IslamIncome generating activitiesChallenges
56II. Anjuman-i-IslamIII. Qadiani (Ahmedia Movement)The main objectives of Qadian (Ahmedia) Movementwere as follows:-To introduce social reforms.To put and end to the religious strife’s among the Muslims.To reform the system of education in the Arabic schools.To reform Islam.To defend Muslims from the onslaughts of Christian missionaries and the Arya Samajists who wanted to convert them to their faiths.To spread education among them the Muslims.To work for the general welfare of the Muslims.
575. CONTRIBUTION TO THE GROWTH OF POLITICAL CONSCIOUSNESS BY THE NAMDHARI MOVEMENT, UPRISING OF 1907 AND GHADAR MOVEMENT
58The development of the Namdhari or Kuka Movement in Punjab After the fall of Kingdom of Maharaja Ranjit Singh, there were several attempts to raise the old glory of the Khalsa. Several movements to reform the Sikhism were started, the first one being the Namdhari Movement, which was started by Baba Ram Singh Namdhari. Namdhari or Kuka movement had its origin in the north-west corner of the Sikh Kingdom, away from the places of royal pomp and grandeur. Its principle object was to spread the true spirit of Sikhism. In the midst of national pride, born of mllitary glory and political power, this movement edtolled the religious obligation for a pious and simple living. Their were called Kukas because of their peculiar style to recite the Gurbani.
59Origin of the Kuka Movement Bhagat Jawahar Mal, was the founder of the Namdhari Movement. Brief life sketch of Baba Ram Singh Baba Ram Singh, the real founder of the Kuka or Namdhari Movement, belonged to a poor carpenter family of Bhaini Aryian village, Ludhiana, he was born on 3rd feb,1815 A.D. and married when he was only 7 years of age. He got his elementary education at home and could read and write Punjabi in Gurumukhi script. Right from his childhood, he was nurtured under the personal care of his parents who due to their high moral character left a great impact on his life. Before Baba Ram Singh became a religious leader, he had served in Khalsa Army under Nau Nihal Singh.
60Foundation of the Namdhari or Kuka Movemnent Baba Ram Singh founded the Namdhari sect in his own village Bhaini Arayian on the Baisakhi Day of It is worth mentioning here that Guru Gobind Singh also laid the foundation of the Khalsa on the Baisakhi day in 1699 A.D. Baba Ram Singh held Guru Gobind Singh in high esteem and reverence, so he chose the Baisakhi day for the noble cause of the founding of the Kuka Movement. Baba Ram Singh founded the Namdhari sect in order to end the influence of evil social customs, ignorance and rotten false traditions. In this task he was ably assisted by Kahn Singh. The new sect had missionary out look, zeal and spirit.
61Principles, Programmes and Aims of the Namdhari Movement The traces of idol-worship and superstitions.Kukas believed in the oneness of God and recommended that only one God should be worshiped.They laid emphasis on righteousness and willed that all should have only their rightfully earned property, no one should lay claim or usurp the property of other.Away with the pernicious dowry system and suggested that the marriages should be simple and less costly.The Kukas believed in leading a simple life and so laid stress on high moral character.All people were equal and as such there was no high or low in the society. They condemned caste-system as they had no faith in it.
627. They were against the use of liquor and other intoxicants as these lowered the morals and character of the people 8. The free inter-mixing of men and women and accorded them equal status in the society. 9. He suggested that there should be no female infanticide and forbade early marriage. He also prohibited barter marriages. 10. Daily prayers, meditate, participate in religious collective prayers and memories Gurbani by heart 11. Take bath daily before taking their meals. 12. They were to greet each other with the words “ Sat Akal Purakh” instead of the customary “ Sat Sri Akal.” 13. They were not to worship idols, graves, tombs etc.
636. CONTRIBUTION TO THE FREEDOM STRUGGLE WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO THE JALLIANWALA BAGH, GURUDWARA REFORM MOVEMENT, BHAGAT SINGH, NON-COOPERATION AND CIVIL DISOBEDIENCE MOVEMENT
64Factor leading to the Jallianwala Bagh Tragedy The Punjab during the World War 1st was passing through a dark period in its history. There was considerable unrest, gloom and despondency prevailing in the Punjab at that time.Firstly, the atrocious, oppressive rule of Michael O’ Dwyer had sent in a wave of indignation and resentment throughout the nook and corner of Punjab. The people were in a mood of defiance as they wanted to get rid of the pernicious rule of the reactionary officer.Secondly, there was great unrest, particulary among the Sikhs, on account of the demolition of a boundary wall of Gurduwara Rakabganj at New Delhi.Thirdly, the activities and trials of the Ghadarites, almost all of whom were Sikhs, made the situation worse.Fourthly, after fighting the world war 1st almost independently, Britain had weakened as an imperial power. The Indian Nationalist Movement was marked by a clear domination of the Extremists over the Moderates, in this changed atmosphere, Britain wanted to demonstrate that they still commanded authority over India and that they were ready to use force to preserve their rule.
65Fifthly, in India as a whole there had been a spirit in political activity mainly owing to the emergence of the two leaders, Mahatma Gandhi who after a period of struggle against the British in South Africa had returned to India in January 1915 and Mrs. Annie Besant who had established on April 1916 the Home Rule league with autonomy for India as its goal. Sixthly, in December 1916, the Indian National Congress at its annual session held at Lucknow, passed a resolution asking the British Govt. to issue a proclamation announcing that it is the aim and intuition of British policy to confer Self-Govt. on India at an early date. Seventhly, India having contributed significantly to the British war effort had been expecting advancement of there political interests after the conclusion of hostilities, on the British side the Secretary of state of India E.S Montague announced on August 20,1917, that the policy of British Govt. will be that of increasing association of Indians in every branch of administration and the gradual development of self-govt. institution with a view to the progressive realization of responsible government in India.
