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‘Jesus’ vs ‘Muhammad’ Roxbury AUG 2011. PARADIGMS JESUS – Christianity MUHAMMAD – Islam.

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Presentation on theme: "‘Jesus’ vs ‘Muhammad’ Roxbury AUG 2011. PARADIGMS JESUS – Christianity MUHAMMAD – Islam."— Presentation transcript:

1 ‘Jesus’ vs ‘Muhammad’ Roxbury AUG 2011

2 PARADIGMS JESUS – Christianity MUHAMMAD – Islam

3 [1]JESUS IN ISLAM Muslims honour Jesus, and consider him a great prophet. He is mentioned in 15 suras and 93 verses. Some Muslim scholars follow the ideas of the ‘Jesus Seminar’…Historical Jesus ≠ ‘Jesus of Faith’ –They don’t understand the pre-suppositional base used by the group: no miracles, ‘Hillel’ precedent, etc… Others take on Hyam Maccaby’s criticism, that the gospel of Jesus is a creation of Paul. Muhammad ‘Ata ur Rahim, believes Jesus was a member of the Essene brotherhood. Thus, we need to do a comparison of the Jesus of the Bible vs. the ‘Isa’ of the Qur’an.

4 Qur’anic Names for Jesus: More honourable Titles (eleven) to Jesus than to any other person: Statement of truth (Sura 17:24) vs. ‘Way the truth and the life’ (John 14:6) Word (Sura 10:19) vs. the ‘Word’ (John 1:1) Apostle (Sura 19:31) vs. Apostle (Hebrews 3:1) Servant (Sura 4:172; 19:31) vs. Servant (Isaiah 42, 49, 50 & 53) (Sign, Witness, Example, Messiah, Son of Mary, Messenger, and Spirit of God)

5 ‘Isa’ -Appears 25 times in the Qur’an. -The origin of the word is not clear: Historically Christian Arabs used ‘Yesuah’ which is more grammatically correct. Is it Esau: from Arabian Jews who believed Esau’s soul transferred onto Jesus? Or from the ‘Isaniya’, followers of Isa, from a group in Syria in 571 AD? Did it come from the Syriac ‘Iesous’?* Thus, ‘Isa’ is uniquely Qur’anic! -BUT the Qur’anic name is not simply ‘Isa’, by itself:

6 ‘Isa ibn Maryam’ ‘Isa’, son of Mary’, occurs 23 times. –Possibly chosen in contradistinction to son of God, to show he was human. –Found only once in the Bible. –Used by Syriac sources, influencing 70% of all Qur’anic religious terms. –Problem: (S.19:28-29; 66:12; 20:25-30) How was Mary, Jesus’ mother, Aaron’s sister and Imran’s daughter (Numbers 26), as she lived 1,570 years later? –Luke 3 tells us ‘Heli’ was Mary’s father…

7 ‘Isa al masihu’ ‘Isa’, the messiah (11 times). –JESUS: Insous = Joshua - ‘The Lord our Salvation’ –Yesua or Yeshua (Arabic / Heb.) –MESSIAH: (known in Arabic as al Masihu) found 11 times in the Qur’an –All in the later Medinan suras, but never defined. –The meaning has been declared to be unclear by some Muslim scholars. –But is used in Morocco for the king (referred to as the ‘anointed one’). –We know the Messiah is ‘the anointed one’…anointed to save, a function of God! –Thus a puzzle for Muslims, emphasizing his humanity, while a great bridge for us.

8 [2]HISTORICAL COMPARISON

9 Qur’anic Historical ‘Isa’ Sectarian Influences (s ource Criticism): Monarchists: (2 nd C.)God has no children (sura 4:171; 19:34) Docetists (late 1st C.): Jesus didn’t die (sura 4: ) Monophysites - Cholloridian (4th C.) Maryolatry: Mary in the Trinity (sura 5:116) Nestorians (5th C.): Jesus = God-chosen human (sura 3:42-48, 51, 59; 4:171; 5: ;19:30, 34-35)

10 Further Sources: Imran & Zachariah (Mary’s Father & patron) (S.3:35-37) vs. Proto-Evangelion’s James the Lesser (2 nd C.) Jesus Speaks from the Cradle (3:46; 5:110; 19:29-30) vs. ‘First Gospel of Infancy of J.C.’ (2 nd c.) Jesus & Mary being fed by the Palm tree (S.19:22-26) vs. ‘Lost book of the Bible’ (2 nd C.) Jesus creating Birds from clay (S.3:49; 5:110) vs. ‘Thomas’ Gospel of the Infancy of J.C.’ (2 nd C.)

