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GNH: Concept and Operationalization: Presented to the Consultative workshop on Measuring Progress in Post-2015 Development Framework : Environmental Performance.

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Presentation on theme: "GNH: Concept and Operationalization: Presented to the Consultative workshop on Measuring Progress in Post-2015 Development Framework : Environmental Performance."— Presentation transcript:

1 GNH: Concept and Operationalization: Presented to the Consultative workshop on Measuring Progress in Post-2015 Development Framework : Environmental Performance Indicators and Environmental Welfare Indicators December 2013, Incheon, Republic of Korea

2 Gross National Happiness Commission, RGoB 2 GNH – An Introduction GNH – Index/survey findings and its Application GNH Policy Screening Tool – Its Application & GECDP Mainstreaming Conclusion - Questions

3 GNH is a “development approach that seeks to achieve a harmonious balance between material well-being and the spiritual, emotional and cultural needs of our society.” GNH is based on the belief that since happiness is the ultimate desire of every citizen, it must be the purpose of development to create the enabling conditions for happiness GNH based on four pillars: 1. Sustainable and Equitable Socio-Economic Development, 2.Enivronmental Conservation, 3.Preservation and Promotion of Culture and 4. Good Governance The Four Pillars are Specified by Nine Dimensions Gross National Happiness Commission, RGoB 3

4 “ Bhutan’s journey with GNH began more than four decades ago and more elaborate and precise metrics to measure GNH has been underway since 2008” Gross National Happiness Commission (GNHC) created to mainstream GNH GNH indicators and Policy Screening Tools developed GNH Survey carried out every three years to assess our journey towards GNH Gross National Happiness Commission, RGoB 4

5 “A composite statistic to measure Bhutan’s progress in enhancing the happiness of the people based on a holistic framework made up of 9 domains and 33 indicators” The GNH Index, its domains and indicators will be used to guide Bhutan’s development : draw attention to areas that need to be addressed, basis for resource allocation etc. mainstream GNH into new policies & plans by screening the policies and projects using the GNH Policy and Project Screening Tools (PST) Gross National Happiness Commission, RGoB 5

6 GNH Living Standard Assets Housing Household per capita income PWB Life satisfaction Positive emotions Negative emotions Spirituality Time Use Work Sleep Education Literacy Schooling Knowledge Value Culture Speak native Language Cultural Participation Artistic Skills Driglam Namzha GG Gov’t performance Fundamental rights Services Political Participation Comm Vitality Donations (time & money) Community relationship Family Safety Eco Diversity Ecological Issues Responsibility towards environment Wildlife damage (Rural) Urbanization issues Health Mental health Self reported health status Healthy days Disability

7 Gross National Happiness Commission, RGoB

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9  Of the nine domains, Bhutanese have the most sufficiency in health, followed by ecology, and psychological wellbeing but lacks in GG and Education  Urban areas do better in health, living standards and education, but lacks sufficiency in GG and community vitality. conversely Rural areas do better in community vitality, cultural resilience, and good governance but lacks sufficiency mainly in education and living standards  Happiness is higher among people with a primary education or above than among those with no formal education, but higher education does not affect GNH very much Gross National Happiness Commission, RGoB

10  Unmarried people and young people are among the happiest  The ranking of Dzongkhags by GNH differs significantly from their ranking by income and multidimensional poverty. Zhemgang for example, do far better in GNH than in income. Gross National Happiness Commission, RGoB

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12  Sufficiency Threshold ◦ Shows how much is needed to enjoy sufficiency in each of the 33 indicators  Happiness Threshold ◦ 50%, 66%, 77% ◦ Unhappy, narrowly happy, extensively happy, and deeply happy ◦ 41% of the population under 66% . Gross National Happiness Commission, RGoB

13 13 COMMUNITY VITALITY RURAL PLACESURBAN PLACES Policy and program response from the Government: Establishment of recreation centers, children’s parks, Mani Dungkhors etc Eg: centenary park at Changlimithang, Chanjiji etc According to 2010 GNH Survey results