66On 10 April 1919, two nationalist leaders- Dr Saifuddin Kitchlew and Dr Satya Pal were arrested in Punjab. On 13 April 1919, people gathered in a small park in Amritsar which was called the Jalllianwala Bagh, to protest against these arrests. The peaceful gathering was attended by men, women and children. General Dyer, a British military officer, stationed a regiment of soldiers at the only entrance of the park, declared the meeting illegal and without warning ordered his soldiers to fire. The firing lasted for ten minutes, till all the ammunition was exhausted. More than a thousand people were killed and over twice that number wounded.The massacre inflamed the anger of the Indians. After the massacre, General Dyer said that he had ordered his troops to fire to teach the Indians a lesson. This added fuel to the fire. There were widespread protests. Rabindra Nath Tagore renounced his knighthood I protest. All nationalist leaders condemned this shameful act. The government leaders martial law in Punjab and resorted to inhuman cruelties to stem the rising tide of protests. People were tortured and newspapers were banned. However, all this strengthened people’s determination to fight against oppression.
67Jallian Wala Bagh Amritsar Massacre "The impossible men of India shall rise and liberate their Motherland"Mahatma Gandhi, after the Amritsar Massacre."The incident in Jallian Wala Bagh was 'an extraordinary event, a monstrous event, an event which stands in singular and sinister isolation"...Winston ChurchillIt started a few months after the end of the first world war when an Englishwoman, a missionary, reported that she had been molested on a street in the Punjab city of Amritsar. The Raj's local commander, Brigadier General Reginald Dyer, issued an order requiring all Indians using that street to crawl its length on their hands and knees. He also authorized the indiscriminate, public whipping of natives who came within lathi length of British policemen.On April 13, 1919, a multitude of Punjabis gathered in Amritsar's Jallian wala Bagh as part of the Sikh Festival "Baisakhi fair" and to protest at these extraordinary measures. The throng, penned in a narrow space smaller than Trafalgar Square, had been peacefully listening to the testimony of victims when Dyer appeared at the head of a contingent of British troops. Giving no word of warning, he ordered 50 soldiers to fire into the gathering, and for 10 to 15 minutes 1,650 rounds of ammunition were unloaded into the screaming, terrified crowd, some of whom were trampled by those desperately trying to escape.
68"The Indians were 'packed together so that one bullet would drive through three or four bodies'; the people 'ran madly this way and the other. When fire was directed upon the centre, they ran to the sides. The fire was then directed to the sides. Many threw themselves down on the ground, and the fire was then directed on the ground. This was continued for eight or ten minutes, and it stopped only when the ammunition had reached the point of exhaustion".....Winston ChurchillDyer then marched away, leaving 379 dead and over 1,500 wounded.Back in his headquarters, he reported to his superiors that he had been 'confronted by a revolutionary army,' and had been obliged 'to teach a moral lesson to the Punjab.' In the storm of outrage which followed, the brigadier was promoted to major general, retired, and placed on the inactive list.''I think it quite possible that I could have dispersed the crowd without firing but they would have come back again and laughed, and I would have made, what I consider, a fool of myself.'' Dyer's response to the Hunter Commission EnquiryGeneral Dyer said he would have used his machine guns if he could have got them into the enclosure, but these were mounted on armoured cars. He said he did not stop firing when the crowd began to disperse because he thought it was his duty to keep firing until the crowd dispersed, and that a little firing would do no good.
69He confessed he did not take any steps to attend to the wounded after the firing. ''Certainly not. It was not my job. Hospitals were open and they could have gone there,'' came his pathetic response.However, the misery suffered by the people was reflected in Rattan Devi's account. She was forced to keep a nightlong vigil, armed with a bamboo stick to protect her husband's body from jackals and vultures. Curfew with shoot-at-sight orders had been imposed from 2000 hours that night.Rattan Devi stated, ''I saw three men writhing in great pain and a boy of about 12. I could not leave the place. The boy asked me for water but there was no water in that place. At 2 am, a Jat who was lying entangled on the wall asked me to raise his leg. I went up to him and took hold of his clothes drenched in blood and raised him up. Heaps of bodies lay there, a number of them innocent children. I shall never forget the sight. I spent the night crying and watching..."
70General Dyer admitted before the commission that he came to know about the meeting at Jallianwala Bagh at 1240 hours that day, but took no steps to prevent it. He also admitted in his deposition that the gathering at the Bagh was not a concentration only of rebels, but people who had covered long distances to participate in the Baisakhi fair.This incredibly, made him a martyr to millions of Englishmen. Senior British officers applauded his suppression of 'another Indian Mutiny.' The Guardians of the Golden Temple enrolled him in the Brotherhood of Sikhs. The House of Lords passed a measure commending him. The Conservatives presented him with a jewelled sword inscribed "Saviour of the Punjab."
71A young Sikh teenager who was being raised at Khalsa Orphanage named Udham Singh (aka Mohammad Singh Azad) saw the happening with his own eyes. He vowed to avenge the Amritsar massacre. On 13 March 1940 at 4.30 p.m. in the Caxton Hall, London, where a meeting of the East India Association was being held in conjunction with the Royal Central Asian Society, Udham Singh fired five to six shots from his pistol at Sir Michael O'Dwyer, who was governor of the Punjab when the Amritsar Massacre had taken place, to avenge the massacre.On the 31st July, 1940, Udham Singh was hanged at Pentonville jail, London"He was the real culprit. He deserved it. He wanted to crush the spirit of my people, so I [had to] crush him." Udham Singh, telling the trial court why he killed Michael O'Dwyer.
72Gurdwara Reform Movement The Akali movement or the Gurdwara Reform Movement was a campaign to bring reform in the gurdwaras(the Sikh places of worship) in India during the early 1920s. The movement led to the introduction of Sikh Gurdwara Bill in 1925, which placed all the historical Sikh shrines in India under the control of Shiromani Gurdwara Parbandhak Committee(SGPC).The Akalis also participated in the Indian independence movement against the British Government, and supported the non-cooperation movement against them.Initial agitationsThe term Akali derives from the word Akal ("timeless" or "immortal") used in the Sikh scriptures. By the early 20th century, a number of Sikh gurdwaras in British India were under the control of the Udasi mahants (clergymen) or managers appointed by the Governors. The main aim of the Akali movement was to have the Sikh gurdwaras released from the control of the traditional clergy, which had become powerful and ritualized.
