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Hold firm to the truth as a lamp and a refuge, and do not look for refuge to anything besides yourself. A monk becomes his own lamp and refuge by continually.

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Presentation on theme: "Hold firm to the truth as a lamp and a refuge, and do not look for refuge to anything besides yourself. A monk becomes his own lamp and refuge by continually."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Hold firm to the truth as a lamp and a refuge, and do not look for refuge to anything besides yourself. A monk becomes his own lamp and refuge by continually looking on his body, feelings, perceptions, moods and ideas in such a manner that he conquers the cravings and depressions of ordinary men and is always strenuous, self possessed, and collected in the mind. Whoever among my monks does this, either now or when I am dead, if he is anxious to learn, will reach the summit.”

3 Buddhism 101 Founded: 6 th century BCE 6 th century BCE Founder: Siddhartha Gautama, otherwise known as the Buddha “Enlightened One” Siddhartha Gautama, otherwise known as the Buddha “Enlightened One” Place of Origin: India India Sacred Books: oldest and most important scriptures are the Tripitaka, (The Three Baskets of Wisdom) oldest and most important scriptures are the Tripitaka, (The Three Baskets of Wisdom) Number of Adherents: approximately 200 million close adherents, although some estimates surpass the 600 million mark. Precision is impossible… approximately 200 million close adherents, although some estimates surpass the 600 million mark. Precision is impossible… Distribution: predominant faith in Burma, Ceylon, Thailand and Indo-China. It also has followers in China, Korea, Mongolia and Japan. predominant faith in Burma, Ceylon, Thailand and Indo-China. It also has followers in China, Korea, Mongolia and Japan. Buddhists in Canada: upwards of 10, 000 upwards of 10, 000Sects: two principal schools are Mahayana and Theravadin (or Hinayana) Buddhism two principal schools are Mahayana and Theravadin (or Hinayana) Buddhism

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5 Attempts to give answers to life’s questionsAttempts to give answers to life’s questions Emphasis on “things to do” rather than “things to believe”Emphasis on “things to do” rather than “things to believe” Avoid speculative questions (creation, Supreme power, afterlife) since there was little possibility of definitive answers = instead spend time attempting to deal with the harsh realities presented by life here and nowAvoid speculative questions (creation, Supreme power, afterlife) since there was little possibility of definitive answers = instead spend time attempting to deal with the harsh realities presented by life here and now Tolerant to any religion that allows a person to find “truth” of himself/ herself. Believe that setting an example which others may emulate.Tolerant to any religion that allows a person to find “truth” of himself/ herself. Believe that setting an example which others may emulate. ULTIMATE GOAL= end suffering and attain absolute peace and joyULTIMATE GOAL= end suffering and attain absolute peace and joy Buddhism Basics

6 SIDDHARTHA GAUTAMA Siddhartha Gautama born 563 BCE into Kshatriya caste in present day Nepal Siddhartha Gautama born 563 BCE into Kshatriya caste in present day Nepal Kingdom of Gautama Kingdom of Gautama Siddhartha had a legendary birth, life and death Siddhartha had a legendary birth, life and death Prophecy given to his father… Prophecy given to his father… BUDDHA= ENLIGHTENED ONE

7 Miracles, miracles, miracles… Immaculate conception - Siddhartha descended from Heaven and entered mother’s (Queen Maya) womb in form of baby white elephant (purity) Immaculate conception - Siddhartha descended from Heaven and entered mother’s (Queen Maya) womb in form of baby white elephant (purity) Queen Maya carried Siddhartha for 10 months and could see him in the womb Queen Maya carried Siddhartha for 10 months and could see him in the womb Gave birth from her side with assistance from tree branches Gave birth from her side with assistance from tree branches Water poured from the sky Water poured from the sky At birth Siddhartha took 7 steps and said “this is my last birth” At birth Siddhartha took 7 steps and said “this is my last birth”

8 Four Sights King wanted to shelter Siddhartha from unpleasantness of life King wanted to shelter Siddhartha from unpleasantness of life At 29, Siddhartha visited the city with Channa and saw four sights: At 29, Siddhartha visited the city with Channa and saw four sights: 1) Old man 2) Sick man 3) Dead man 4) Ascetic monk