11 Syriac Influences: from 2nd – 5th C., Eastern Syria Progression Of Mary: –1–1st C. = Minor role: mother of Jesus –5–5th C. = Major Role: Eternal Virgin, Mediator, Holy Woman, Pious, greater than Jesus –7–7th C. = Major Role: (S.3 & 19): Eternal Virgin, Lives in Temple, above all women, Pious Digression Of Joseph: –1–1st C. = Mentioned often, –5–5th C. = Few times, –7–7th C. = Non-Existent Suggests Qur’anic material borrowed from Syriac sources, after 5th C., and not 1st C.

12 Biblically Historical Jesus If we want to know more details about the life of Christ, then we need to look at historical sources, writings which were close to the event, not only to the time period of Jesus, but close to the place he lived, in Palestine.

13 There are accounts of Jesus which are close to the time, and the place Christ lived; written in the late first and early second century, and written by non- Christian Jewish and Roman historians. Let us look at some of these latter documents first:

14 Thallus and Phlegon (Greek - 52 AD): two 1 st - century historians who debate the cause of the darkness in the middle of the day, and the terrible earthquake Tacitus Roman historian (80 ‑ 84AD): death of Jesus, during reign of Tiberius, by Pontius Pilate of Judea (Lk.3:1) Josephus, a Jewish historian who lived from AD 37 to 90, wrote the following in his ‘Antiquities of the Jews’. –‘‘And there arose about this time a source of new trouble, one Jesus. He was a doer of marvellous deeds. This man was the so-called Christ and when Pilate had condemned him to the Cross, those who had loved him did not cease - for he appeared to them, as they said, on the third day alive again.” Lucian of Samosata, a Satirist - early second century, who referred to Christ as –‘the man who was crucified in Palestine because he introduced a new cult into the world’. Seutonius, who refers to Christians as being –‘given over to a new and mischievous superstition’. Pliny the Younger (112 AD) advices Trajan on killing Christians, a community who sang to Christ as to "God"

15 N. T. WRIGHT – on Josephus Jesus in the 1 st Century: –Kingdom of God –Laws of God –Temple of God VS. Isa in the Qur’an

16 [3]HISTORICAL MUHAMMAD

17 IThe Classical Account 570Muhammad was born 570Muhammad was born 610Met ‘Jibril’ in the Hira Cave 610Met ‘Jibril’ in the Hira Cave Received ‘Meccan Revelations’ Received ‘Meccan Revelations’ 622‘Hijra’ from Mecca to Medina 622‘Hijra’ from Mecca to Medina Received ‘Medinan Revelations’ Received ‘Medinan Revelations’ 624 ‘Mi’raj’ to the 7 heavens (5 prayers) 624 ‘Mi’raj’ to the 7 heavens (5 prayers) 630Conquered Mecca peacefully 630Conquered Mecca peacefully 632 Died (poisoning?)…no written Qur’an 632 Died (poisoning?)…no written Qur’an 1/15/2015

18 The Late Dates: The Late Dates: 1/15/2015 Problem with His biography

19 Late Dates:Late Dates: Nothing before 800 AD:Nothing before 800 AD: Sira (Hisham=833AD), Sira (Hisham=833AD), Hadith (Bukhari=870AD, Mishkat al-Masabih 14th C.), Hadith (Bukhari=870AD, Mishkat al-Masabih 14th C.), Tafsir, Tarikh Tafsir, Tarikh –(Tabari=923AD,–(Tabari=923AD, –al-Baladhuri=892,–al-Baladhuri=892, –az-Zamakshari=1144,–az-Zamakshari=1144, –al-Baydawi=1282,–al-Baydawi=1282, –as-Suyuti=1502)–as-Suyuti=1502) Thus, not Primary but Secondary revelation Thus, not Primary but Secondary revelation 1/15/2015