73The Akali movement was started in 1920 by the Singh Sabha's political wing (later known as Akali Dal). The jathas (volunteer groups) led by Kartar Singh Jhabbar played a major role in the movement. The first shrine chosen for reform was the Babe di Ber gurdwara in Sialkot. It was under the control of the widow of the mahant Harnam Singh. She initially resisted the takeover of the gurdwara by the Akalis, as it was her only source of income, but relented after she was offered a pension.5 The control of the gurdwara was then transferred to an elected committee headed by Baba Kharak Singh.The next major target of the Akalis was the Harmandir Sahib (Golden Temple), the holiest shrine of the Sikhs. The priest of the Golden Temple had refused to allow low-caste Hindu converts to offer prayers in the shrine. Kartar Singh Jhabbar walked to the Akal Takht in the temple premises, urging the Sikhs to give up the caste-based restrictions and reform the gurdwaras. On 28 June 1920, the Golden Temple came under the control of an elected committee called Shiromani Gurdwara Parbandhak Committee (SGPC).
74The Akalis headed to Hasan Abdal, where Gurdwara Panja Sahib was under the control of Mahant Mitha Singh. Singh allowed sale of cigarettes inside the gurdwara, and was disliked by the Sikhs. The Akalis led by Karatar Singh Jhabbar took control of the gurdwara on 20 November However, the local Hindus, who also frequented the gurdwara for worship, opposed this takeover. Around 5-6 thousand of them surrounded the gurdwara on the night of the Akali takeover, but were dispersed by the police. The next day, around Hindu women squatted at the Gurdwara. Nevertheless, the gurdwara was later successfully brought under the authority of the SGPC.
75The Akalis then took control of the Gurdwara Sacha Sauda at Chuhar Kana (in present-day Pakistan). They then turned their attention to the Gurdwara Sri Tarn Taran Sahib, whose clergymen were accused of allowing dancing girls, smoking and drinking inside the shrine's premises. The clergymen were also accused of spreading the teachings of Arya Samaj, a Hindu reform movement some of whose leaders had criticized Sikhism. The Akalis, led by Kartar Singh, arrived at the gurdwara, performed ardas (Sikh prayer) and declared that the gurdwara was under now their control. The clergymen attacked the Akalis with crude bombs and bricks while the latter were sleeping. Next day, the Sikhs from the surrounding villages took control of the Gurdwara. Followng this, the Akalis led by Kartar Singh then took control of five more gurdwaras, including the Gurdwara Guru ka Bagh near Amritsar.
76A section of Akalis rejected the peaceful methods adopted by SGPC, and formed the breakaway Babbar Akali movement to seize the control of the gurdwaras using violent methods.Nankana massacreIn 1921, the Akalis turned their focus to the gurdwara at Nankana Sahib, the birthplace of the first Sikh Guru Nanak. The gurdwara was under the control of a mahant called Narain Das, who was accused of allowing immoral activities in the temple premises. One of the clergymen at the gurdwara had allegedly raped the 13-year old daughter of a Hindu devotee from Sindh. When the Akalis tried to take over the gurdwara on 20 February 1921, the Pashtun guards of the Mahant attacked them, killing 130 people in what came to be known as the Nankana massacre. Two days later, Mahatma Gandhi and the Governor of the Punjab province visited the site, accompanied by a number of Sikh and Hindu leaders. Gandhi sympathized with the Sikhs and said that the Mahant had "out-Dyered Dyer."The British Government, finding itself under immense political pressure, agreed to transfer the control of the gurdwara to the Akalis on 3 March Narain Das and 26 of his henchmen were arrested.
77Gurdwara BillAmid the ongoing agitations, the SGPC urged the British Government to release the protestors and legalize its control of the gurdwaras. On 1 May 1921, the influential Sikh leaders passed a resolution for launching a passive resistance movement. The next day, a Sikh-Hindu conference was organized during the Punjab Congress Provincial Congress at Rawalpindi. The Jagat Guru Shankaracharya urged the Hindus to join the Sikhs in the struggle for taking control of the gurdwaras from mahants with personal interests. On 11 May, a number of Akali jathas were asked to proceed to designated gurdwaras to take over their control.The Government meanwhile launched a "Gurdwara Bill" to facilitate the settlement of the gurdwara disputes. The Bill provided setting up a Board of Commissioners for the management of the gurdwaras. However, the SGPC objected to the Government's right to appoint the Board memebrs, and the bill was postponed. In On 17 November 1922, the "Sikh Gurdwaras and Shrines Bill" was introduced in the Punjab Legislative Assembly. All the Sikh and the Hindu members opposed the bill, but it was passed by 41 votes to 31 votes.
78life and contribution to India’s freedom struggle Bhagat singh Bhagat Singh was born on September 28, His father was also a revolutionary, so patriotism flowed in his blood. By the time, he completed his secondary education, Bhagat Singh knew everything about the revolutionaries of his family. At the- age of thirteen, Bhagat Singh left school and joined the freedom movement.At that time, there was a powerful anti-foreign cloth movement in the country. Bhagat Singh took part in this movement and wore only Khadi. He would collect foreign clothes and burn them. Bhagat Singh had no faith in non-violence and non-cooperation movement and believed that armed revolution was the only practical way of winning freedom. He went to Lahore and formed a group called 'Naujavan Bharat Sabha' which consisted of young Indians and was appointed its Secretary. Here he was introduced to Chandrasekhar Azad, another young revolutionary, with whom he formed a great bond. All these days he had been a hero of the Sikhs; he now became a national hero.
79In February 1928, the Simon Commission, headed by Sir John Simon, came to India to decide how much freedom and responsibility could be given to the people of India. But there was no Indian on the committee, so people decided to boycott it. Wherever the committee went, people protested with black flags, shouting “Simon go back”. One such procession that was lathi charged was led by Lala Lajpat Rai. A British police officer hit Lalaji on the chest. Lalaji died after some days. To averige Lalaji's death, Bhagat Singh and two other revolutionaries Sukhdev and Rajguru shot dead Saunders, the police officer responsible. The three were arrested later for throwing a bomb in the Delhi Assembly Hall and sentenced to death. Bhagat Singh, Sukhdev and Rajguru were hanged a day before the appointed day on March 23rd, He has rightfully been given the title of Shaheed-e-Azam (King of Martyrs).