9 FOUR SIGHTS These sights compelled him to reflect upon: suffering suffering death death meaning of life meaning of life ultimate fate of man ultimate fate of man and inspired him to find a spiritual solution to problems of human life

10 He left his palace and for 7 years search for the ultimate truth of life Studied Hindu scriptures but found them lacking Tried raja yoga (meditation) but sensed his sacrifices were not great enough turned to asceticism and scourged and starved himself (1 grain of rice a day)= but no deep insight came Determined best course was the MIDDLE WAY (path between both extremes; a lifestyle of moderation)

11 ENLIGHTENMENT OF BUDDHA Under a Bodhi tree (tree of Wisdom) he meditated Under a Bodhi tree (tree of Wisdom) he meditated Remembered all of his previous lives Remembered all of his previous lives Resisted the combats of Mara (Evil One), who tried many temptations Resisted the combats of Mara (Evil One), who tried many temptations Removed craving and ignorance for himself Removed craving and ignorance for himself At dawn of his 35 th birthday, his mind “pierced the bubble” of the universe, enabling him to realize the essential truth about life and the path to salvation At dawn of his 35 th birthday, his mind “pierced the bubble” of the universe, enabling him to realize the essential truth about life and the path to salvation Achieved NIRVANA and was released from samsara Achieved NIRVANA and was released from samsara Stayed in this state for 7 days Stayed in this state for 7 days NIRVANA = state of supreme realization and enlightenment =understand truth of life and freedom from ignorance =state of total liberation, truth, tranquility, peace

12 ENLIGHTENMENT > NEW RELIGION After achieving enlightenment, Buddha wanted to share his experiences and insights with others and traveled to Benares and encountered five ascetics. After achieving enlightenment, Buddha wanted to share his experiences and insights with others and traveled to Benares and encountered five ascetics. Deer Park Sermon: outlined his enlightened thoughts and converted five ascetics as his first disciples Deer Park Sermon: outlined his enlightened thoughts and converted five ascetics as his first disciples Founded the SANGHA, the monastic brotherhood of Buddhism Founded the SANGHA, the monastic brotherhood of Buddhism Argued that no rituals, gods or any type of outside power could save man. The only salvation lies in the realization of the Four Noble Truths and the diligent pursuit of the Eight Fold Path Argued that no rituals, gods or any type of outside power could save man. The only salvation lies in the realization of the Four Noble Truths and the diligent pursuit of the Eight Fold Path Within years, Buddhist monasteries were emerging throughout India, establishing Buddhism as a religion Within years, Buddhist monasteries were emerging throughout India, establishing Buddhism as a religion The Buddha died in 486 BCE and achieved paranirvana (complete nirvana) The Buddha died in 486 BCE and achieved paranirvana (complete nirvana)

13 Hinduism vs Buddhism Born to Kshatriya caste Born to Kshatriya caste Believed to be incarnation of Vishnu (avatar) Believed to be incarnation of Vishnu (avatar) Buddha rejected Hindu belief that human inequality was based on hereditary distinctions and that salvation can only be achieved by elite few Buddha rejected Hindu belief that human inequality was based on hereditary distinctions and that salvation can only be achieved by elite few Same concepts: reincarnation, samsara, karma, dharma, nirvana, raja yoga (meditation which held the key to enlightenment and the salvation of nirvana) Same concepts: reincarnation, samsara, karma, dharma, nirvana, raja yoga (meditation which held the key to enlightenment and the salvation of nirvana) Rejected concepts: caste system, Hindu rituals and offerings to gods, theories, language of Sanskrit (he used Pali), nirvana only if Brahmin caste, refusal to accept authority of Vedas and Upanishads Rejected concepts: caste system, Hindu rituals and offerings to gods, theories, language of Sanskrit (he used Pali), nirvana only if Brahmin caste, refusal to accept authority of Vedas and Upanishads Buddhism view of Women: more equal in stance compared to Hinduism; women may endure more “suffering” (ie. childbirth). Buddha allowed either men or women from any caste to become monks or nuns and join the Sangha (brotherhood) Buddhism view of Women: more equal in stance compared to Hinduism; women may endure more “suffering” (ie. childbirth). Buddha allowed either men or women from any caste to become monks or nuns and join the Sangha (brotherhood)

