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EEE 582 Telecom Network management

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1 EEE 582 Telecom Network management
Introduction Instructors: Vikas Singh

2 Vikas Singh, CSIS Dept. BITS Pilani
Scope and Objective Scope and Objective of the course The course covers management principles, practices and technologies for managing telecommunication and computer communication networks and services. Discuss both theoretical and practical aspects of network management. SNMP-based protocols TMN standards. Network monitoring tools and systems. RMON web-based management. Assignments Vikas Singh, CSIS Dept. BITS Pilani

3 Text books and Reference
Mani Subramanian, Network Management: Principles and Practice, Addison-Wesley, 2000. Reference Books Sallings, W., SNMP, SNMPv2, SNMPv3, and RMON 1 and 2, Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 1998. Divakara K. Udupa, TMN Telecommunications Management Network, McGraw-Hill Professional Pub., 1999 Vikas Singh, CSIS Dept. BITS Pilani

4 Vikas Singh, CSIS Dept. BITS Pilani
Course Plan Vikas Singh, CSIS Dept. BITS Pilani Contd…

5 Vikas Singh, CSIS Dept. BITS Pilani
Evaluation Scheme Component Duration Weight Test I 50 minutes. 20% Test II Assignments (Problem solving, reading assignments and Lab work) Regular Compre 3 Hrs. 40% Vikas Singh, CSIS Dept. BITS Pilani

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Chapter 1 Data Communications and NM Overview Vikas Singh, CSIS Dept. BITS Pilani

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Question What is a network? What is Network Management? Why do we need Network Management? What is the goal of network management? Vikas Singh, CSIS Dept. BITS Pilani

8 Vikas Singh, CSIS Dept. BITS Pilani
Network Management What is it? People and processes that coordinate and plan • Tools that assist in Reporting, Trouble shooting, and Performance Analysis • Applications that support a Network Services Group in getting its job done Why Network management? • To keep network up and running • Identify problems before they take the network down. • Minimize system downtime, thus increasing productivity Vikas Singh, CSIS Dept. BITS Pilani

9 Goal of network Management
Goal of an NMS system is to ensure that the users of network receive the services with the quality of service they expect With minimum service interruptions Vikas Singh, CSIS Dept. BITS Pilani

10 Vikas Singh, CSIS Dept. BITS Pilani
Why use standards? Without standards, Network Management Systems from different vendors would not be able to work together without additional effort and integration One is locked to a single vendor Allows interoperability of Network Management Systems from different vendors of different network elements Not restricted to single vendor for compatibility and interoperability Vikas Singh, CSIS Dept. BITS Pilani

11 Vikas Singh, CSIS Dept. BITS Pilani
Chapter 1 Outline Analogy of telephone network (section 1.1) Data and telecommunication network (1.2) Distributed computing environment (1.3) Internet and TCP/IP based Networks (1.4) Protocols and standards (1.5) IT management(1.7) Network management Goals , organization and Functions (1.8) Network and system management (1.9) Current status and future of network management 1.10 Vikas Singh, CSIS Dept. BITS Pilani

12 Vikas Singh, CSIS Dept. BITS Pilani
Chapter 1 Telephone Network Characteristics: Reliable - does what is expected of it Dependable - always there when you need it Good quality (connection) - hearing each other well Reasons: Good planning, design, and implementation Good operation and management of network Vikas Singh, CSIS Dept. BITS Pilani

13 Telephone Network Model (1.1)
Notice the hierarchy of switches Primary and secondary routes programmed Automatic routing Where is the most likely failure? Use of Operations Systems to ensure QoS Vikas Singh, CSIS Dept. BITS Pilani

14 Operations Systems / NOC
Monitor telephone network parameters S/N ratio, transmission loss, call blockage, etc. Real-time management of network Trunk (logical entity between switches) maintenance system measures loss and S/N. Trunks not meeting QoS are removed before customer notices poor quality Traffic measurement systems measure call blockage. Additional switch planned to keep the call blockage below acceptable level Operations systems are distributed at central offices Network management done centrally from Network Operations Center (NOC) Vikas Singh, CSIS Dept. BITS Pilani

15 Information Transmission
May be transmitted as: Circuit switched mode Message switched mode Packet switched mode Vikas Singh, CSIS Dept. BITS Pilani