80Non-cooperation movement The Non-Cooperation Movement was a significant phase of the Indian struggle for freedom from British rule. It was led by Mahatma Gandhi and was supported by the Indian National Congress. After Jallianwala Bagh incident Gandhi started Non Cooperation movement. It aimed to resist British occupation in India through non-violent means. Protestors would refuse to buy British goods, adopt the use of local handicrafts, picket liquor shops, and try to uphold the Indian values of honor and integrity. The ideals of Ahimsa or non-violence, and his ability to rally hundreds of thousands of common citizens towards the cause of Indian independence, were first seen on a large scale in this movement. through the summer 1920,they feared that the movement might lead to popular violence.
81Among the significant causes of this movement were colonial oppression, exemplified by the Rowlatt Act and Jallian wala Bagh massacre, economic hardships to the common man due to a large chunk of Indian wealth being exported to Britain, ruin of Indian artisans due to British factory-made goods replacing handmade goods, and popular resentment with the British over Indian soldiers dying in World War I while fighting as part of the British Army, in battles that otherwise had nothing to do with India. Mahatma Gandhi had shown a similar movement in South Africa and in in Champaran, Bihar and Kheda, Gujarat that the only way to earn the respect and attention of British officials was to actively resist government activities through civil disobedience.
82Now in Champaran and Kheda in 1918 he led impoverished farmers, mired in social evils like unhygienic conditions, domestic violence, discrimination, oppression of women and untouchability. On top of their miseries, these people were forced to grow cash crops like indigo, tobacco and cotton instead of food, and for this they were virtually not compensated. In addition, they had to pay taxes despite a famine.The Governments of the affected regions signed agreements suspending taxation in face of the famine, allowing the farmers to grow their own crops, releasing all political prisoners and returning all property and lands seized. It was the biggest victory against the British Empire since the American Revolution.India were assisted by a new generation of Indian revolutionaries like Rajendra Prasad and Jawaharlal Nehru. In Kheda, the entire revolt had been led by Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel, who was to become Gandhi's right hand man.
83A meeting of unarmed civilians was being held at Jallianwala Bagh near the Golden temple in Amritsar. The people were fired upon by soldiers under the command of Brigadier-General Reginald Dyer. He also ordered the only exit to be blocked. The massacre resulted in the deaths of some 370 protestors while over 1000 were injured in the shooting. The outcry in Punjab led to thousands of unrests, protests and more deaths at the hands of the police. The Jallianwala Bagh Massacre became the most infamous event of British rule in India.Gandhi was horrified. He lost all faith in the goodness of the British government and declared that it would be a "sin" to cooperate with the "satanic" government.
84SatyagrahaNavneet's call was for a nationwide protest against the Rowlatt Act. All offices and factories would be closed. Indians would be encouraged to withdraw from Raj-sponsored schools, police services, the military and the civil service, and lawyers were asked to leave the Raj's courts. Public transportation and English-manufactured goods, especially clothing, was boycotted.Veterans like Bal Gangadhar Tilak, Bipin Chandra Pal, Mohammad Ali Jinnah, Annie Besant opposed the idea outright. The All India Muslim League also criticized the idea. But the younger generation of Indian nationalists were thrilled, and backed Gandhiji. The Congress Party adopted his plans, and he received extensive support from Muslim leaders like Maulana Azad, Mukhtar Ahmed Ansari, Hakim Ajmal Khan, Abbas Tyabji, Maulana Mohammad Ali and Maulana Shaukat Ali.
85Success and suspension The success of the revolt was a total shock to British authorities and a massive encouragement to millions of Indians. Then on February 5, 1922, in the Chauri Chaura, after violent clashes between the local police and the protesters in which three protesters were killed by police firing, the police chowki (pron.-chau key) (station) was set on fire by the mob, killing 22 of the police occupants.Mahatma Gandhi felt that the revolt was veering off-course, and was disappointed that the revolt had lost its non-violent nature. He did not want the movement to degenerate into a contest of violence, with police and angry mobs attacking each other back and forth, victimizing civilians in between. Gandhi appealed to the Indian public for all resistance to end, went on a fast lasting 3 weeks, and called off the mass non-cooperation movement.
86AftermathThe Non-Co-operation Movement was withdrawn because of the Chauri Chaura incident. Although he had stopped the national revolt single-handedly, on March 10, 1922, Gandhiji was arrested. On March 18, 1922, he was imprisoned for six years for publishing seditious materials.Although most Congress leaders remained firmly behind Gandhiji, the disillusioned broke away. The Ali brothers would soon become fierce critics. Motilal Nehru and Chittaranjan Das formed the Swaraj Party, rejecting Gandhiji's leadership. Many nationalists had felt that the Non-Cooperation Movement should not have been stopped due to isolated incidents of violence, and most nationalists, while retaining confidence in Gandhiji, were discouraged.Contemporary historians and critics suggest that the movement was successful enough to break the back of British rule, and possibly even result in the independence most Indians strove for until 1947.But many historians and Indian leaders of the time also defended Gandhiji's judgment. If he had not stopped the revolts, India could have descended into a chaotic rebellion which would have alienated common Indians and impress only violent revolutionaries, although a similar type of movement was introduced in 1930 i.e. civil disobedience movement. The main difference was the introduction of a policy of violating the law.
