Presentation on theme: "A review of the history of FLT Fostering communicative competence"— Presentation transcript:
1A review of the history of FLT Fostering communicative competence Communicative Language TeachingTBLT交际法目录·定义 ·产生时间 ·创始人 ·交际法的主要特征 ·交际法评价 交际法(一)交际法及其理论基础 定义交际法(communicative approach)，又称“意念法”、“功能法”或“意念-功能法”。它是以语言功能项目为纲，培养在特定的社会语境中运用语言进行交际能力的一种教学法体系。 产生时间产生于20世纪70年代初期欧洲经济共同体国家，中心在英国。 创始人英国语言学家威尔金斯。代表人物还有英国的语言教育家亚历山大、威多森、荷兰的范埃克。 运用交际法编写出的最有名的教材是《跟我学》(Follow Me)。 理论基础： 语言学理论基础是20世纪60年代兴起70年代形成高潮的社会语言学。尤其是社会语言学家海姆斯的交际能力理论和功能主义语言学家韩礼德的功能语言理论和话语分析理论，以及威多森的语言交际观。交际法的语言观认为，语言悬表达意义的系统，其基本功能是社会交际，语言学不应仅仅研究语言的形式，更要关注语言要完成的社会功能以及语言在人们社会交往中受到的制约因素，因此，第二语言教学的目的不仅是让学习者掌握语言规则、能正确地运用语言，更要掌握语言的使用规则，得体地运用语言。 心理学基础是人本主义心理学和20世纪60年代后期兴起的心理语言学。交际法强调以学生为中心，首先要分析学习者对第二语言的需要，教学内容和教学方法的确定都必须从学习者的需要出发。交际法还认为，学习者在言语中出现一些错误是正常的也是不可避免的现象，学习者所追求的不可能是完美无缺的交际，而只能是有缺陷的但有效的交际，因此，对学习者的语言错误不应苛求。 交际法的主要特征 交际法教学有8个主要特征。 (1)以培养交际功能为宗旨，明确提出第二语言教学目标是培养创造性地运用语言的交际能力，不仅要求语言运用的正确性，还要求得体性。 (2)以功能意念为纲。根据学习者的实际需要，选取真实自然的语言材料，而不是经过加工后的“教科书语言”。 (3)教学过程交际化，交际既是学习的目的也是学习的手段，在教学中创造接近真实交际的情景并多采用小组活动的形式，通过大量言语交际活动培养运用语言交际的能力，并把课堂交际活动与课外生活中的交际结合起来。 (4)以话语为教学的基本单位。认为语言不是存在于孤立的词语或句子中，而是存在于连贯的语篇中。 (5)单项技能训练与综合性技能训练相结合，以综合性训练为主，最后达到在交际中综合运用语言的目的。 (6)对学习者在学习过程中出现的语言错误有一定的容忍度，不影响交际的错误能不纠就不纠，尽量鼓励学习者发挥言语交际活动的主动性和积极性。 (7)交际法强调以学生为中心，强调教学要为学生的交际需要服务，以语言功能为纲．根据学以致用的原则，针对不同专业的学习者安排“专用语言”的教学。 (8)主张采用多种教学手段，不应是仅仅一本教科书，而应该是“教学包”，即教师用书、辅导读物、磁带、挂图、录像、电影、电视等。 交际法评价 1．优点： 交际法博采众长，从当代语言学和心理学研究的最新成果中获取营养，受到诸如社会语言学、人类语言学、功能主义语言学、语用学、话语语言学、跨文化交际学、言语行为理论、语言变体研究直到中介语理论的影响。交际法是迄今为止影响最大、最富有生命力的外语教学法流派，对我国外语教学和对外汉语教学产生了很大的影响。 2．缺点： （1）首先是功能项目问题：如何确定功能项目，确定语言功能项目的标准是什么，不同的第二语言教学需要多少语言功能范畴，如何科学地安排功能项目的教学顺序等，这些问题都没有很好地得到解决。 （2）其次是没能处理好语法知识的教学问题：用意念功能范畴不能完全取代传统的语法知识，强调语法教学只学使用(use)、不学用法(usage)，这实际上是行不通的；而培养语法意识又会影响能力的培养等。 2017/4/81
2The grammar-translation method The direct method The audio-lingual methodThe functional-notional syllabusThe communicative language teaching2017/4/82
3The Grammar-translation method Traditional method / classical method; uses translation and grammar study as the main teaching and learning activities; a reflection of the way Latin and Greek were taught; to help Ss read and appreciate foreign language literature; seen as an academic studyfocus on grammatical rules, the memorization of vocabulary, the inflection of words, translations of texts, doing written exercises.The Grammar-Translation Method is a method of foreign or second language teaching which uses translation and grammar study as the main teaching and learning activities.The Grammar translation method, or classical method emerged when people of the western world wanted to learn "foreign" languages such as Latin and Greek. Its focus was on grammatical rules, the memorization of vocabulary and of various declensions and conjugations, translations of texts, doing written exercises.A class working with the Grammar translation Method would look like that:1. Classes are taught in the mother tongue, with little active use of the target language.2. Much vocabulary is taught in the form of lists of isolated words.3. Long elaborate explanations of the intricacies of grammar are given4. Grammar provides the rule for putting words together, and instruction often focuses on the form and inflection of words.5. Reading of difficult classical texts is begun early.6. Little attention is paid to the content of texts, which are treated as exercises in grammatical analysis.The advantages of the Grammar-Translation Method:(1). In Grammar-Translation Method, the first language is maintained as the reference system in the learning of the second language. Translation from one language to another plays a certain part in language learning. in the Grammar-Translation Method, comparison between two languages helps students to have a better understanding of the meaning of abstract words and complicated sentences.(2). Systematic study of grammatical rules plays an important role in fostering students’ ability of reading comprehension and producing grammatically correct sentences. It has special importance for students in teachers’ colleges for whom a good mastery of the grammar system of the target language. Understanding and manipulating the morphology and syntax will develop students’ ability of analyzing and solving problems.(3). The focus on understanding literary texts provides the situation in which reading and writing abilities are well trained.(4). The Grammar-Translation makes few demands on teachers although it often creates frustration for students.First, overemphasis on translation can never emancipate the learners from dependence on the first language.Second, The Grammar-Translation puts too much emphasis on reading and writing and neglects listening and speaking. Knowing a large number of grammatical rules can not ensure that students can use them appropriately in real communicative situation.Third, in the Grammar-Translation Method, the texts are mostly taken form literary works. The language learned often doesn’t meet the practical needs of the learners.Last, memorizing grammar rules and bilingual word lists does not motivate students to actively communicate in the target language.2017/4/83