20 Problem with the Late Dates: Since almost all the material available to us concerning the life of Muhammad, and the emergence of Islam from the 7 th c. (i.e. that of the Sira, Hadith, Tafsir, Ta’rikh), is not compiled until the 9 th - 10 th c., Orientalists (from the Revisionist’s School) believe it cannot be trusted. Since almost all the material available to us concerning the life of Muhammad, and the emergence of Islam from the 7 th c. (i.e. that of the Sira, Hadith, Tafsir, Ta’rikh), is not compiled until the 9 th - 10 th c., Orientalists (from the Revisionist’s School) believe it cannot be trusted. 1/15/2015

21  Thus, “if knowledge of the life of Muhammad was transmitted orally for a century before it was reduced to writing, then the chances are that the material will have undergone considerable alteration in the process” (Cook 1983:65)  So, Cook & Cröne went to Greek, Syriac, and Armenian sources from the 7 th-8th c. & found a contrasting picture to the later Islamic Traditions.  They sought to step outside the Islamic Traditions and start again, piecing together an original account from non-Islamic sources of Muhammad’s time. The two together wrote “Hagarism”…a sort of “What if” in 26 pages, supported by 226 notes in a further 27 pages (Robinson 1996:47)  Conclusion: They suggested that the history of Islam, including the life of Muhammad, upto at least the time of the caliph Abd al-Malik is fraudulent!!!! Further Problems ↓ 1/15/2015

22 Uri Rubin Rubin examines how the image of the Prophet was perceived by believers throughout the various evolving versions of his life. The contents of the texts are a reflection of the state of mind of the believers among whom the texts were created, preserved, and circulated over the ages. Rubin examines how the image of the Prophet was perceived by believers throughout the various evolving versions of his life. The contents of the texts are a reflection of the state of mind of the believers among whom the texts were created, preserved, and circulated over the ages. Medieval Islam was preoccupied with portraying its prophet in a manner comparable to the biblical prophets. Biblical themes were adopted from the stories of the prophets, adapted to fit an Arabian situation, and applied to the biography of Muhammad. Medieval Islam was preoccupied with portraying its prophet in a manner comparable to the biblical prophets. Biblical themes were adopted from the stories of the prophets, adapted to fit an Arabian situation, and applied to the biography of Muhammad. Take the example of the battle of Badr: Al-Miqdad provides the same response regarding the Children of Israel, contrasting their inferiority against the superiority of the Arabs. “The entire Arabian umma as one collective group constitutes here the new chosen community that replaces the Children of Israel.” Take the example of the battle of Badr: Al-Miqdad provides the same response regarding the Children of Israel, contrasting their inferiority against the superiority of the Arabs. “The entire Arabian umma as one collective group constitutes here the new chosen community that replaces the Children of Israel.”

23 Credibility: John Wansbrough ( ): John Wansbrough ( ): (Qur’anic Studies: Sources and Methods of Scriptural Interpretation 1977) (The Sectarian Milieu: Content and Composition of Islamic Salvation History 1978) The compilers took their material from collections compiled within the decades around 800 A.D., and not from any documents which were written in the seventh century, and certainly not from the person of Muhammad or his companions (Humphreys 1991:73, 83; Schacht 1949: : ; 145; Goldziher Goldziher :72). The compilers took their material from collections compiled within the decades around 800 A.D., and not from any documents which were written in the seventh century, and certainly not from the person of Muhammad or his companions (Humphreys 1991:73, 83; Schacht 1949: : ; 145; Goldziher Goldziher :72). The Maghazi, which are stories of the prophet's battles and campaigns, are the earliest Muslim documents which we possess. They should have given us the best snapshot of that time, yet they tell us little concerning the prophet's life or teachings. In fact, oddly enough nowhere in these documents is there a veneration of Muhammad as a prophet! The Maghazi, which are stories of the prophet's battles and campaigns, are the earliest Muslim documents which we possess. They should have given us the best snapshot of that time, yet they tell us little concerning the prophet's life or teachings. In fact, oddly enough nowhere in these documents is there a veneration of Muhammad as a prophet! 1/15/2015