87CIVIL DISOBEDIENCE MOVEMENT CIVIL DISOBEDIENCE MOVEMENT Modern nationalism came to be associated with the formation of nation states …. change in people understanding of who they were …. and what define their identity and sense of belonging …. In India, the growth of modern nationalism is intimately connected to the anti-colonial movement. People began discovering their unity in the process of their struggle with colonialism . The sense of being oppressed under colonialism provided a shared bond that tied many different groups together. But each class and group felt the effects of colonialism differently, their experiences were varied, and their notions of freedom were not always the same. The Congress under Mahatma Gandhi tried to forge these groups together within one movement.Civil disobedience Civil disobedience is the active, professed refusal to obey certain laws, demands, and commands of a government, or of an occupying international power. Civil disobedience is commonly, though not always, defined as being nonviolent resistance . It is one form of civil resistance . In one view (in India, known as ahimsa or satyagraha ) it could be said that it is compassion in the form of respectful disagreement
88Civil Disobedience , originally titled "Resistance to Civil Government", has had a wide influence on many later practitioners of civil disobedience. The driving idea behind the essay is that citizens are morally responsible for their support of aggressors, even when such support is required by law. In the essay, Thoreau explained his reasons for having refused to pay taxes as an act of protest against slavery and against the Mexican-American War . He writes, "If I devote myself to other pursuits and contemplations, I must first see, at least, that I do not pursue them sitting upon another man's shoulders. I must get off him first, that he may pursue his contemplations too. See what gross inconsistency is tolerated. I have heard some of my townsmen say, 'I should like to have them order me out to help put down an insurrection of the slaves, or to march to Mexico; — see if I would go'; and yet these very men have each, directly by their allegiance, and so indirectly, at least, by their money, furnished a substitute."
89Condition of the country: Condition of the country A new economic and political situation specially during world war I could be seen… increase in taxes, raised in custom duties and introduction of income tax. increase in prices – leading to extreme hardship for the common people. forced recruitment in rural areas to supply soldiers. crops failure in many parts – leading to acute shortage of food. 12 to 13 million people died of famine and epidemic Mahatma Gandhi outlined several rules for civil resisters (or satyagrahi ) in the time when he was leading India in the struggle for Independence from the British Empire. Civil disobedience is usually defined as pertaining to a citizen's relation to the state and its laws, as distinguished from a constitutional impasse in which two public agencies, especially two equally sovereign branches of government , conflict. For instance, if the head of government of a country were to refuse to enforce a decision of that country's highest court, it would not be civil disobedience, since the head of government would be acting in his capacity as public official rather than private citizen.
90Dandi March: There was agitation against land revenue, abolition of salt tax, cutting down military expenditure, levying duty on foreign cloth, etc. throughout India. A very important movement was that of Salt Satyagraha where Gandhi undertook the Dandi march as a protest against the Salt tax. Dandi March took place on March 12, Gandhiji along with his followers marched on 200 mile path to Dandi, a village near Sabarmati to prepare salt as a symbol of violation of tax imposed on salt by British. He inspired millions of others to take the first step on the road to liberation and equality. Dandi MarchRound Table Conference: Civil Disobedience movement spread all over the country. Following this, Round Table Conferences were arranged by the British. Three Round Table Conferences were held between Second Round Table Conference happened in September – December 1931.Gandhi–Irwin Pact was signed by Mahatma Gandhi and the then Viceroy of India, Lord Irwin on 5th March 1931.Gandhiji attended the second Round Table Conference at London. But nothing came out of the conference and the Civil Disobedience Movement was revived. During this time, Bhagat Singh, Sukhdev and Rajguru were arrested on the charges of throwing a bomb in the Central Assembly Hall and were hanged to death on March 23, Round Table Conference
917. Significant Developments leading to Independence and Partition
92yIntroductionThe phase of about three decades, from the end of first World War to the act of Independence in 1947, was marked by intense political activity appearing first in the form of act of 1935 and then in the form of independence and partition. This brought in its wake, changes of great magnitude in the economic, social and political life of people. The major repercussion on Punjab was its division. On August 15, 1947 Punjab was divided into two pars – east Punjab and west Punjab. Different kinds of proposals were presented by Lala Lajpat Rai, Sardar Ujjal Singh, Sir Geiffry Corbett and Dr.Mohammad Iqbal to solve the problem of Punjab. But Mohammed Ali Jinnah was adamant for Pakistan. Even the election of 1942 and 1946 in Punjab could not provide a stable government. The British policy of “Divide and Rule” further gave an impetus to the disintegrating forces in Punjab. Lord Mountbatten tried to pacify the Muslim League but ultimately he had to accept the demand for partition of Punjab and Cyril Radcliffe was invited by Lord Mountbatten to partition Punjab into two Parts.
93Causes of partition of Punjab Rise of communalismRise of Muslim NationalismComplicated communal problem in the PunjabPeculiar position of the sikhsStubborn attitude of conservative MuslimsSchemes and proposals for partitionScheme of Lala Lajpat RaiScheme of Sir Geoffry CorbettScheme of Sardar Ujjal SinghProposal of Dr. Mohammad Iqbal
94Circumstances leading to the partition The communal AwardElections and rise of Unionist PartySikandar-Jinnah pactLohar resolution – March 23,1940Cripps proposalDemand for a sikh stateMuslim league in Punjab,Election of 1946 in PunjabCabinet MissionAttlee’s Declaration and Communal Riots in PunjabMountbatten’s Plan and the PartitionBoundry Commission
958. Rebuliding of Social and Economic life after partition
96IntroductionThe partition of India was a grim tragedy which overtook the Punjab on August 15,1947. the Partition represented the triumph of communalism. A people living together for centuries in healthy tolerance were estranged overnight. The little sparks of hatred at various places suddenly developed into devastating fires, human nature passed into hysteria and an unprecedented orgy of loot and murder. Arson followed, thereby, resulting in the mass movement of populations between the East and West Punjab. Never in human history had there been a migration of people on such a large scale as the one that followed the creation of Pakistan. The victims of communal terror fled to India leaving behind all their possession. Nearly five million Hindus and Sikhs were evacuated from the Punjab, Baluchistan, N.W.F.P and Sindh within a few months from September to December 1947, and resettled in various parts of India.