14 3 Characteristics of Existence Annica= impermanence (world in constant flux) Annica= impermanence (world in constant flux) Dukkha= dissatisfaction (all humans and animals experience suffering) Dukkha= dissatisfaction (all humans and animals experience suffering) Anatta= no self (no separate, eternal unchanging self) Anatta= no self (no separate, eternal unchanging self) DUKKHA ANATTA ANNICA

15 FOUR NOBLE TRUTHS

16 4 NOBLE TRUTHS 1.Suffering -all life consists of suffering (dukkha) 2. Origin of Suffering -root of suffering is desire (tanha) 3. Extinction of Suffering -way to end suffering is by overcoming desire (tanha) 4. Path to Extinction of Suffering -to overcome desire, one must follow the Middle Way and 8 fold Path

17 Fundamental Ethics of Buddhism is the Eightfold Path. Buddhist scriptures are filled with stories illustrating compassion, Charity and non-violence

18 FIVE PRECEPTS 1) Abstain from killing or harming living beings 2) Abstain from stealing 3) Abstain from improper sexual conduct 4) Abstain from false speech 5) Abstain from taking alcohol and harmful drugs

19 More Numbers and Concepts… Triple Jewel or Three Refuges: Buddha (guide), Dharma (path), Sangha (teachers) Triple Jewel or Three Refuges: Buddha (guide), Dharma (path), Sangha (teachers) Six Perfections: giving, morality, patience, vigour, meditation and wisdom Six Perfections: giving, morality, patience, vigour, meditation and wisdom Bodhisattva: person who has attained nirvana but chooses to be reborn within samsara in order to help others on path of enlightenment Bodhisattva: person who has attained nirvana but chooses to be reborn within samsara in order to help others on path of enlightenment Nirvana: escape from cycle of rebirth (based on karma, 8-fold path, enlightenment) to attain perfect freedom and bliss Nirvana: escape from cycle of rebirth (based on karma, 8-fold path, enlightenment) to attain perfect freedom and bliss

20 Practices Meditation- lotus posture Meditation- lotus posture Bowing (three times) Bowing (three times) Offerings & Chanting Mantras: “Om Mani Padme Hum” which means “Hail, the jewel in the lotus” Offerings & Chanting Mantras: “Om Mani Padme Hum” which means “Hail, the jewel in the lotus” Karma Karma Puja Puja Dana (donations) Dana (donations) Mudras Mudras Monastic Ideal Monastic Ideal

21 Symbols Wheel of Life Wheel of Life Mandala Mandala Lotus Flower Lotus Flower Stupa Stupa Temples Temples Swastika Swastika Buddhapada Buddhapada

22 Sacred Writings Tripitaka (Three Baskets) ~ almost pages long and principal source for the life and teachings of Buddha ~ considered to be the most accurate of Buddha’s teachings which consist of: Vinaya- Pitaka: Basket of Discipline (rules for Sangha or monks) Vinaya- Pitaka: Basket of Discipline (rules for Sangha or monks) Sutta- Pitaka: Basket of Discourse (discourses between Buddha and his disciples = main body of Buddhist belief) Sutta- Pitaka: Basket of Discourse (discourses between Buddha and his disciples = main body of Buddhist belief) Abidhamma- Pitiaka: Basket of Further Teachings (views on the nature of the universe) Abidhamma- Pitiaka: Basket of Further Teachings (views on the nature of the universe)

23 Spread of Buddhism During Buddha’s lifetime, Buddhism gained a significant foothold in India emergence of hundreds of monasteries further spread the message of Buddha Expansion of Buddhism increased with the acceptance in 3 rd century BCE by India’s emperor Ashoka Spread towards Burma, Thailand, Vietnam, Cambodia and Laos By 6 th century BCE, spread to Nepal, Sikkim, Tibet, Mongolia, China, Japan, Korea