4The advantages of the Grammar-Translation Method: Comparison between two languages helps students to have a better understanding of the meaning of abstract words and complicated sentences.Systematic study of grammatical rules plays an important role in fostering students’ ability of reading comprehension and producing grammatically correct sentences.The focus on understanding literary texts provides the situation in which reading and writing abilities are well trained.The Grammar-Translation makes few demands on teachers although it often creates frustration for students.
5The disadvantages of Grammar-translation method: Overemphasis on translation can never emancipate the learners from dependence on the first language.The Grammar-Translation puts too much emphasis on reading and writing and neglects listening and speaking.In the Grammar-Translation Method, the texts are mostly taken form literary works. The language learned often doesn’t meet the practical needs of the learners.Memorizing grammar rules and bilingual word lists does not motivate students to actively communicate in the target language.
6The Direct methodA direct reaction to and a radical departure from the G-T method; language learning was not an intellectual exercise but a necessity for survival;The rationale: a person should learn to speak a foreign language by the same way as a child learn his mother tongue. (Gouin’s story)Some principles of the direct method:Classroom instruction was conducted exclusively in the target language.Only everyday vocabulary and sentences were taught.Grammar was taught inductivelyNew teaching points were taught through modeling and practiceConcrete vocabulary was taught through demonstration, objects, pictures; Abstract vocabulary was taught through association of ideas.Advantages and disadvantages:The basic premise of the Direct Method was that second language learning should be more like first language learning. The method would include lots of oral interaction, spontaneous use of language, no translation between first and second languages, and little or no analysis of grammar rules.The advantages of the Direct Method:(1). The use of the target language as a means of instruction and communication in the classroom contributes greatly to forming the habit of thinking in the target language, which is necessary in efficient real communication.(2). The emphasis on practice with new language items and on language skills, rather than on language knowledge, is important in achieving automaticity of using the target language.(3). The emphasis on spoken language conforms to the objectives of modern language teaching. Special attention paid to pronunciation and intonation is desirable in teaching spoken language.(4). Regarding listening and speaking as the basis of reading and writing is strategic in fostering the four skills.(5). Using full sentences as teaching units makes foreign language learning more natural and efficient for students to understand a new text and acquire a language.The disadvantages of the Direct Method(1). Overemphasizing the similarities between naturalistic first language acquisition and classroom foreign language learning results in the exclusive use of the target language. The absolute avoidance of the native tongue occasionally troubles the Direct Method in teaching the meaning of abstract concepts.(2). Without explicit grammar explanation, students lack a necessary knowledge of the target language. As a result, they tend to produce utterances with a lot of grammatical mistakes in them. It is difficult for them to safeguard against mistakes and self-correct them without the guidance of the rules of the target language.(3). The Direct Method places a high demand on the teacher. It requires native-speaker teachers or teachers who have native-speaker-like fluency in the target language.2017/4/86
7The Advantages of the Direct Method: The use of the target language as a means of instruction and communication in the classroom contributes greatly to forming the habit of thinking in the target language, which is necessary in efficient real communication.The emphasis on practice with new language items and on language skills, rather than on language knowledge, is important in achieving automaticity of using the target language.The emphasis on spoken language conforms to the objectives of modern language teaching. Special attention paid to pronunciation and intonation is desirable in teaching spoken language.Regarding listening and speaking as the basis of reading and writing is strategic in fostering the four skills.Using full sentences as teaching units makes foreign language learning more natural and efficient for students to understand a new text and acquire a language.