16 Communication Network
Network Communications Tele-communication network Typically Circuit switched Used for voice telecommunication Also provide other services such as high speed dedicated transmission Such as E1 in India and higher Data Communication network Typically Packet switched Used for data transmission May provide connection less or connection oriented services May also provide VOIP Vikas Singh, CSIS Dept. BITS Pilani

17 Data and Telecommunication Network (1.2)
PSTN Computer data is carried over long distance by telephone (telecommunication network) Output of telephone is analog and output of Computers is digital Modem is used to “modulate” and “demodulate” computer data to analog format and back Clear distinction between the two networks is getting fuzzier with modern multimedia networks Vikas Singh, CSIS Dept. BITS Pilani

18 Vikas Singh, CSIS Dept. BITS Pilani
IBM SNA Architecture IBM System Network Architecture (SNA) is a major step in network architecture SNA is based on multitude of (dumb) terminals accessing a mainframe host at a remote location SNA architecture is a centralized architecture, and not used any more Vikas Singh, CSIS Dept. BITS Pilani

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20 Vikas Singh, CSIS Dept. BITS Pilani
DCE with LAN (section 1.3) DCE.. Distributed Computing Environment Driving technologies for DCE: Desktop processor LAN LAN - WAN network Questions: Why we need a LAN? What are the advantages of a LAN network What are the different networks you are familiar with? Inter-LAN connectivity ? Started with standalone PCs. However it was realized that people were performing mission critical functions, and needed connectivity. Which gave rise to local area networks. It is the local area network which gave rise to Distributed computing environment Vikas Singh, CSIS Dept. BITS Pilani

21 Vikas Singh, CSIS Dept. BITS Pilani
LAN-WAN Network Notes Major impacts of DCE: No more monopolistic service provider No centralized IT controller Hosts doing specialized function Client/Server architecture formed the core of DCE network Vikas Singh, CSIS Dept. BITS Pilani

22 Vikas Singh, CSIS Dept. BITS Pilani
Client/Server Model Request Response Post office analogy; clerk the server, and the customer the client Client always initiates requests Server always responds Notice that control is handed over to the receiving entity. What other analogies can you think of ? The client can not start the server process. The process has to be running and ready to accept client calls. Since there are multiple clients, the calls are served on First come first served basis. Multiple server process could be running to serve multiple clients. Vikas Singh, CSIS Dept. BITS Pilani

23 Client/Server Examples
Mail Client sends an to another mail subscriber. Usually the mail addresses are name. For example 0f champab is the user name and RCG.com is the domain name. Client initiates the connection, while the server processes the connection. In mail Joe.stone sends a message to Sally.smith on the network. The message first goes to mail server. Mail server needs to know the network address of sally.smith. Sally smith’s domain name is abc.com. The mail server acting as a client initiates a request to DNS on the network. The request is I need the network address of abc.com The network address is required for routing to the destination. Once it gets the address, the message is routed via bridge/router. Then it informs the client that the message is sent. Note that mail server is both a server and a client. In distributed networks that is a requirement. Vikas Singh, CSIS Dept. BITS Pilani

24 Internet and Protocols
What is Internet A network of networks Public networks peering with each other and interconnected with each other Each Network operating independently A distributed Network Uses packet switching Based on TCP/IP protocols Uses connection less network protocol for routing Common applications: HTTP (Web browser), SMTP (Simple mail transfer protocol) and FTP Vikas Singh, CSIS Dept. BITS Pilani

25 Internet Architecture
Application Voice Over IP FTP SMTP TELNET HTTP SNMP Others Transport UDP TCP Network ARP & RARP IP ICMP Presently IP V4 is used. IP v4 uses IP address of 32 bits. The total hosts supported are 2^32 approximately equal to 4 billion. (4,294,967,296) Since Internet was initiated by US, most of the address space hogged by US. All of India has equivalent of just few class b addresses. Most of the Intranets within India use private address space. Only when communicating over Internet Network Address Translation is used. Ethernet Link Level X.25 PPP PMPP Vikas Singh, CSIS Dept. BITS Pilani