14 Gross National Happiness Commission, RGoB 14 Possible policy and program responses by the Government: more culture content in education national and local holidays to promote attendance at these festivals

15 The GNH Policy Screening Tool Gross National Happiness Commission, RGoB

16 WHAT IS GNH POLICY SCREENING TOOLS? The GNH policy screening tools is an application to assess/review all draft policies through a GNH Lens NOT- the determining factor for approving/end orsing a policy Specific recommendatio ns and feedback to review the policy within nine GNH domains What is it? What does it provide? What is it not?

17 Linkage Between Variables and GNH Indicators 22 variables 1.Equity 2.Economic Security 3.Material wellbeing 4.Engagement in productive activities 5.Decision-making opportunity 6.Anti Corruption 7.Legal Recourse 8.Rights 9.Gender 10.Transparency 11.Skills and Learning 12.Public Health 13.Water and Air Pollution 14.Land degradation 15.Bio-Diversity Health 16.Social support 17.Family Interaction 18.Leisure 19.Culture 20.Values 21.Spiritual pursuits 22.Stress 22 variables 1.Equity 2.Economic Security 3.Material wellbeing 4.Engagement in productive activities 5.Decision-making opportunity 6.Anti Corruption 7.Legal Recourse 8.Rights 9.Gender 10.Transparency 11.Skills and Learning 12.Public Health 13.Water and Air Pollution 14.Land degradation 15.Bio-Diversity Health 16.Social support 17.Family Interaction 18.Leisure 19.Culture 20.Values 21.Spiritual pursuits 22.Stress 9 GNH Domains 1.Living standard 2.Good Governance 3.Education 4.Health 5.Ecology 6.Community vitality 7.Time use and balance 8.Culture 9.Psychological wellbeing 9 GNH Domains 1.Living standard 2.Good Governance 3.Education 4.Health 5.Ecology 6.Community vitality 7.Time use and balance 8.Culture 9.Psychological wellbeing 151 variables (2010 survey)

18 1234 NegativeUncertainNeutral/Not Applicable Positive Rationale and Mitigation/Alternativ es Rational e Calculatio n

19 1.A heterogeneous group comprising of people with skills/qualifications in various areas is formed. 2.Effort are made to ensure NCWC,RUB, and NEC are present for all screening exercises. Rest of the group dependent on the draft policy being discussed. 3.Transparent: No limitations who can participate. 4.Try to have a minimum of 15 participants. 5.Representatives of the proponent sector presents the draft policy to the screening group. 6.Screening conducted during a joint sitting in the past, however shifted to individual screenings. 7.Results submitted to RED, Consolidated and Presented to the GNH Commission. Screening Process

20 1. Experiences from Field Testing – GNH Policy Screening Tools Bhutan’s Accession to WTO Voting based on discussions among 24 GNHCS officers Results : 19 for joining WTO – 5 against GNH Policy Screening Tools used by the same 24 GNHCS officers Results : 19 against joining WTO – 5 for Conclusion: Policy is Not GNH Favorable

21 Gross National Happiness Commission, RGoB 21 Gross National Happiness Commission, RGoB Approved Policies NHRD Policy 2010 Tertiary Education Policy 2010 National Irrigation Policy 2011 National Health Policy 2011 National Youth Policy 2011 RNR Research Policy 2011 CSMI Policy 2012 Thromde Finance Policy 2012 Draft Policies Mineral Development Policy MSME Policy National Education Policy National OHS Policy National Population Policy FNS Policy

22 An Example: The Mineral Development Policy Gross National Happiness Commission, RGoB

23 23

24 Gross National Happiness Commission, RGoB 24

25  Rationales ◦ No specific provision ◦ Mining activities may favor men over women ◦ Women may suffer indirectly (separation)  Alternatives/Mitigation Measure ◦ May need specific provisions on the advancement of gender equality (preference could be given to women for specific jobs) ◦ Promote female participation in HRD ◦ Awareness on health and sexual issues Gross National Happiness Commission, RGoB 25