8The Disadvantages of Direct method: The absolute avoidance of the native tongue occasionally troubles the Direct Method in teaching the meaning of abstract concepts.Without explicit grammar explanation, students lack a necessary knowledge of the target language.The Direct Method places a high demand on the teacher.
9The Audiolingual method "The Army Method“, developed through a U.S. Army program called ASTP ( standing for "Army Specialized Training Program.“)An integration of structuralism and behaviorism, basic assumption: SLL should be viewed as a mechanistic process of habit formationIn this method, oral interaction was emphasized in pattern drills, and conversation practices.New material is presented in dialogue form.There is dependence on mimicry, memorization of set phrases, and overlearning.Structural patterns are taught using repetitive drills.There is little or no grammatical explanation. Grammar is taught by inductive analogy rather than deductive explanation.There is much use of tapes, language labs, and visual aids.Great importance is attached to pronunciation..Very little use of the mother tongue by teacherThere is great effort to get the students to produce error free utterances.The Audiolingual Method is a method of foreign or second Language teaching which emphasizes the teaching of speaking and listening before reading and writing. In the Audiolingual Method, mother tongue is discouraged in the classroom. The Audiolingual Method uses dialogues as the main form of language presentation and drills as the main training techniques.Disadvantages of the Audiolingual Method:①The theoretical basis of the Audiolingual Method was found to be weak. The behaviourist theory could not possibly serve as a model of how humans learn language, since much of human language is not imitated behaviour, but is created a new from underlying knowledge of abstract rules.②Techniques such as pattern practice, drilling, memorization, etc. might lead to language like behaviour, but they are not resulting in competence. Teachers complain about the lack of effectiveness of the techniques in the long run, and students complain about the boredom caused by endless pattern drills.③ Learners play a reactive role by responding to stimuli, and thus have little control over the content, pace or style of learning. They are not encouraged to initiate interaction, because this may lead to mistakes.④The teacher’s role is central and active in the Audiolingual Method. It is the teacher who always dominates the class. The teacher models the target language, controls the direction and pace of learning, and monitors and corrects the learner’s performance.⑤ Materials in the Audiolingual Method are primarily teacher-oriented. The teacher’s book contains the structured sequence of lessons to be followed, an the dialogues, drills, and other practice activities. The audiolingual here ignores the fact that learning can be facilitated if all the channels are open to students.Advantages of the Audiolingual Method:①The audiolingual theory is probably the first language teaching theory that openly claims to be derived from linguistics and psychology.②The Audiolingual Method attempts to make language learning accessible to large group of ordinary learners. With large classes, drills are of particular use in that they maximize student participation.③ While previous methods tended to be preoccupied with vocabulary and morphology, the Audiolingual Method stresses syntactical progression and uses pattern drills to help the students gain control over grammatical structures, which is a much more interesting way of learning grammar than working through written exercises. What’s more, drilling can be positively beneficial in helping a student to develop his oral ability.④ The Audiolingual Method leads to the development of simple techniques of varied, graded, and intensive practice of specific features of the language, and more scientifically selected and systematically arranged materials and structural patterns to go with. Moreover, the teaching techniques with tape recording and language lab drills offer practice in speaking and listening which are considered of primary importance in language learning. The technique of mim-mem and pattern drills gives students more thorough practice in using grammar pattern.⑤The Audiolingual Method develops the separation of the language skills into a pedagogical device, that is listening, speaking, reading and writing. The Audiolingual Method introduces specifically designed techniques of auditory and oral practice. It lays emphasis on listening and speaking which did not gain so much importance from Grammar-Translation Method. It achieves noticeable success in developing aural comprehension and oral fluency.? There is little or no grammatical explanation. Grammar is taught by inductive analogy rather than deductive explanation.2017/4/89
10The advantages of Audiolingual method: The audiolingual theory is probably the first language teaching theory that openly claims to be derived from linguistics and psychology.The Audiolingual Method attempts to make language learning accessible to large group of ordinary learners.The Audiolingual Method stresses syntactical progression and uses pattern drills to help the students gain control over grammatical structures, which is a much more interesting way of learning grammar than working through written exercises. What’s more, drilling can be positively beneficial in helping a student to develop his oral ability.The Audiolingual Method leads to the development of simple techniques of varied, graded, and intensive practice of specific features of the language, and more scientifically selected and systematically arranged materials and structural patterns to go with.The Audiolingual Method lays emphasis on listening and speaking which did not gain so much importance from Grammar-Translation Method.
11The disadvantages of Audiolingual method: The theoretical basis of the Audiolingual Method was found to be weak.Techniques such as pattern practice, drilling, memorization, etc. are not resulting in competence.The teacher’s role is central and active in the Audiolingual Method. Learners have little control over the content, pace or style of learning.The Audiolingual method ignores the fact that learning can be facilitated if all the channels are open to students.