26 Internet Protocol Layers
ISO/OSI Layered Model for data communications TCP/IP Model for data communications APPLICATION APPLICATION FTP ,SMTP, Telnet, HTTP, SNMP PRESENTATION SESSION TRANSPORT TCP: Transport IP: Internet Protocol INTER NET INTRA IEEE 802 X.25 DATA LINK PHYSICAL HARDWARE TCP/IP AND OSI: Functional Positioning of Layers Vikas Singh, CSIS Dept. BITS Pilani

27 Vikas Singh, CSIS Dept. BITS Pilani
TCP/IP Based Networks TCP/IP is a suite of protocols Internet is based on TCP/IP IP is Internet protocol at the network layer level TCP is connection-oriented transport protocol and ensures end-to-end connection UDP is connectionless transport protocol and provides datagram service Internet and much of the network mgmt. messages are based on UDP/IP ICMP part of TCP/IP suite. An example of SNMP is application layer protocol TCP/IP= Transmission Control Protocol. UDP: user datagram protocol Vikas Singh, CSIS Dept. BITS Pilani

28 Internet Configuration
LAN A LAN B LAN C Bridge / Router LAN Y LAN Z LAN X Internet Workstation Mail Server Figure 1.9 Internet Configuration Gateway Domain Name Server (Joe) PC (Sally) Private TCP/IP Network Also called Intranet Walk through the scenario of from Joe to Sally Private TCP/IP Network Also called Intranet Vikas Singh, CSIS Dept. BITS Pilani

29 Internet Configuration
Asha’s Workstation Mail Server LAN A LAN B Intranet Domain name: bits-pilani.ac.in B/R B/R Domain Name server B/R LAN C Gateway1 Internet consists of multiple domains Internet Gateway How the mail works its way thru source to destination Step 1: Asha writes an to Anand from her workstation. The goes to mail server Mail server Step 2: Mail server acting as a client, initiates a request to Domain name server Step 3: Domain name server finds the routable address of the domain dest.name Step 4: The message proceeds via Intranet to Internet via gateway. The communication facility between Gateway and Internet is called access line. This line is used to access the Internet. The Internet knowing the destination address Routes the message to the gateway2 of the dest.com. The message is sent to the local mail server in domain dest.com The mail server then notifies Anand that you have a message. LAN abc B/R Mail Server B/R LAN x Asha’s Anand’s workstation Vikas Singh, CSIS Dept. BITS Pilani

30 Vikas Singh, CSIS Dept. BITS Pilani
Notes Gateway: The Intranet or local network may have a different set of protocols running as compared to Internet. As an example the client network might be using Novell LAN, which uses XNS protocol. Gateway 1 will provide protocol translation from XNS to TCP/IP Vikas Singh, CSIS Dept. BITS Pilani

31 Autonomous Systems Internet Routing Architecture
Autonomous System A Stub AS Autonomous System B R R R R R R R R R R R R Autonomous System C Autonomous System D R R R R R R R R R R R R R Border Router: also called gateway router Multi-homed AS (Transit AS for AS B) R Interior Router Vikas Singh, CSIS Dept. BITS Pilani

32 Architecture, Protocols and Standards
Communication architecture Modeling of communication systems, comprising functional components and relationship between those components Defined by operations interfaces between them Communication protocols Operational procedures intra- and inter-modules Communication standards Agreement between manufacturers on protocols of communication equipment on physical characteristics and operational procedures Talk about interoperability Talk about division of function in multiple layers Communication standards are set by standard bodies. Such as link level protocols are set by IEEE 802 working group. They set the standards for all Local Area networks. Questions: Examples of protocols? Why do we need Protocols? Why do we need standards? Vikas Singh, CSIS Dept. BITS Pilani

33 Communication Architecture
People with different language skills can not communicate. As an example if I talk in Hindi and you talk in Tamil, we can not communicate. To overcome this problem the standard chosen is English, which has been implicitly assumed to be a common protocol In figure b the physical medium can be different. Inter-layer interface: user and service provider Peer-layer protocol interface Analogy of hearing-impaired student (protocol conversion) Role of intermediate systems Gateway: Router with protocol conversion as gateway to an autonomous network or subnet Vikas Singh, CSIS Dept. BITS Pilani