97The Problem of Rehabilitation of the Displaced Persons in the East Punjab The catastrophe of such a nature ruined the economy of the truncated state, the recovery from which was an uphill task. Whole cities and towns ablaze, the devastated villages, vast stretches of uncultivated land in the countryside and herds of starving cattle– all presented a scene of utter desolation in this border state. The responsibility of resettlement of millions of uprooted people, both urban and rural, and unattached women and children presented a colossal problem of providing immediate relief, finding housing accommodation, land, shops, business concerns, factories and in large number of cases, new vocations. The need of the hour was to provide solace to the refugees in their adversity and to provide the much needed relief and rehabilitation. This challenge was taken up by the East Punjab Government, with the support of the Central Government.
98Administrative Measures for Rehabilitation Works Military Evacuation Organization.Establishment of Ministry Rehabilitation.Punjab government’s Role.Rehabilitation of Orphans of the PartitionResettlement of LandownersTemporary AllotmentsQuasi-permanent AllotmentPermanent AllotmentsDevelopment of Garden Colonies and Leasing out of Fallow LandsResettling of Urban refugeesDevelopment of Industrial AreasHelp to Destitute Unattached Widows and OrphansBrave Punjabis Rise Again
999. Main Stages in the movement for Punjabi Speaking State
100IntroductionBefore partition, the British policy of ‘Divide and Rule’ led to demand of Azad Punjab among Sikhs. They were also given assurances by the Indian National Congress. When freedom came in 1947, he Sikhs were the most depressed of all the Indian people, they had been split into two, with the other half rendered penniless and without a home. In fact, the Sikhs had opposed the division of India and home land. The Sikhs felt that the demand of Pakistan was going to be very unfair to them. They valued; their holy places, their political interests, their land and their heritage, in spite of all this the Sikhs being a religious minority, decided to throw their lot with the majority Hindu community on the basis of several assurances given to them by the leaders.
101Sikhs in Punjab led to the demand for a Punjabi speaking state Sikhs in Punjab led to the demand for a Punjabi speaking state. The Sikhs, led by Akali Dal, used the linguistic issue to promote communal politics. In Oct,1949 the study of both Hindu and Punjabi was made compulsory upto matriculation level by Sachar Formula. This led to clashes between two communities. State Reorganization Commission refuse to accept the demand for a separate Punjabi state on the ground that this would not solve the language or the communal problem of Punjab. The states of PEPSU were merged with Punjab. In 1955, according to Regional Formula, Punjab was divided into two regions Hindi and Punjabi. Master Tara Singh and Fateh Singh struggled for the Punjabi Suba and finally after a long struggle in1966, Indira Gandhi agreed to the division of Punjab into two Punjabi and Hindi speaking areas Punjab and Haryana, with the Pahari speaking districts to be merged with Himachal Pradesh.
102Factors responsible for the formation of punjabi speaking state British policy of Divide and RuleAssurances to the SikhsImpact of partition – Change in the demographic patternLanguage IssueCircumstances leading to formation of punjabi speaking stateSikhs demand for Constitutional SafeguardsFormation of PEPSUSachar FormulaStates Re-organization CommissionRegional FormulaRevival of Agitation for Punjabi SubaDivision in the Akali DalResignation and Assassinatin of Partap Singh KaironAgitation under Sant Fateh SinghPunjab Re-organization Act, 1966Provision of the Act
10310. New Trends in Social Life, Gender Discrimination Emigration from Punjab
104Historical backroungd In the vedic Age, women enjoed a high position in Indian society. She had full freedom for spirityal progress and intellectual development. She was educated like a male. Instances are not unknown when we find distinguished poetesses, scholars and philosophers known for their learning like Ghosha, Lopa Mudra, Apala and Visvavara. Women were married at mature age and they had freedom in the selection of their mate. She was the companion of her husband in all his activities, temporal and spiritual, and was regarded as having an equally important shate in the life of a man.At the time of Manu Smriti, restrictions began to be imposed on freedom of women. The condition deteriorate much more in the time of Rajputs. Marriageable age lowered to as much eight years. Widow marriage was prohibited and Sati gained popularity.
105With the advent of Islam, even a more rigid attitude was adopted towards women. They were secluded from all spheres of social life. Education was denied. Marriageable age was further lowered. Bhakti movement tried to bring reform in the condition of women but its impact did not prove lasting. During Mughal period, seclusion of women was looked upon as a symbol of respect among the higher classes. The birth of a female child was the source of misery and sorrow.
106Deplorable condition of women in 19th century At the beginning of 19th century evils like Child marriage, Purdah System and illiteracy, all went to enforce the subordinate position of women. The illogical corollary to this was that women were deemed incapable exercising any rights and therefore were given none. The time was persuaded to bring up girls in an atmosphere of complete protection an ignorance of the outside world. This made it impossible for them to grow up to be mature individuals capable of understanding the world.
107Factors responsible for Gender Discrimination PatriarchyConsideration of daughters as a liabilityLack of IdentityMarriage as the goleNumber of restrictions after marriageDowryPurdha systemRole differentiationFemale infanticideNo tight to propertyViolence against womenAbolition of sati and enforced widow-hoodZenana and prostitution
108Efforts to modernise women in Punjab Role of Sikhs GurusSocial reformersRole of Gandhi jiLaw in favor in womenUnder British governmentRole of Indian congressLaws made after independenceFemale Infanticide
109Causes of emigration from Punjab impact of industrial revolution in EnglandChange in British policiesAbolition of slaveryUnemploymentNatural calamitiesNeed for English speaking peopleAdventurous peopleArmy men settled abroadHigher educationSocial mobilitygreen revolution in Punjan and Economic disparitiesLopsided industrial development after 1947
11011. New Trends in Economic Life, Modernization of Agriculture and land reforms
111Historical background The agriculture in India was totally backward at the time of independence. Indian agriculture was characterized by the use of orthodox farming techniques. Due to the age old and traditional techniques applied in agriculture, the productivity of land was very low. Agriculture depended on human and animal labour, rain water, monsoons and organic manure. A very negligible amount of fertilizer was utilized. Indian farmers and agriculture was not at all commercialized. The character of the agriculture production was totally feudal system, Zamindari and Mahalwari at the time of independence. The peasants were exploited by them.After partition, there was large scale transfer of population and the land vacated by Muslims in India was much less than that left behind in Pakistan. Therefore the immigrants from Pakistan were given much smaller holdings in lieu of the ones abandoned by them. The graded system of cuts was applied due to which large grantees and farmers merged back into peasantry.