12The Functional-notional syllabus (method) a precursor of Communicative Language Teachinga FNS textbook would be organized in the following sequence of functional topics:Introductions, greetings, good-byes;Invitations, Apologies, Condolences;Gratitude, Compliments, Congratulations;Requests, Commands, Warnings, Directions;Offers, Seeking Permission;Advice, Intention;Pleasure, Displeasure;Expressing your opinion… and so forth.A typical unit of such a textbook would include presentation of dialogues, conversation practice with classmate, situations in which the student figures out "what would I say," role plays, etc..The Notional Functional Syllabus is distinguished by its attention to "functions" as the organizing elements of English language. The NFS focused strongly and exclusively on the pragmatic purposes to which we put language. It is neither a method, nor an approach to language pedagogy for it does not tell how to teach a second language. What it does is to give what second language learners should focus on.A typical unit of such a textbook would include presentation of dialogues, conversation practice with classmate, situations in which the student figures out "what would I say," role plays, etc..The Notional Functional Syllabus was a precursor of Communicative Language Teaching, but it did not teach communicative competence as such.2017/4/812
13The communicative language teaching ---- the current state of the art developed as a reaction away from grammar-based approaches such as the audio-lingual methodThe goal of communicative language teaching is to have students become communicatively competent.The current state of the artCommunicative language teaching is the generally accepted norm in the field of second language teaching. CLT suggests communicative language and language acquisition, and the approach proposes way for learners to internalize a second language and to experiment in a classroom context. Therefore, the classroom context is used to create activities to teach students how to react in a real world situation, not to fake real-world situations. Its basic features are:An emphasis on learning to communicate through interaction in the target language.The introduction of authentic texts into the learning situation (Authentic material is a must, because students cannot extrapolate to the real world from their learning on made-up material)The provision(提供） of opportunities for learners to focus not only on language, but also on the learning process itself.An enhancement of the learner's own personal experience as important contributing elements to classroom learning.An attempt to link classroom language learning with language activation outside the classroom.2017/4/813
14The goal of CLT is to develop Ss’ communicative cometence, which includes both the knowledge about language and the knowledge about how to use the langage appropriately in communicative situations.Task 1.Work in pairs. Think about at least 3 situations where we are likely to hear the question: “why don’t you close the door?” Discuss how many functions it may have.Task 2.Suppose you want to make a suggestion to somebody. How many different ways are there to express this intention? Write down as many ways as you can think of. Then discuss in what situation you would use each of them?The goal of clt is to have students become communicatively competent. Communicative comppetence involves being able to use the language apropriately in a given social context. They need to know that many different forms can be used to perform a funciton and that a single form can often serve a variety of functions. They must be able to choose from among these the most appropriate form, given the social context and the roles of the interlocutors. They must also be able to manage the process of negotiating meaning with their interlocutors. (舒，2005：350）乔姆斯基（Noam Chomsky, ），美国语言学家，转换-生成语法的创始人。1928年12月7日出生于美国宾西法尼亚州的费城。1947年，在哈里斯的影响下他开始研究语言学。1951年在宾西法尼亚大学完成硕士论文《现代希伯莱语语素音位学》，1955年又在该校完成博士论文《转换分析》，获得博士学位。从1955年秋天开始，他一直在麻省理工学院工作，曾任该校语言学与哲学系主任，并任该校认知科学研究中心主任，为语言学界培养了一批有素养的学者。 乔姆斯基是一位富有探索精神的语言学家。最初，他用结构主义的方法研究希伯莱语，后来发现这种方法有很大的局限性，转而探索新的方法，逐步建立起转换-生成语法，1957年出版的《句法结构》就是这一新方法的标志。这种分析方法风靡全世界，冲垮了结构语言学的支配地位，因而被人们称为“乔姆斯基革命”。后来他又不断丰富和发展转换-生成语法的理论和方法，相继发表了《句法理论要略》、《深层结构、表层结构和语义解释》、《支配和约束论集》等重要著作，对世界语言学的发展方向产生了巨大的影响。现在，转换-生成语法仍在继续发展之中。 乔姆斯基是美国当代一位有重大影响的语言学家，美国芝加哥大学、芝加哥洛约拉大学、英国伦敦大学都授予他名誉博士学位。乔姆斯基的学说不仅在语言学界，而且在哲学界、心理学界等很多领域也都有相当大的影响；计算机科学的兴起和发展也与乔姆斯基的语言理论有密切的关系，甚至有人称他为计算机科学的“老祖宗”。转换生成语法1.转换生成语法简介 它产生于20世纪50年代，由形式语法学家乔姆斯基提出。他认为仅仅描写语法形式是不够的，而要探索隐藏在语法行为背后的人类普遍的“语法能力”，这种语言能力通过一套“深层结构”向“表层结构”的转换规则，从而把意义和形式结合起来，把静态描写提高到动态描写。 2.转换生成语法的创始人 乔姆斯基（A·N·Chomsky）1928-, 美国认知语言学家, 转换生成语法的创始人。 他的转换生成语法认为，语言是受规则支配的体系，人具有天生的语言习得机制和语言能力。人类使用语言不是靠机械模仿和记忆，而是不断理解、掌握语言规则、举一反三地创造性地运用语言的过程。 流程图式如下： 语法→转换部分→表层结构→语音部分→句子的语音表现 ↓ 基础部分→深层结构（指向转换部分）→语义部分→句子的语义表现 简单的说，转换-生成语法理论研究的是人类为什么会说话以及如何了解新的句子。上图是一个转换-生成语法的理论框图。乔姆斯基认为语言学家只需要制定上图中突出显示的四个部分的规则。上图也是转换-生成语法的理论内容的示意图：语法主要包括基础和转换两个部分，基础部分生成深层结构，深层结构通过转换得到表层结构，语义部分属于深层结构，它为深层结构作出语义解释。语音部分属于表层结构并为表层结构作出语音解释。As it is all known that language used in real life situation is very different from that used in traditional language learning class.2017/4/814
15Hymes’s understanding of communicative competence Linguistic competence Vs. communicative competenceLinguistic competence (by Chomsky) is understood as the tacit knowledge of language structure and the ability to use this knowledge to understand and produce language.communicative competence (by Hymes) entails knowing not only the language code or the form of language, but also what to say to whom and how to say it appropriately in any given situation.