34 Vikas Singh, CSIS Dept. BITS Pilani
OSI Reference Model Importance of the knowledge of layer structure in NM Vikas Singh, CSIS Dept. BITS Pilani

35 OSI Layers and Services
Vikas Singh, CSIS Dept. BITS Pilani

36 PDU Communication Model
UD: Used Data PDU: Protocol Data unit PCI: protocol Control Information The PDU of the upper level is the data for the lower level. This is also called service data unit for the lower level as the lower level services the PDU from the upper level. Size of the packet increases as it goes thru the layers. Sometimes the size of the packet exceeds the maximum permissible packet size on the medium, then the packet needs to be fragmented /segmented. What is the relevance of PDU model in NM? Vikas Singh, CSIS Dept. BITS Pilani

37 Gateway Communications to a Proprietary Subnet
SNICP: Subnetwork Independent Convergence Protocol SNDCP: Subnetwork Dependent Convergence Protocol SNDAP: Subnetwork Dependent Access Protocol cc:mail from a station in Novel IPX network to an Internet station with SMTP Vikas Singh, CSIS Dept. BITS Pilani 1-21

38 Vikas Singh, CSIS Dept. BITS Pilani
SNA, OSI, and Internet Similarity between SNA and OSI Simplicity of Internet; specifies only layers 3 and 4 Integrated application layers over Internet Commonality of layers 1 and 2 - IEEE standard Vikas Singh, CSIS Dept. BITS Pilani 1-22

39 Application Protocols
Internet user OSI user Telnet Virtual Terminal File Transfer Protocol File Transfer Access & Mgmt Simple Mail Transfer Message-oriented Text Protocol Interchange Standard Simple Network Common Management Management Protocol Information Protocol Vikas Singh, CSIS Dept. BITS Pilani

40 Vikas Singh, CSIS Dept. BITS Pilani
NM Case Histories The case of the Footprint (topology) Case of the crashing bridge Vikas Singh, CSIS Dept. BITS Pilani

41 Common Network Problems
Loss of connectivity Duplicate IP address (address management) Intermittent problems Network configuration issues Non-problems Performance problems Vikas Singh, CSIS Dept. BITS Pilani

42 Challenges of IT Managers
Reliability Non-real time problems Rapid technological advance Managing client/server environment Scalability Troubleshooting tools and systems Trouble prediction Standardization of operations - NMS helps Centralized management vs “sneaker-net” Vikas Singh, CSIS Dept. BITS Pilani

43 Network Management System Functionality
OAM&P Operations Administration Maintenance Provisioning Vikas Singh, CSIS Dept. BITS Pilani

44 Vikas Singh, CSIS Dept. BITS Pilani
Network Management Vikas Singh, CSIS Dept. BITS Pilani

45 NM Functional Flow Chart
Vikas Singh, CSIS Dept. BITS Pilani 1-28

46 Network and system management
System management: Includes the management of entire system, including the applications If a user can not access a web page or can not send his/her , it does not matter to him where the problem is. The problem may be with the user’s client, server etc. Or the problem may be in TCP/IP protocol. Network management: problems in lower layers of the TCP/IP, ISO/OSI architecture. Generally problems with network resources such as hub/switches/routers, or connectivity problems Usually each NE vendor has its own network management system The network management system monitors all the network components, not only a given NE. Some examples are HP Ovenview, IBM Netview, Spectrum, Ciscoworks. The trend is to integrate System and network management systems. Vikas Singh, CSIS Dept. BITS Pilani

47 Network Management architecture (functional)
Common management messages Vendor A Vendor B 1. The common messages: management and information data Exchange of monitoring data 2. Management controls The common management messages consist of management information data (such as the type, id, and status of managed objects..) Vikas Singh, CSIS Dept. BITS Pilani

48 Services and protocols
Vendor A objects Vendor B Application Services Management Protocol Transport Protocols Application services: management related applications, such as configuration management, fault management Management protocols are SNMP and CMIP - CMIP is complex and not used very much SNMP: Simple network management protocol, and CMIP: Common management information protocol. Vikas Singh, CSIS Dept. BITS Pilani

49 Vikas Singh, CSIS Dept. BITS Pilani
NM Components Same Domain NMS: Manages multiple network elements, via Network agents. Each Network element could have multiple objects. Note the Hierarchy Vikas Singh, CSIS Dept. BITS Pilani