112Causes of Backwardness of Agriculture in Punjab Small size holdingsDefective pattern of land tenureSocio-economic factorsOvercrowding in agricultureLack of adequate financeOrthodox farming techniquesNatural factorsLack of high yielding seedsScanty use of fertilizersInadequate irrigation facilities
113Main Features of the New Agricultural Strategy High yielding variety seed programmeMultiple croppingUse of fertilizersDevelopment of irrigationUse of pesticides an insecticidesMechanization of agricultureImpact of New Agriculture StrategyIncrease in agriculture productionIncreasing employment opportunitiesLinkage between agriculture and industryIncrease in the standard of livingFarmers became market orientedChange in attitude of farmers
114Importance Land Reforms Economic holdingsProviding incentivesIncrease in productivity an productionEstablishing link between government and farmersAttainment of social justiceLand Reform Measures introduced in Punjab after partitionLand consolidationAbolition of intermediary tenuresTenancy reformsRegulation of rentSecurity of tenureOwnership rights4. Ceiling on land holdings
115Factors responsible for poor performance of Land Reforms Programme Faults in legislationLack of political willBureaucratic obstaclesLitigationIncomplete land recordsNon-Participation of people
11612.Deveplement of Punjabi Literature: Poetry, Drama, Prose
117IntroductionIn literature, the period of is notable for the growth and development of Punjabi literature. Punjabi language is an off-shoot of Sanskrit language. The basic vocabulary of Punjabi is derived from Sanskrit and thus it is closer to Sanskrit than to any other modern language of Northern India. The treasury of these basic works of Sanskrit has been enriched by Turkish, Persian, Arabic and English words which have been duly Punjabi like Sanskrit words.Deveplement of Punjabi LiteratureEarly Punjabi literature (c. 11th–13th century)The earliest Punjabi literature is found in the fragments of writings of the 11th Nath yogis Gorakshanath and Charpatnah which is primarily spiritual and mystical in tone. Notwithstanding this early yogic literature, the Punjabi literary tradition is popularly seen to commence with Fariduddin Ganjshakar (1173–1266). whose Sufi poetry was compiled after his death in the Adi Granth.
118Punjabi is an Indo-Aryan language Punjabi is an Indo-Aryan language. It is a descendant of the Shauraseni language, which was the chief language of medieval northern India. Punjabi emerged as an independent language in the 12th century. Fariduddin Ganjshakar is generally recognized as the first major poet of the Punjabi language.Contribution of the Sikhs GurusGyan Ratnavali, Janamsakhi, written by Bhai Mani SinghThe Sikh religion originated in the 15th century in the Punjab region and Punjabi is the predominant language spoken by the Sikhs. Most portions of the Guru Granth Sahib use the Punjabi language written in Gurmukhi, though Punjabi is not the only language used in Sikh scriptures. The Janamsakhis, stories on the life and legend of Guru Nanak (1469–1539), are early examples of Punjabi prose literature.
119Guru Nanak himself composed Punjabi verse incorporating vocabulary from Sanskrit, Arabic, Persian, and other Indic languages as characteristic of the Gurbani tradition. Punjabi Sufi poetry developed under Shah Hussain (1538–1599), Sultan Bahu (1628–1691), Shah Sharaf (1640–1724), Ali Haider (1690–1785), Saleh muhammad safoori (son of, Mai Safoora whome Ali Haider had given great tribute) and Bulleh Shah (1680–1757). In contrast to Persian poets, who had preferred the ghazal for poetic expression, Punjabi Sufi poets tended to compose in the Kafi.Contribution of the SufisPunjabi Sufi poetry also influenced other Punjabi literary traditions particularly the Punjabi Qissa, a genre of romantic tragedy which also derived inspiration from Indic, Persian and Quranic sources. The Qissa of Heer Ranjha by Waris Shah (1706–1798) is among the most popular of Punjabi qisse. Other popular stories include Sohni Mahiwal by Fazal Shah, Mirza Sahiba by Hafiz Barkhudar (1658–1707), Sassi Punnun by Hashim Shah (1735?–1843?), and Qissa Puran Bhagat by Qadaryar (1802–1892).
120Heroic ballads known as Vaar enjoy a rich oral tradition in Punjabi Heroic ballads known as Vaar enjoy a rich oral tradition in Punjabi. Prominent examples of heroic or epic poetry include Guru Gobind Singh's in Chandi di Var (1666–1708). The semi-historical Nadir Shah Di Vaar by Najabat describes the invasion of India by Nadir Shah in The Jangnama, or 'War Chronicle,' was introduced into Punjabi literature during the Mughal period; the Punjabi Jangnama of Shah Mohammad (1780–1862) recounts the First Anglo-Sikh War of 1845–46.
121Punjabi Kissa The word qissa is a Persian word meaning ‘epic legend’ or a ‘folk tale’. It has influenced almost all the languages of South Asia and occurs as a regular common noun in north-western Indian languages like Punjabi, Urdu and Hindi. If used informally, the world means an ‘interesting tale’. notable kisse ‘Mirza Sahiba’ / Peelu ‘Heer Ranjha’ / Waris Shah ‘Sohni Mahiwal’ / Hashim Shah ‘Sassi Punnun’ / Shah Hussain / c.1539–1599 ‘Sucha Singh Soorma’ ‘Jeona Maur’ ‘Shirin Farhad’ ‘Pooran Bhagat’ ‘
123Shareef KunjahiMir Tanha YousafiKhushwant SinghSheikh Muhammad SadiqBalwant GargiShiv Kumar BatalviS M SadiqSurjit PaatarAnwar MasoodAfzal Ahsan RandhawaShaista Nuzhat
124Silver eraPunjabi literature during the British Raj (c. 1860–1947)The Victorian novel, Elizabethan drama, free verse and Modernism entered Punjabi literature through the introduction of British education during the Raj. The first Punjabi printing press (using Gurmukhi font) was established through a Christian mission at Ludhiana in 1835, and the first Punjabi dictionary was published by Reverend J. Newton in 1854.The Punjabi novel developed through Nanak Singh (1897–1971) and Vir Singh. Starting off as a pamphleteer and as part of the Singh Sabha Movement, Vir Singh wrote historical romance through such novels as Sundari, Satwant Kaur and Baba Naudh Singh, whereas Nanak Singh helped link the novel to the story telling traditions of Qissa and oral tradition as well as to questions of social reform.