164 aspects of communicative competence (Hymes, 1979) Knowing whether or not womething is formally possible (grammatically acceptable);Knowing whether something is understanable to human beings;Knowing whehter something is in line with social norms;Knowing whether or not something is in fact done.交际法英语教学理论的核心是关于交际能力的学说。这一学说由海姆斯在70年代初首先提出后，在80年代初经过加拿大学者卡纳尔和斯温(Canale and Swain 1980)的补充，在80年代末、90年代初又由美国学者巴克曼(Bachman 1990)作了进一步发展。关于交际能力还有很多定义，下面对上述三个定义作一简单介绍。1）海姆斯关于交际能力的学说海姆斯(1972:281)提出“语言能力只是交际能力的一部分，交际能力由四个部分组成”的学说，即:(1) 形式是否可能(语法性);(2) 实际是否可行 (可接受性);(3) 根据上下文是否恰当（得体性）;(4) 实际上是否在用（实际操纵性）。第一部分 “形式是否可能” 和语言学有关，指的是语言的形式或语法的可接受性，即语法是否正确。这部分内容类似于乔姆斯基的语言能力概念。E.g i want going home. // the rain is destroyed the crops.第二部分“实际是否可行”和心理语言学有关，指的是对某种语言形式心理上是否可接受。语言在实际使用中是否能被接受取决于许多因素。心理学方面有记忆限度等人脑对语言处理的能力限制;语言学方面有语言的套置(nesting)、嵌入(embedding)和分支(branching)等特性;其他方面有文化、环境、交际等因素。这些因素决定了语法正确的句子不一定是能够被接受的语言。E.g She liked the man that visited the jeweler that made the ring that won the prize that was given at the fair.第三部分 “根据上下文是否恰当” 和社会语言学与文化有关，指的是语言在不同的上下文中是否恰当。E.g the rain destroyed the crops.A what was destroyed by the rain?---- the rain destroyed the crops.B what happened to the crops?---- the rain destroyed the crops.第四部分“实际上是否在用”和统计学有关，指的是在现实生活中人们是否使用。例如，有些语言，语法正确、实际可行、上下文恰当，但却没人这么用。相反，有些语言为规则所不允许，但是一旦出现，却被认为是可以接受的。e.g it’s half past two. / it’s after two. // long time no see.综合上述四个部分的内容，我们可以看到海姆斯的交际能力就是同时拥有语言知识和实际使用语言的能力。大学英语教学改革就是要提高大学生的外语水平，满足高素质人才对外语应用的急迫需求。那么，什么是外语水平（foreign language proficiency）呢?拉多认为外语水平由知识和技能两部分组成:知识包括语法、词汇和语音;技能包括听、说、读、写。巴克曼认为拉多的解释一没有说明知识与技能的关系，二没有提及语境、语篇和情景的作用。海姆斯提出了交际能力这一概念，在外语教学领域引起震动。他指出交际能力包括四个方面: 1.1 可能性，即是否符合语法规则，是在形式上可能; 1.2 可行性，即某些语言是否能够付诸实施以及可实施的程度; 1.3 确当性，即话语在特定的情景中是否得体，以及得体的程度; 1.4 有效性，即话语是否已经付诸实施以及已经实施的程度。 后来，卡内尔又把交际能力扩展为四部分:语言能力（linguistic competence）、社会语言能力（sociolinˉguistic competence）、语篇能力（discourse competence）和策略能力（strategic competence）。随后，巴克曼在此基础上又提出了一个更为复杂的交际能力模式，他认为交际能力包括三大部分:语言能力、策略能力以及心理ˉ生理语言机制。实际上，语言因为有着母语与外语之间的巨大文化差异，造成了外语交际的双方往往存在着不同背景、不同文化下的不同交际规则，因此，把外语水平定义为“跨文化交际能力”似乎更有针对性。文秋芳先生在其著作Testing&Teaching Spoken English中提出了跨文化交际能力的模式。(浅议网络化时代大学英语教学与改革 孙爱平 [ :02:00]（淮海工学院大外部 ）2017/4/816
17Hedge’s understanding of communicative competence Five components of communicative competence (Hedge, 2000)Linguistic competencePragmatic competenceDiscourse competenceStrategic competenceFluencyFluency. Fluent speech involves the ability to talk with normal levels of continuity, rate, rhythm and effort. Fluency involves the smoothness with which units of speech (sounds, syllables, words, phrases) flow together. Fluent speech flows easily and is usually made without effort. Abnormally broken, slow, or effortful speech is not fluent. 流畅（Fluency）：流畅的语言表达指的是能够以正常的连贯程度，语速，节奏和力度来说话的能力。流畅指的是语言表达的各种单元（语音、音节、词语、短语）一起从嘴中连贯而出的平滑程度。流畅的语言表达的流动都是轻柔的，通常也是毫不用力的。不正常的中断、减慢、或用力的语言表达不能被算作是“流畅”。交际策略是指交际者根据实际情况即在交际条件不充足的情况下而采取的应变措施.例如:(l)回避.包括避而不语、隐晦或暗换话题等对于交际中相互差异较大的方面,双方可避而不谈1)交际策略是指“说话者在表达意义遇到某种困难时所采用的系统化的技巧”(Corder1977).2)交际策略是指“当会话者在没有表达意义所需的(语言)结构时试图就意义相互达成的协议”(Tarone1980)所谓语篇能力是指学生在掌握语篇衔接知识的基础上能迅速、准确地掌握语篇的基本内容和中心思想.