50 Vikas Singh, CSIS Dept. BITS Pilani
Interoperability Domain A Domain B Two cooperating domains provide some services which are joint. The Communication between the 2 NMSs, allows NMS of Domain A/B, to integrate the Management information from the other domain Message exchange between NMSs managing different domains Vikas Singh, CSIS Dept. BITS Pilani

51 Network management protocols
CMIP (Common Management Information Protocol) for OSI model SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol) for TCP/IP (internet) TMN (Telecommunication Management Network) standard for managing telecommunication networks. Issues for managing telecom network are little different, than TCP/IP network, so ITU has come up with TMN framework and architecture Vikas Singh, CSIS Dept. BITS Pilani

52 Status and Future Trends
SNMP management Limited CMIP management Operations systems Polled systems Future trends: Service and policy management Business management Web-based management Vikas Singh, CSIS Dept. BITS Pilani

53 Appendix Internet History

54 Vikas Singh, CSIS Dept. BITS Pilani
Internet History Internet is a result of research funded by Defense Advanced Reassert Projects Agency (DARPA) in the late sixties This research was directed towards connecting different types of computers with different interfaces and over different physical links This technology includes a set of network standards, a set of procedures/conventions for interconnecting networks and routing traffic among them Initially, this technology was used for computer communications between research oriented US Federal Government departments, and research institutes Now, this technology is commercially used everywhere in the world, and thousands of ISPs around the world provide Internet service Internet in technical terms is a collection of networks that are interconnected by Routers/Gateways Vikas Singh, CSIS Dept. BITS Pilani

55 Vikas Singh, CSIS Dept. BITS Pilani
Internet History 1962: RAND Paul Baran, of the RAND Corporation (a government agency), was commissioned by the U.S. Air Force to do a study on how it could maintain its command and control over its missiles and bombers, after a nuclear attack. His final proposal was a packet switched network. 1968: ARPA awarded the ARPANET contract to BBN. BBN had selected a Honeywell minicomputer as the base on which they would build the switch Backbones: 50Kbps ARPANET - Hosts: 4 1972: he first program was created by Ray Tomlinson of BBN. The Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) was renamed The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (or DARPA) Backbones: 50Kbps ARPANET - Hosts: 23 ARPANET was currently using the Network Control Protocol or NCP to transfer data.This allowed communications between hosts running on the same network. 1973: Development began on the protocol later to be called TCP/IP, it was developed by a group headed by Vinton Cerf from Stanford and Bob Kahn from DARPA. This new protocol was to allow diverse computer networks to interconnect and communicate with each other. Backbones: 50Kbps ARPANET - Hosts: 23+ 1974: First Use of term Internet by Vint Cerf and Bob Kahn in paper on Transmission Control Protocol. It happened that the work at MIT ( ), at RAND ( ), and at NPL ( ) had all proceeded in parallel without any of the researchers knowing about the other work. The word "packet" was adopted from the work at NPL and the proposed line speed to be used in the ARPANET design was upgraded from 2.4 kbps to 50 kbps. Vikas Singh, CSIS Dept. BITS Pilani

56 Internet History (Cont’d)
1983: Internet Activities Board (IAB) was created in 1983. On January 1st, every machine connected to ARPANET had to use TCP/IP. TCP/IP became the core Internet protocol and replaced NCP entirely. The University of Wisconsin created Domain Name System (DNS) Backbones: 50Kbps ARPANET, 56Kbps CSNET, plus satellite and radio connections - Hosts: 562 1984: Arpanet divided into MILNET and ARPANET. Upgrade to CSNET was contracted to MCI. New circuits would be T1. IBM would provide advanced routers and Merit would manage the network. New network was to be called NSFNET (National Science Foundation Network), and old lines were to remain called CSNET. Backbones: 50Kbps ARPANET, 56Kbps CSNET, plus satellite and radio connections - Hosts: 1024 1985: The National Science Foundation began deploying its new T1 lines, which would be finished by 1988. Backbones: 50Kbps ARPANET, 56Kbps CSNET, 1.544Mbps (T1) NSFNET, plus satellite and radio connections - Hosts: 1961 1986:The Internet Engineering Task Force or IETF was created to serve as a forum for technical coordination by contractors for DARPA working on ARPANET, US Defense Data Network (DDN), and the Internet core gateway system. Backbones: 50Kbps ARPANET, 56Kbps CSNET, 1.544Mbps (T1) NSFNET, plus satellite and radio connections - Hosts: 2308 Notes: MILNET was to serve the needs of the military and ARPANET to support the advanced research component, Department of Defense continued to support both networks. Vikas Singh, CSIS Dept. BITS Pilani

