The process (in a nutshell) 1.Draft search terms/run searches 2.Draft sift criteria 3.Sift received abstracts 4.Request full papers 5.Read and ‘grade’ papers 6.Write it up (‘synthesis’)
TermsResults Anywhere in the article “Domestic violence”597,000 “Domestic abuse”32,500 Title only “Domestic violence"23,700 “Domestic abuse”1,220 Published since 2000 (title only) “Domestic violence"13,200 “Domestic abuse”822 Adding ‘randomised controlled trial’ “Domestic violence"0 0 Adding ‘experiment’ “Domestic violence"32 “Domestic abuse”0 Adding ‘systematic review’ “Domestic violence"7 “Domestic abuse”0 Search terms are hugely important Today’s session will really focus on our search terms and their impacts. Librarians and Researchers to help run live pilot searches Group work to build our search terms
Boolean is a powerful tool and can be used to create quite complex searches. The standard Boolean operators are: AND OR NOT (or AND NOT) (advanced users only!) Boolean is most effective when used in combination with: PARENTHESES(round brackets) TRUNCATION e.g. politic* WILDCARDS e.g. randomi?e DOUBLE QUOTESfor "specific phrases" 10:45 The Basics Boolean operators
Practical example of searching - What works in preventing residential burglary?
Creating a search string example of domestic violence
String should be based around the research question: What works in the policing of public order? How can we reduce recidivism amongst sexual offenders? Each key aspect identified will then make up one Tier of the search. The tiers will then be combined to create the complete search string. Creating a Search String
There are often three tiers, but there can be as many or as few as the search requires. The standard way to create tiers is create lists of synonyms within a table, eg. Tiers Tier 1 Frozen Dessert Tier 2 Wafer Tier 3 Syrup Ice cream Froyo Sorbet Grannita Wafer Waffle Golden syrup Maple syrup Chocolate sauce Strawberry sauce
Domestic violence example Tier 1. Domestic violence / Domestic abuse This is the main area of the search. Q: What are the risks/ predictive factors associated with domestic violence/ abuse? Tier 2. Risk factors/ predictive factors These terms interact with the main subject of the search. Tier 3. Effectiveness / What works We want to capture evidence that is evaluative, rather than commentary. Tier 4. Policing (?) We may want to limit our search to factors for the police and policing, or we might decide we are interested in factors identified from healthcare or other potential partners.
Building our search string using synonyms Tier 1: Domestic violence/ abuse Tier 2: Risk/ predictive factors Tier 3: Effectiveness Tier 4: Policing Domestic violence Domestic abuse Intimate partner violence Intimate-partner violence (hyphenated) Intimate partner femicide Spousal assault Partner violence Battered women Wife assault Repeated violence Couple violence Domestic murder Risk assessment Risk management Risk appraisal Risk of homicide Prediction of homicide Nursing assessment Lethality risk assessment Predicting/ predictive Dangerousness assessment Evaluation Assessment “What works” Impact Randomised controlled trial Trial Experiment Systematic review Police Policing Law Enforcement Q: What are the risks/ predictive factors associated with domestic violence/ abuse?
Turning synonyms into search terms ((Domestic OR Physical OR Emotional OR Familial OR Marital OR Spousal) AND (Abus* OR violen* OR control* OR behav*)) OR Coerc* OR "domestic homicide" OR "marital rape" OR "intimate partner violence" OR "repeat victim*" OR "women’s refuge" C. 197,000 results 11:30 - break
Research question What interventions have been shown to be effective in supporting individuals during an acute mental health crisis? mental health crisis intervention acute police What Works/effective
Factors in our question Tier 1 – mental health crisis Tier 2 – interventions Tier 3 – acute Tier 4 – police Tier 5 – effective/What Works
Tier 1 Synonyms – metal health crisis Mental health crisis 12-12:15 in sub-groups 12:15-12:30 feedback to whole group ProQuest National Police Library catalogue http://library.college.police.uk Google....
Tier 3 - Version 1 - ProQuest Search terms (crisis OR crises OR emergency OR hysteria OR acute OR attack* OR episode*) Approximate number of hits 1 million
Tier 4 Synonyms – interventions Insert Established Terms for Tier 4 – Police police OR policing OR "law enforcement"
Tier 5 Synonyms – What Works Insert Established Terms for Tier 5 – WHAT WORKS ("systematic review" OR "literature review*" OR trial* OR "RCT" OR experiment* OR evaluat* OR "best practice*" OR "good practice*" OR effective* OR assess* OR "What Works" OR impact* OR success*)
Initial merging of terms Version __ of Tier 1 + Version __ of Tier 2 = c. _______ records + Tier 3 = c. _______ records + Tier 4 = c. _______ records Issues/ questions/ queries What surprised you, etc.
This exercise 1.Shows the value of systematically searching 2.Shows the impact of having multiple tiers in our searches 3.Gives us an idea of the number of articles that might be relevant to our research question… At the next evidence base camp we will sift through the abstracts based on inclusion/ exclusion criteria to identify the full papers to request for the review. www.college.police.uk/library email@example.com
Usual Synonyms intervention* OR tactic* OR strateg* OR initiative* OR procedure* or approach* ("systematic review" OR "literature review*" OR trial* OR "RCT" OR experiment* OR evaluat* OR "best practice*" OR "good practice*" OR effective* OR assess* OR "What Works" OR impact* OR success*) police OR policing OR "law enforcement"
Back-up Synonyms " mental health crisis " OR "psychotic episode*" OR "extreme anxiety" OR " panic attack*" OR (suicidal AND (behavio*r OR intent)) crisis OR crises OR emergency OR hysteria OR acute OR attach OR episode* or trauma?