只有具备了语篇能力表达才能连贯和得体英语语用能力是指在不同的语言交际环境下如何理解语言和运用语言的能力.不具备相当的语用能力,在与操英语的本族人进行交际时就会出现语用失误,产生误解,影响交际的质量,甚至直接影响交际的成败关于语言形式和语言功能的对应关系：I asked Ss about the relationship between function and form , a few said no. then I asked a girl to give examples. She said:”the apple is tasty=the apple is delicious”. Corrected her, then I gave an exemple: when one wants to eat an apple at home, say to mother: I want to eat that apple， pass me that apple; but when at a teacher’s office, say “well, that apple seems delicious.”2017/4/817
18Linguistic competence “is concerned with knowledge of the language itself, its form and meaning" (Hedge, 2000:46). It is an integral part of communicative competence and it is wrong to think that communicative language teaching does not aim for high standard of linguistic correctness.
19Pragmatic competence is concerned with the appropriate use of the language in social context. In Hymes’s words, to know “when to speak, when not, what to talk about with whom, when, where and in what manner”.
20Discourse competence refers to one’s ability to create coherent written text or conversation and the ability to understand them (Canale and Swain, 1980). According to Hedge (2000), it also includes one’s ability to initiate, develop, enter, interrupt, check or confirm in a conversation.
21Strategic competence refers to strategies one employs when there is communication breakdown due to lack of resources.
22Fluency means one’s ability to link units of speech together with facility and without strain or inappropriate slowness or undue hesitation. Prefabricated language can help learners produce the language more fluently.
23Principles Communication principle Task principle Activities that involve real communication promote learning.Task principleActivities in which language is used for carrying out meaningful tasks promote learning.Meaningfulness principleLanguage that is meaningful to the learner supports the learning process.A weak and a strong version of CLTHowatt（1984，279）则指出，CLT通常有两种定义：弱定义和强定义。弱定义强调的是，通过课堂活动给学生提供使用英语达到交际目的的机会。在这层定义里，以语言结构为基本形式的课文信息被看做是语言范例的展示，学生则在课堂上通过一系列的交际活动去训练语言的运用。因此，我们把弱定义常常概括为“学会使用”。而强定义则倡导“用语言本身学习语言”，即在交流中通过激活固有语言信息和刺激语言系统本身的发展而获得语言。Holliday（1994b，171）指出两种形式存在的差异实际上就在于：在弱定义中，“交际”指的是教师与学生以及学生与学生之间的交流，并借此达到语言操练的目的；而强定义更多的是强调学生与语言信息本身的交流。因此，Holliday（ibid.72）认为，强定义中的交流活动不一定要以小组活动的形式来实现。只要单个学生以某种方式和丰富的语言信息交流并产生新的有用的语言信息，这个过程就是交际性的语言学习活动。2017/4/823
24Features of communicative activities 2 categories of commnicative activtiesLittlewood (1981)Functional communication activities（功能交际活动）We know that language has functional meanings. Therefore we can devise communicative activities for the classroom which emphasize this functional aspect of communication. The mani purpose of the activity is that students should use the language they know in order to get their meaning across as effectively as possible. Success is measured primarily according to whether they cope with the communicative demand of the activity. A typical example of this kink of activity is an information-gap task.2017/4/824