125The novels, short stories and poetry of Amrita Pritam (1919–2005) highlighted, among other themes, the experience of women, and the Partition of India. Punjabi poetry during the British Raj moreover began to explore more the experiences of the common man and the poor through the work of Puran Singh (1881–1931). Other poets meanwhile, such as Dhani Ram Chatrik (1876–1957), Diwan Singh (1897–1944) and Ustad Daman (1911–1984), explored and expressed nationalism in their poetry during and after the Indian freedom movement. Chatrik's poetry, steeped in Indian traditions of romance and classical poetry, often celebrated varied moods of nature in his verse as well as feelings of patriotism. Brought up on English and American poetry, Puran Singh was also influenced by Freudian psychology in his oftentimes unabashedly sensuous poetry.Modernism was also introduced into Punjabi poetry by Prof. Mohan Singh (1905–78) and Shareef Kunjahi. The Punjabi diaspora also began to emerge during the Raj and also produced poetry whose theme was revolt against British rule in Ghadar di Gunj (Echoes of Mutiny).
126Platinum eraPost-Independence literature (since 1947 to 1999)Western Punjab (Pakistan)Najm Hossein Syed, Fakhar Zaman and Afzal Ahsan Randhawa are some of the more prominent names in West Punjabi literature produced in Pakistan since Literary criticism in Punjabi has also emerged through the efforts of West Punjabi scholars and poets, Shafqat Tanvir Mirza (b. 1932), Ahmad Salim, and Najm Hosain Syed (b. 1936).
127The work of Zaman and Randhawa often treats the rediscovery of Punjabi identity and language in Pakistan since Ali's short story collection Kahani Praga received the Waris Shah Memorial Award in 2005 from the Pakistan Academy of Letters. Mansha Yaad also received the Waris Shah Award for his collection Wagda Paani in 1987, and again in 1998 for his novel Tawan TawaN Tara, as well as the Tamgha-e-Imtiaz (Pride of Performance) in The most critically successful writer in recent times has been Mir Tanha Yousafi who has won the Massod Khaddar Posh Trust Award 4 times, and has had his books transliterated intoUrdu poets of the Punjab have also written Punjabi poetry including Munir Niazi (1928–2006).Urdu poets of the Punjab have also written Punjabi poetry including Munir Niazi (1928–2006).
128Eastern Punjab (India) Amrita Pritam (1919–2005), Shiv Kumar Batalvi (1936–1973), Surjit Paatar (1944–) and Pash (1950–1988) are some of the more prominent poets and writers of East Punjab (India). Pritam's Sunehe (Messages) received the Sahitya Akademi in In it, Pritam explores the impact of social morality on women. Kumar's epic Luna (a dramatic retelling of the legend of Puran Bhagat) won the Sahitya Akademi Award in Socialist themes of revolution meanwhile influenced writers like Pash whose work demonstrates the influence of Pablo Neruda and Octavio Paz.Punjabi fiction in modern times has explored themes in modernist and post-modernist literature. Punjabi culture. Moving from the propagation of Sikh thought and ideology to the themes of the Progressive Movement, the short story in Punjabi was taken up by Nanak Singh, Charan Singh Shaheed, Joshua Fazal Deen, and Heera Singh Dard. Women writers such as Ajit Cour and Daleep Kaur Tiwana meanwhile have questioned cultural patriarchy and the subordination of women in their work. Hardev Grewal has introduced a new genere to punjabi fiction called Punjabi Murder Mystery in 2012 with his punjabi novel "Eh Khudkushi Nahin Janab! Qatl Hai" (published by Lahore Books)..
129Diaspora Punjabi literature Modern Punjab drama developed through Ishwar Nanda's Ibsen-influenced Suhag in 1913, and Gursharan Singh who helped popularize the genre through live theatre in Punjabi villages. Sant Singh Sekhon, Kartar Singh Duggal, and Balwant Gargi have written plays, with Atamjit has also been awarded the Sahitya Akademi Award in 2010 for his play Tatti Tawi De VichDiaspora Punjabi literaturePunjabi diaspora literature has developed through writers in the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, and the United States, as well as writers in Africa such as Ajaib Kamal, born in 1932 in Kenya, and Mazhar Tirmazi, writer of famous song "Umraan Langhiyan Pabhan Bhaar." Themes explored by diaspora writers include the cross-cultural experience of Punjabi migrants, racial discrimination, exclusion, and assimilation, the experience of women in the diaspora, and spirituality in the modern world. Second generation writers of Punjabi ancestry such as Rupinderpal Singh Dhillon
130(writes under the name Roop Dhillon) have explored the relationship between British Punjabis and their immigrant parents as well as experiment with surrealism, science-fiction and crime-fiction. Other known writers include Kuljeet kaur ghazal, Sadhu Binning and Ajmer Rode (Canada), Mazhar Tirmazi, Amarjit Chandan, Harjeet Singh Atwal and Surjit Kalsi. The most successful writer has been Shivcharan Jaggi Kussa.Contemporary eraSince the turn of the century, diaspora literature has increased, as has feminist literature, as is seen in Surjit Kalsi's work. There has also been an increase in dalit literature, as seen in Desraj Kali's work. Surreal and second generation diaspora writings, as seen in Roop Dhillon's (Rupinderpal Dhillon) work is on the increase, as is the publication of works on the internet, partly due to establishing itself in the new world, partly a reaction to the tight vanity press of India. The only factor that has gone against Punjabi is the drop in interest in reading amongst its target audience, due either to English, Hindi or other media.