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Tok Pisin & Hawai’i Creole English: English Wantoks or Siblings? c Craig Alan Volker Professor of Linguistic Research Divine Word University, Madang, PNg.

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Presentation on theme: "Tok Pisin & Hawai’i Creole English: English Wantoks or Siblings? c Craig Alan Volker Professor of Linguistic Research Divine Word University, Madang, PNg."— Presentation transcript:

1 Tok Pisin & Hawai’i Creole English: English Wantoks or Siblings? c Craig Alan Volker Professor of Linguistic Research Divine Word University, Madang, PNg cvolker AT dwu.ac.pg

2 Watpo sem sem? Same Oceanic origin? Diffusion? Chance & universals?

3 Oceanic Origins pau / pinis: Hanahana pau, orait, yufera slip. Wok pinis, orait, yupela slip. pronouns SingularDualTrialPlural mi mituferamitriferamifera yu yutufera yutrifera yufera him (data not certain)

4 Oceanic, in modern HCE, not in data stap / stei durative: Ai laik stei tok stori. bin / wen past: Ai wen bai da kain. locative prepositions: andanit a da chri transitive marker (“im”) : Yu no laik yusim hama? answering negative questions

5 Typical Oceanic not in data inclusive / exclusive “we” predicate marker (“i”) no general preposition “long” productive reduplication

6 Oceanic but also Japanese serial verbs of direction: Yufera kachi diswankam! / Gachi diswango! no interrogative fronting: Yulaiki wat?

7 Common with Chinese Pidgin English bilong / birong: Him haus birong mi -fela / -fera adjectives: Man him bigfera. Tufera gud wahine. -fela / -fera determiners: wanfera man / *wanfera tebol

8 Common English-derived words conjunctions: olsem, sapos, taim, orait Olsem hanahana pau... “ol” plural adverbs of intensity: lelebet, tomachi Rerebet mani, tomachi pirikia. ating Ating mi Japan go.

9 Word order usually SVO so prepositions & det-adj-n: Wanfera gud wahine sometimes SOV (like Japanese): Taim mi Japan go. sometimes postpositions (like Japanese) : Mistap ten klok made.

10 Wantoks or siblings? some words and morphemes have common ancestors Structure in data not Oceanic Some later diffusion into Hawai’i Creole English of Oceanic structures

11 Mahalo tenkyu tru Craig Alan Volker, Divine Word University,


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