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Presentation on theme: "F ROM THE G REEK R EVOLUTION OF 1821 TO O TTO ’ S M ONARCHY."— Presentation transcript:


2 T HE G REEK R EVOLUTION (1821 – 1830 AD) 17 th c. AD: The whole Greek territory had become a part of the Ottoman Empire Ideological Background of the Revolution: o French Revolution in 1789 AD & its declaration of freedom, independence, equality & democracy  Ideological base & example for any revolution in the 19 th c. AD o Classicism & Romanticism  Expression of similar ideas o Admiration of the Greek Culture as the base of the European Culture – Impression of less civilized Ottomans (compared with the Greeks)

3 T HE G REEK R EVOLUTION (1821 – 1830 AD) Hostile political environment in Europe: o Restoration of Monarchy, after the ultimate defeat of Napoleon (1815 AD in Waterloo) o Political status of great empires in Europe, such as the Austrian-Hungarian, the Prussian, the Russian & partly the Ottoman Empire  Many European nations under foreign occupation o Institution of the Holy Alliance (Paris 1815 AD) among Russia, Prussia & Austria-Hungary, in order to reassure the “divine” right of the emperors  Under the powerful influence of the Austrian chancellor Prince Klemens von Metternich, a bastion against democracy & revolution, aiming to political stability

4 T HE G REEK R EVOLUTION (1821 – 1830 AD) Preparation: o Modern Greek Enlightenment (aiming to national consciousness through education) o Dream of a wider Balkan revolution against the Ottoman Empire o Spread of such ideas by the merchants & edited texts of the Greek Diaspora Institution of Filiki Etairia in Odessa, which was the organizer of the Greek War of Independence by initiating members under a mystic oath (founders: Nikolaos Skoufas, Emmanuel Xanthos & Athanasios Tsakalov)

5 T HE G REEK R EVOLUTION (1821 – 1830 AD) Happy circumstances: o Rebellion of Ali Pasha of Ioannina  Transport of the main Ottoman army force to Epirus o Klephts & armatoloi, military experienced o Philhellenism Disadvantages of the Greek rebels: o Lack of any organized military plan o Limited financial & military force against the vast & powerful Ottoman Empire o Limited number of experienced soldiers, weapons & other facilities o Not fully accepted leader of the rebels o Inner conflicts among the rebel groups (elders, warriors, Phanariotes)  Disappointment of the Philhellenes o Immediate cruel reprisals from the Ottomans, usually aiming the Patriarch, the elders or the civilians

6 T HE G REEK R EVOLUTION (1821 – 1830 AD) First Reactions: o Refusal of Ioannis Kapodistrias (Foreign Affairs’ Minister of Russia) to be the leader  Leadership to Alexander Ypsilantis (officer of the Russian Army) o Attempts to persuade the local leaders in Peloponnese & Central Greece, especially by Papaflessas - Hesitation of the elders, the high priests & some intellectuals (as responsible for the whole nation to the Ottoman authority)

7 T HE G REEK R EVOLUTION (1821 – 1830 AD) Greek arguments FOR the Greek revolution: o Greeks & Ottomans are two completely different nations. o The Greek enslaved citizens of the Ottoman Empire had too many duties, but almost not even one respected right. o The Greeks were enslaved by force & this enslavement wasn’t confirmed by any signed convention.  The Ottoman occupation is illegal. o The Ottomans have no historical rights or any other kind of connection with the Greek territory. o The Greeks have the right to be connected with the European world, because they offered the bases of the European culture.

8 T HE G REEK R EVOLUTION (1821 – 1830 AD) First revolutionary act: Invasion in the Danubian Principalities by crossing the Pruth River (Russia  Moldavia  Wallachia) under the leadership of Alexander Ipsilantis (hint at Russian help) o Inexperienced army of Greeks from Russia & the Danubian Principalities (e.g. Sacred Band, consisting of young students of the Army Academy of Jassy & Bucharest) – Only partial support of the locals (Theodor Vladimireskou) o Total defeat of Ypsilantis’ army in Dragasani End of the Phanariotes’ rule in the Danubian Principalities

9 T HE G REEK R EVOLUTION (1821 – 1830 AD) Proclamation of the National Uprising: o 25 th March 1821 at the Monastery of Agia Lavra by Bishop Germanos III of Old Patras, who blessed a Greek flag & the warriors

10 T HE G REEK R EVOLUTION (1821 – 1830 AD) Ottoman reaction: o Greek Revolution considered at first as an act of thieves & weak rebels o Disregard for the Greek nation & the Orthodox religion o Cooping with serious inner problems Bloody conflicts in Constantinople & other cities against the Greek population Public hanging of Patriarch Gregory V of Constantinople European (& especially Russian) disapproval of the Ottoman reprisals