57 Internet History (Cont’d)
1987: BITNET and CSNET merged to form the Corporation for Research and Educational Networking (CREN), another work of the National Science Foundation. Backbones: 50Kbps ARPANET, 56Kbps CSNET, 1.544Mbps (T1) NSFNET, plus satellite and radio connections - Hosts: 28,174 1988: Plans to upgrade the network Backbones: 50Kbps ARPANET, 56Kbps CSNET, 1.544Mbps (T1) NSFNET, plus satellite and radio connections - Hosts: 56,000 1990: Merit, IBM and MCI formed a not for profit corporation called ANS, Advanced Network & Services, which was to conduct research into high speed networking. It soon came up with the concept of the T3, a 45 Mbps line. NSF quickly adopted the new network and by the end of 1991 all of its sites were connected by this new backbone. While the T3 lines were being constructed, the Department of Defense disbanded the ARPANET and it was replaced by the NSFNET backbone. The original 50Kbs lines of ARPANET were taken out of service. Tim Berners-Lee and CERN in Geneva implements a hypertext system to provide efficient information access to the members of the international high-energy physics community. Backbones: 56Kbps CSNET, 1.544Mbps (T1) NSFNET, plus satellite and radio connections - Hosts: 313,000 Vikas Singh, CSIS Dept. BITS Pilani

58 Internet History (Cont’d)
1991: CSN discontinued: The operational costs of CREN are fully met through dues paid by its member organizations. The NSF established a new network, the National Research and Education Network (NREN). The purpose of this network is to conduct high speed networking research. It was not to be used as a commercial network, nor was it to be used to send a lot of the data that the Internet now transfers. Backbones: Partial 45Mbps (T3) NSFNET, a few private backbones, plus satellite and radio connections - Hosts: 617,000 1992: Internet Society is chartered. World-Wide Web released by CERN. NSFNET backbone upgraded to T3 (44.736Mbps) Backbones: 45Mbps (T3) NSFNET, private interconnected backbones consisting mainly of 56Kbps, 1.544Mbps, plus satellite and radio connections - Hosts: 1,136,000 1993:InterNIC created by NSF to provide specific Internet services: directory and database services (by AT&T), registration services (by Network Solutions Inc.), and information services (by General Atomics/CERFnet). Marc Andreessen and NCSA and the University of Illinois develops a graphical user interface to the WWW, called "Mosaic for X". Backbones: 45Mbps (T3) NSFNET, private interconnected backbones consisting mainly of 56Kbps, 1.544Mbps, and 45Mpbs lines, plus satellite and radio connections - Hosts: 2,056,000 Vikas Singh, CSIS Dept. BITS Pilani

59 Internet History (Cont’d)
1994: No major to the physical network. The most significant thing that happened was the growth. Many new networks were added to the NSF backbone. Hundreds of thousands of new hosts were added to the INTERNET during this time period. Pizza Hut offers pizza ordering on its Web page. First Virtual, the first cyber bank, opens. ATM (Asynchronous Transmission Mode, 145Mbps) backbone is installed on NSFNET. Backbones: 145Mbps (ATM) NSFNET, private interconnected backbones consisting mainly of 56Kbps, 1.544Mbps, and 45Mpbs lines, plus satellite and radio connections - Hosts: 3,864,000 1995: The National Science Foundation announced that as of April 30, 1995 it would no longer allow direct access to the NSF backbone. The National Science Foundation contracted with four companies that would be providers of access to the NSF backbone (Merit). These companies would then sell connections to groups, organizations, and companies. $50 annual fee is imposed on domains, excluding .edu and .gov domains which are still funded by the National Science Foundation. Backbones: 145Mbps (ATM) NSFNET (now private), private interconnected backbones consisting mainly of 56Kbps, 1.544Mbps, 45Mpbs, 155Mpbs lines in construction, plus satellite and radio connections - Hosts: 6,642,000 Vikas Singh, CSIS Dept. BITS Pilani