26 Gross National Happiness Commission, RGoB 26 Rationales – Mining will never be 100% clean – No limit on number of mines – Increased mining activities will lead to increased green-house gas emissions, use of fossil fuels, water a Alternatives/Mitigation Measure – Strategic Assessment of the mining master plan needed – May need to zone areas for mining operations – Need to review costing methods of mineral resources

27 Based on the Following Rationales:  Mainstreaming has to take place throughout the policy and planning process from formulation to implementation for reasons of sustainability, effectiveness, and efficiency (assuming the process itself is fairly good)  Need to take a holistic view  Need to be Proactive  Everyone is responsible  The ‘Stage or Level’ within the process determines what action should be taken and associated indicators Gross National Happiness Commission, RGoB

28 Based on the Following Rationales:  The actions taken are ‘interconnected’ and ‘inter-dependent’  Individual actions may contribute towards GECDP Goals, but it would not be ‘sufficient’ Gross National Happiness Commission, RGoB

29 Based on the Following Rationales:  The actions taken are ‘interconnected’ and ‘inter-dependent’  Individual actions may contribute towards GECDP Goals, but it would not be ‘sufficient’ Gross National Happiness Commission, RGoB

30 Programmatic approach to GECDP Mainstreaming Preparatory Phase Phase 1 Phase 2 30 Sensitization & building implementation capacity Develop GECDP indicators and integrate with existing monitoring systems; Engage in budgeting process Capacity building strategy Integrating GECDP into national development processes Influencing policy processes Planning processes (both national and LG levels) Finding the entry points and making the case Finding champions at the institutional level – policy & planning agencies, human settlement &construction sector, Industries, finance, local government, training providers, etc.

31  Creating awareness across all levels of government  Assessment of the Policy and Planning Process and Identification of windows of opportunity  Influencing Planning Guidelines and Key Result Areas to integrate GECDP and other cross cutting concerns  Identification of GECDP and Other Cross Cutting Concerns within the central sectors and local governments and recommending interventions  Comments on draft 11 th FYP & Mainstreaming frameworks for Sectors & LGs) Gross National Happiness Commission, RGoB

32  Review of policies for integration of GECDP and other cross cutting concerns  Providing support and inputs into the Introduction of GECDP modules in the curriculum of tertiary institutes: RIM, CST & Sherubtse College Gross National Happiness Commission, RGoB

33 33 Gross National Happiness Health, Education Transport,Communications,Human Settlement, Construction Tourism, Private Sector, Trade & Investment, Agriculture, Energy Culture, Governments (Central ministries/Agencies/Local Government) Sustained economic growth Poverty + Reduced/MDG + Achieved Food Secure & sustainable Full Employment Needs of Vulnerable Group addressed Historical, cultural property and Bhutanese identity promoted and preserved. Indigenous wisdom, arts and crafts promoted for sustainable rural livelihood Carbon neutral/ Green & climate resilient development Sustainable Mgt & utilization of natural resources Integrated water utilization & Mgt Imp. disaster resilience & Mgt mainstreamed Improved public service delivery, motivated public servants GPMS Democracy and Governance strengthened Gender friendly environment for Women’s participation Corruption reduced Pill 1: Sustainable and equitable socio-eco. Dev. Pill. 2: Presv. and promotion of culture Pillar 3 : Conservation and Sustainable Environment Mgnt. Pillar 4: Good Governance National Key Result Areas (NKRAs) GNH Pillars Delivered by

34 34 and Thromdes /municipalities Does the dzongkhag include the 4 Class A Thromdes? Plz. see

35 Gross National Happiness Commission, RGoB 35 For Further clarification, please visit


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