11 T HE G REEK R EVOLUTION (1821 – 1830 AD) Greek leaders: Theodoros Kolokotronis, Athanasios Diakos, Markos Botsaris, Odysseas Androutsos, Mando Maurogenous, etc. (land battles) & Konstantinos Kanaris, Andreas Miaoulis, Laskarina Bouboulina, etc. (battles in the sea)

12 T HE G REEK R EVOLUTION (1821 – 1830 AD) Basic fighting technique of the Greek rebels, the guerrilla war Serious damages of the enemy ships by the little fire ships Ottoman’s difficulty to transfer military forces, by the sea because of the little fire ships & by the mainland because of the great distance & expense Greek aim to survive the Ottoman attacks & turn the Greek revolution to a European matter

13 T HE G REEK R EVOLUTION (1821 – 1830 AD) Revolutionary attempts in Thessaly, Epirus & Macedonia  Contemned from the beginning (territories close to the Ottoman military bases) Greek victories: Alamana, Gravia, Valtetsi, conquest of Tripolitsa (1821), calamity of Dramalis’ army in Dervenakia (1822), etc. Admiration of the Europeans

14 T HE G REEK R EVOLUTION (1821 – 1830 AD) Tragic moments of the Revolution: The slaughter of Chios (1822), the destruction of Kasos & Psara (1824), the siege & the heroic exit of Missolonghi (1826), etc. European sympathy for the Greek rebels & anger & disgust at the Ottoman cruelty

15 T HE G REEK R EVOLUTION (1821 – 1830 AD) During the Greek War of Independence: Problems by inner conflicts Danger of putting down the revolution by the strong forces of Ibrahim (alliance between the Ottomans & the Egyptians) Six National Assemblies, in order to draft the Constitution of revolutionary Greece & take serious national decisions

16 T HE G REEK R EVOLUTION (1821 – 1830 AD) Acts of recognition of the Greek national attempt for independence: o 1823 AD: Official recognition from Great Britain (George Canning, Minister of Foreign Affairs)  Mainly financial interest o 1824-5 AD: Loans from British banks o 1825 AD: Official recognition from Russia o 1826 AD: Official recognition from France Enforcement of the revolution by the European Great Powers  Battle of Navarino between the Ottoman & the British-French-Russian fleet (1827)

17 T HE G REEK R EVOLUTION (1821 – 1830 AD) 1827 AD National Assembly  Appointment of Ioannis Kapodistrias as the temporary governor of the free Greek nation (for 7 years) The Greek War of Independence inspired many Greek & European artists, such as Dionysios Solomos, Andreas Kalvos, Eugene Delacroix, Nikolaos Gyzis, Theodoros Vryzakis, Konstantinos Volanakis, etc.

18 T HE R ULE OF K APODISTRIAS (1828 – 1831 AD) Difficulties: o Parts of the Egyptian army still in Peloponnese o Albanian gangs in Central Greece o Tax collection from army leaders (used for covering their own needs) o Claim for compensation by former boat owners o Inner political conflicts o Independent territory of Mani (out of the central authority’s control) o Claims for compensation by the warriors from Macedonia, Epirus & Thessaly o Negotiations with the Great Forces & the Great Gate about the Greek independence & the territories of the newly born state (claims also for Epirus & Thessaly)

19 T HE R ULE OF K APODISTRIAS (1828-1831 AD) Ideological bases of the policy of Kapodistrias: o Need of an honest paternalistic authority o Education for all the citizens o Distribution of the land at the farmers o Limitation of the elders’ influence & their control on the people o Not immediate granting of Constitution, which would limit the essential changes Open conflict with the local interests & authorities  1831 AD: Assassination of Kapodistrias by Konstantinos & Georgios Mauromichalis (leaders of Mani)

20 T HE R ULE OF K APODISTRIAS (1828-1831 AD) Kaporistrias’ Contribution: o Organized collection of the taxes o Institution of organized public services o Attempt to form an organized army (not successful) o Control of piracy & robbery o Development of agriculture – Import of new sorts of cultivation (e.g. potato) o Public education of 1 st & 2 nd degree – Mutual teaching - Technical education o 1830 AD: Protocol of London  Official Recognition of the new independent Greek State, which included Peloponnese, Central Greece (from Acheloos to Sperchios river), Euboea, Cyclades & Sporades, with a population of approximately 750.000 people

21 G REECE AS A KINGDOM 1832 AD: Agreements between Great Britain, France & Russia & the Great Gate, according to which: o Greece was from now on an independent state within the already decided borders, supervised by the three “Protective” Forces (Russia, Great Britain & France) o Greece will be governed by a foreign king, Otto Friedrich Ludwig von Wittelsbach (Bavarian Prince)

22 E VALUATION OF THE G REEK R EVOLUTION More than 2.000.000 Greeks still under Ottoman occupation Very limited & weak new Greek State Three Great Forces as supervisors, controlling every movement of the new state Already large Greek debt to the British banks, because of the three loans during the War of Independence End of the Greek struggle for freedom & democracy with a foreign monarch A lot of inner problems & conflicts


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