60 Internet History (Cont’d)
1996: Most Internet traffic is carried by backbones of independent ISPs, including MCI, AT&T, Sprint, UUNet, BBN planet, ANS, and more. Currently the Internet Society, the group that controls the INTERNET, is trying to figure out new TCP/IP to be able to have billions of addresses, rather than the limited system of today. The problem that has arisen is that it is not known how both the old and the new addressing systems will be able to work at the same time during a transition period. Backbones: 145Mbps (ATM) NSFNET (now private), private interconnected backbones consisting mainly of 56Kbps, 1.544Mbps, 45Mpbs, and 155Mpbs lines, plus satellite and radio connections - Hosts: over 15,000,000, and growing rapidly 1996 to 2005: explosive growth, e-commerce, e-gov, e-verything Reference: Vikas Singh, CSIS Dept. BITS Pilani

61 A Brief summary of Internet
First program Agency renamed DARPA BB 50Kbps Hosts: 23 On the same network Protocol:NCP Hosts on the same network Dr. Metcalf Developed Ethernet Backbones: 50Kbps ARPANET, plus satellite and radio connections - Hosts: 111+ TCP/IP Experiments NSF created CSNet for Connecting Institutions CSNET and ARPAnet Connectivity proposed By Cerf. Backbones: 50Kbps ARPANET, 56Kbps CSNET, plus satellite/ radio Hosts: 213 ARPAnet divided Milnet and ARPAnet CSNET managed by MCI, and called NSFNet NSFnet backbone Will use T-1 Hosts: 1024 1968/69 1972 1973/74 1979 1983 1986 1981 1984 1976 Development began on TCP/IP. First use of the Term Internet By V. CERF BB 50Kbps Hosts: 23+ IAB created Ist Jan: TCP/IP Hosts: 562 USENET Based on UUCP developed by ATT BITnet by IBM: first store and forward network Application: and list serve BB: same as in 1976 IETF created To coordinate The development by various contractors Hosts: 2308 USA ARPA: Advanced Research project Agency IETF: Internet Engineering Task Force NSF: National Science Foundation ARPANet With 4 nodes BB Speed 50 Kbps Vikas Singh, CSIS Dept. BITS Pilani

62 A Brief summary of Internet
1986 to 1991: Internet Hosts and back bone speeds continued to grow 1992: Tim Berners-Lee and CERN in Geneva implements a hypertext system to provide efficient information access to the members of the international high-energy physics community. Backbones: 56Kbps CSNET, 1.544Mbps (T1) NSFNET, plus satellite and radio connections - Hosts: 313,000 1993:InterNIC created by NSF to provide specific Internet services: directory and database services (by AT&T), registration services (by Network Solutions Inc.), and information services (by General Atomics/CERFnet). Marc Andreessen and NCSA and the University of Illinois develops a graphical user interface to the WWW, called "Mosaic for X". Backbones: 45Mbps (T3) NSFNET, private interconnected backbones consisting mainly of 56Kbps, 1.544Mbps, and 45Mpbs lines, plus satellite and radio connections - Hosts: 2,056,000 1994: Pizza Hut offers pizza ordering on its Web page Hosts: 3,864,000 1995: The National Science Foundation announced that as of April 30, 1995 it would no longer allow direct access to the NSF backbone. The National Science Foundation contracted with four companies that would be providers of access to the NSF backbone (Merit). These companies would then sell connections to groups, organizations, and companies. BB speed from 56 kbps to 155 Mbps Hosts: 6,642,000 1996: Most Internet traffic is carried by backbones of independent ISPs, including MCI, AT&T, Sprint, UUNet, BBN planet, ANS, and more Hosts: over 15,000,000, and growing rapidly 1996 to 2006: explosive growth, e-commerce, e-gov, e-verything and all countries Lack of address space USA ARPA: Advanced Research project Agency IETF: Internet Engineering Task Force NSF: National Science Foundation Vikas Singh, CSIS Dept. BITS Pilani


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