25Social interaction activities：（社会交往活动） We also know that appropriateness of language is another important aspect of communicaiton. The students should have the ability to take into consideration the functional meaning of different language forms, and their social meaning as well. The competent language user chooses language which is not only functionally effective, but is also appropriate to the social situation he is in. Role-play is one of the most important techniques for creating a wide variety of social situations and relationships in the classroom.2017/4/825
26Examples of communicative activities: FunctionalIdentifying picturesDiscovering differencesFollowing directionsReconstructing story sequences…Social interaction activitiesRole-playing through cued dialoguesRole-playing through cues and informationRole-playing through situation and goalsLarge-scale simulation activitiesImprovisation2017/4/826
27TBLT is a further development of CLT TBLT is a further development of CLT. It shares the same beliefs, as language should be learned as close as possible to how it is used in real life. It has stressed the importance to combine form-focused teaching with commnication-fovused teaching.The nature of TBLT is learning by doing Learning by doing motivates students to fulfill their potential. Learners master the language by using it communicatively in the classroom, although they still have to learn grammar and memorize vocabulary.任务型语言教学的核心理念是学习者用语言做任务，在完成任务的过程中自然习 得语言。就英语而言，任务指有利于学生用英语做事情的各种语言实践活动。任 务型英语教学就是以具体的任务为载体，以完成任务为动力，把知识和技能融为 一体，让学生在完成任务的活动中自然地使用英语，在使用英语做事的过程中发 展和完善自己的语言能力。任务的内涵 不少研究者给任务下过定义。Breen认为，任务是促进语言学习的工作计划，小到简短的练习，大至复杂、冗长的活动，如小组解决问题或模仿、作决定等。任务具有特定的目标，恰当的内容，规定的程序和一系列的结果等基本特点。Nunan（1989）对任务的定义可以概括为：在学习目的语言的过程中领悟、使用与输出语言和运用语言进行互动交流的课堂活动，学习者在活动中重点关注的是意义，而非语言形式。Willis（1996）认为，任务是学习者在活动中用目标语言进行交流，以取得某种成果的活动。Littlejohn（1996）给任务下的定义是：一项以目的为取向的活动，学习者在活动中使用语言以获得实际成果。换句话说，学习者使用目标语解决问题、制作表单、破解难题、进行比赛，甚至分享并比较种种体验。Skehan（1998）用来界定任务概念的四条标准是：以有意义的语言使用为核心，达到一定的教学目标，有用于衡量任务完成与否的具体结果，以及反映现实生活中的语言使用情况。 任务型语言教学的核心理念是学习者用语言做任务，在完成任务的过程中自然习得语言。就英语而言，任务指有利于学生用英语做事情的各种语言实践活动。任务型英语教学就是以具体的任务为载体，以完成任务为动力，把知识和技能融为一体，让学生在完成任务的活动中自然地使用英语，在使用英语做事的过程中发展和完善自己的语言能力。（以上摘自《任务型教学在小学英语教学中的应用〉）知网定义：英语任务型教学是指教师将教学内容分割为一个或多个具体的活动任务,让学习者通过运用语言完成指定的任务来学习语言任务型教学有以下几方面的重要意义：①任务型学习是双边或多边型的交互式活动，在活动中所学语言是交际工具，有利于提高学习自觉性②任务型学习有明确的具体目的，有利于激发学生的学习动机③在完成过程中学生容易看到成就，体验成功，有利于鼓励学习积极性④在完成任务过程中学生能看到自我的不足，有助于激发自我完善的欲望，启动不断学习的内在动力⑤在执行任务的过程中，每个学生都能承担着一定的责任，因此有利于培养责任心⑥在任务型学习中，有较多的人际关系，因此有利于培养学生的性格和情感，发展运用交际策略的能力⑦在任务型学习中，每个学生都扮演着一个角色，需要全身心的投入，这种身临其境的感觉有利于语感的生成。1)表示刚刚过去的动作。用现在进行时表示刚刚过去的动作，只适用于口语中某些表示“说话”的动词，如talk, speak, tell, say等。 【例如】 Do you hear what he is saying, mother?Every word I am telling you is true.I don't know what you are talking.2)表示感情色彩。现在进行时常与always，continually, constantly等作状语的频度副词连用，强调某一反复性动作，表示赞美、讨厌、惊奇、不满等感情。 She is always thinking of how she could do more for the students.He is always borrowing money and forgetting to pay me back.3)表示人的认识、感情及事情的转变。可用于这种情况的动词有begin, get, turn, grow, become等少数几个。 They are beginning to see the importance of learning English.In spring, days are getting longer and night shorter.本论题需进一步拓宽！2017/4/827