24 Schools of Buddhism Sects emerged due to disputes over translation and interpretation of Buddha’s teachings, but share common belief of the Four Noble Truths and Eightfold Path Sects emerged due to disputes over translation and interpretation of Buddha’s teachings, but share common belief of the Four Noble Truths and Eightfold Path 1) Theravada or Hinayana: conservative, key virtue is wisdom and Buddha is revered as a teacher / saint (Burma, Laos, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Cambodia) 2) Mahayana: liberal, ideal is the bodhisattva who follows example of Buddha and remains in world to serve his fellows (China, Vietnam, Korea) 3) Vajrayana: Trantric Buddhism- emphasis on rituals, mantras and visual mandalas; Dalai Lama (god-kings) living incarnations of previous holy beings (Tibet, Bhutan, Nepal) 4) Zen Buddhism: emphasis on meditation to achieve inspiration (satori) which brings enlightenment; less emphasis on scripture, rituals, worship (Japan)

25 Religion or Philosophy? Religion Attempts to examine the meaning of life and universe Attempts to examine the meaning of life and universe Provides an ethical standard and an overall goal beyond this life Provides an ethical standard and an overall goal beyond this life Despite Buddha’s wishes, he was defied after his death by some of his followers Despite Buddha’s wishes, he was defied after his death by some of his followers Buddhism has taken on rituals, sacrifices, temple worship, elaborate scriptures and complex doctrines Buddhism has taken on rituals, sacrifices, temple worship, elaborate scriptures and complex doctrinesPhilosophy No sacrifices, worship, prayers, rituals No sacrifices, worship, prayers, rituals Rejected the principle of authority in religious matters Rejected the principle of authority in religious matters No god personified father figure who created and presided over the universe No god personified father figure who created and presided over the universe Buddha- not proclaimed as a god but stated that he was “awake” and could point the way for an individual towards salvation Buddha- not proclaimed as a god but stated that he was “awake” and could point the way for an individual towards salvation

26 The 14 th Dalai Lama Tenzin Gyatso aka Teshe Norbu meaning “Kundun- The Presence” Tenzin Gyatso aka Teshe Norbu meaning “Kundun- The Presence” Dalai Lama means “Ocean of Wisdom” Dalai Lama means “Ocean of Wisdom” Manifestation of the Bodhisattva of Compassion, Avalokiteshvara Manifestation of the Bodhisattva of Compassion, Avalokiteshvara Recognized at age 2 Recognized at age 2 Assumed full political power at age 16 Assumed full political power at age 16 Resides in Northern India leading organization called the Tibetan Government in Exile Resides in Northern India leading organization called the Tibetan Government in Exile Established educational, cultural and religious institutions to preserve Tibetan identity and heritage Established educational, cultural and religious institutions to preserve Tibetan identity and heritage Reputation as a scholar and man of peace Reputation as a scholar and man of peace Received Nobel Peace Prize in 1989 Received Nobel Peace Prize in 1989

27 Impact of Buddhism Buddhism elevated the level of religious life and thought in most Asia Buddhism elevated the level of religious life and thought in most Asia Forced Hinduism to remedy some of its abuses and revitalize its teachings Forced Hinduism to remedy some of its abuses and revitalize its teachings Major effect upon philosophy, education, literature and art of south Asia, India (Gupta period), China (T’ang Dynasty) and Japan (Zen Buddhism) Major effect upon philosophy, education, literature and art of south Asia, India (Gupta period), China (T’ang Dynasty) and Japan (Zen Buddhism) However, many argue Buddhism has discouraged social progress (since it accepts life as full of suffering and does not produce a great concern or solutions regarding poverty, illiteracy, illness, pollution etc.) However, many argue Buddhism has discouraged social progress (since it accepts life as full of suffering and does not produce a great concern or solutions regarding poverty, illiteracy, illness, pollution etc.) Spread of Communism (Communist takeover of China in 1949) led to nationalization of monasteries and all revenues) > government in exile in Tibet Spread of Communism (Communist takeover of China in 1949) led to nationalization of monasteries and all revenues) > government in exile in Tibet


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