28An example of TBLT ( from The 21st century ) 任务型教学法能让学生在完成任务的过程中，学习和使用。 这里以“十年前的生活”课堂活动为例，介绍任务型教学中 语法教学的实用技巧。任务型语法教学活动举例剑桥专家组供稿 来源:21世纪英语报 任务型教学法能让学生在完成任务的过程中，学习和使用语言。 本期以“十年前的生活”课堂活动为例，介绍任务型教学中语法教学的实用技巧。 课程目标 该课程适用中级以下英语水平的学生群体，通过让学生讨论十年前的生活与如今生活的差异，练习运用过去时态。 准备 * 教师准备一张自己十年前的照片（也可让学生每人准备一张自己十年前的照片）。 * 准备一篇描述自己十年前生活状态的小文章（突出与现在的差异），例如从前（不）喜欢或（不）习惯做的事情。 * 将这篇文章打印后当作讲义分发给每位学生。 任务前预热 教师向学生展示自己十年前的照片（可在教室内来回走动），并让学生讨论照片与其本人有何不同。讨论中，教师无须纠正学生的语言错误，任其自由表达观点、最后告诉学生，他们将会在接下来的任务中找到答案。 任务 将学生分为三人一组，让其讨论自己十年前与现在的差异，时间为三至五分钟。教师将下列问题写于黑板上，让学生围绕这些问题展开讨论: * What did you look like? * What was different about your life? * Did you have different likes and dislikes? Different hobbies? * Are you very different now? 在此过程中，教师在各组之间走动，旁听讨论，但无须纠正学生的语言错误。 讨论任务后，教师让每组准备一篇讨论报告，总结各自在十年中的变化。准备时间为五分钟时间。 总结报告 每组代表发言，将报告内容传达给全班同学。最后，全班选出一位在十年中变化最大的学生，并让该学生将自己的照片展示给全班同学。 任务后的听力练习 教师可播放一段英美学生完成相同任务时的录音，让学生思考其中有哪些异同。活动中，可向学生提出问题，并让其快速回答。例如:What did I say about my hair? What did I say about my job? 等等。如发现学生理解困难，教师可以重复播放录音。 语言聚焦 为了让学生对目标语言有足够的认知，教师可从播放的录音中选择两个包含语法“used to” 的句子，并写于黑板上。例如:I used to go to heavy metal concerts.或I used to have long black hair. 检查学生是否理解句子含义。例如，针对第一个例句，可提问: * Did I go to heavy metal concerts in the past? (Yes) * Was it a regular occurrence? (Yes) * Do I go to heavy metal concerts now? (No) 教师向学生讲解used to的用法（used to+不定式和didn’t use to +不定式），之后将录音资料分发给学生，让其找出录音中运用used to的句子。 语言练习 教师让学生运用used to造句，写出自己在孩童时代常做的三件事情。完成后，学生们先互相检查，随后教师从中选出一些好的例句写于黑板上。 后续自选练习 将学生重新分组，重新进行这一任务，以提高完成任务的质量。在这次任务中，学生们须尽量使用used to,活动过程中，教师须纠正学生的语言错误。2017/4/828
30任务 将学生分为三人一组，让其讨论自己十年前与现在的差异，时间为三至五分钟。教师将下列问 题写于黑板上，让学生围绕这些问题展开讨论: 任务 将学生分为三人一组，让其讨论自己十年前与现在的差异，时间为三至五分钟。教师将下列问 题写于黑板上，让学生围绕这些问题展开讨论: * What did you look like? * What was different about your life? * Did you have different likes and dislikes? Different hobbies? * Are you very different now? 在此过程中，教师在各组之间走动，旁听讨论，但无须纠正学生的语言错误。 讨论任务后，教师让每组准备一篇讨论报告，总结各自在十年中的变化。准备时间为五分钟时 间。 总结报告 每组代表发言，将报告内容传达给全班同学。最后，全班选出一位在十年中变化最大的学生， 并让该学生将自己的照片展示给全班同学。 任务后的听力练习 教师可播放一段英美学生完成相同任务时的录音，让学生思考其中有哪些异同。活动中，可向 学生提出问题，并让其快速回答。例如:What did I say about my hair? What did I say about my job? 等等。如发现学生理解困难，教师可以重复播放录音。2017/4/830
31语言聚焦 为了让学生对目标语言有足够的认知，教师可从播放的录音中选择两个包含语法“used to” 的 句子，并写于黑板上。例如:I used to go to heavy metal concerts.或I used to have long black hair. 检查学生是否理解句子含义。例如，针对第一个例句，可提问: * Did I go to heavy metal concerts in the past? (Yes) * Was it a regular occurrence? (Yes) * Do I go to heavy metal concerts now? (No) 教师向学生讲解used to的用法（used to+不定式和didn’t use to +不定式），之后将录音 资料分发给学生，让其找出录音中运用used to的句子。 语言练习 教师让学生运用used to造句，写出自己在孩童时代常做的三件事情。完成后，学生们先互相 检查，随后教师从中选出一些好的例句写于黑板上。 后续自选练习 将学生重新分组，重新进行这一任务，以提高完成任务的质量。在这次任务中，学生们须尽量 使用used to,活动过程中，教师须纠正学生的语言错误。2017/4/831