24 Yehuda D. Nevo (1994) Yehuda D. Nevo (1994) “Towards a Prehistory of Islam,” Jerusalem Studies in Arabic and Islam, vol.17, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, 1994 Arabic Inscriptions found in the Arabian Desert form the mid to late 7 th century, say nothing about a people called ‘Muslim’, nor a religion known as ‘Islam’, nor of a revelation called the ‘Qur’an’, yet they should! Arabic Inscriptions found in the Arabian Desert form the mid to late 7 th century, say nothing about a people called ‘Muslim’, nor a religion known as ‘Islam’, nor of a revelation called the ‘Qur’an’, yet they should! Caliphal Protocals (Sufyani and earlyMarwanid Periods, upto ‘Abd al-Malik – 691) = no reference to ‘Muhammad as a prophet’, or a reference to the ‘Shahada’ Caliphal Protocals (Sufyani and earlyMarwanid Periods, upto ‘Abd al-Malik – 691) = no reference to ‘Muhammad as a prophet’, or a reference to the ‘Shahada’ ”Muhammad Formula” is created ‘almost overnight’ ”Muhammad Formula” is created ‘almost overnight’

25 [4]PEACE VS VIOLENCE 1/15/2015

26 Looking at the Qur’an: The Peace Verses: Sura 2:256 = “For there is no compulsion in religion” “Law of Abrogation” (Suras 2:106, 16:101) “That which we give, we give something better”(Mansukh vs. Nasikh) Thus, Sura 2:256 is a weak verse, abrogated by 101 verses which follow!

27 Sura 2: = “Those who fight you, Do not transgress limits, / …and slay them wherever ye catch them, and fight them, until there prevail faith in Allah”

28 A Moderate Interpretation: Sura 5:31-32 (raven, and blood of Abel) “we ordained for the Children of Israel that if anyone slew a person…it would be as if he slew the whole people; and if anyone saved a life, it would be as if he saved the life of the whole people...”

29 A Radical Interpretation: Sura 5:31-32 “we ordained for the Children of Israel that if anyone slew a MUSLIM…it would be as if he slew ALL MUSLIMS; and if anyone saved A MUSLIM, it would be as if he saved the life of ALL MUSLIMS...”

30 The Medinan Sword Verse: Sura 9:5: = “But when the forbidden months are past, then fight and slay those who join other gods with Allah wherever you find them; besiege them, seize them, lay in wait for them with every kind of ambush..”

31 Sword Verse against Christians, Jews: Sura 9:29 = “...Make war upon such of those to whom the scriptures have been given as believe not in Allah, or in the last day, and who forbid not what Allah and his apostle have forbidden...until they pay tribute...”

32 Methodology of Sword Verses: Sura 47:4 = ”When you encounter the unbelievers, strike off their heads, until ye have made a great slaughter among them...” Sura 8:38-39 = “Unbelievers…And fight them on until there is no more Tumult or oppression, and there prevail Justice and faith in Allah”

33 Recompense for those who die in Jihad: Sura 4:74 = “Let those who fight in the cause of Allah who sell the life of this world for the hereafter. To him who fighteth in the cause of Allah, whether he is slain or gets victory, Soon shall we give him a reward of great value” Sura 47:4-6 = “…But those who are killed in the way of Allah, He will never let their deeds be lost…and admit them to Paradise”

34 The Qur’an’s 149 Sword Verses: 1. 2: : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :008

35 How should these verses be exegeted? The example of Muhammad: Their Paradigm His biography: ‘Sira-t-ul rasul-Allah’, His Sayings: Hadith The Maghazi: 29 battles fought 39 battles planned

36 The example of Muhammad: With those Under his Jurisdiction: 1. The Jews After Badr - Banu Qaynuka After Uhud - Banu al Nadir After the Trench – Banu Quraiza 2. Those who Criticized him: Asma the poetess, and Umair the blind disciple Around 25 were assassinated

37 a With these Scriptures, and the example of the prophet Muhammad, can you then understand why so many within Islam today are saying what they are saying, and doing what they are doing? Their authority, they believe, is that of ‘holy writ’, a divine authority, modelled by the greatest and clearest paradigm for Mankind, for all peoples, all places, and for all times… including the West…today. SO, WHAT ABOUT PEACE W/ JESUS?

38 Looking at Peace in the Bible Old Testament = ‘Shalom’ Wars were divinely ordained campaigns God used them to judge the sinful nations of the world (Lev. 18:25-28; 20:22; Deut.18:9-14; 2Kings 21:9) Dependency on Divine intervention for God’s Weak people: –Egypt (plagues): Ex.7-12 –Jericho (Walls): Josh 6:20 –Amorites (Sun): Josh 10:12-13 –Canaanite (Rain): Judg.5 –Midianites (Confusion): Judg.7 –Arameans (Blindness): 2Ki.6:8 –Assyrians (Strikes): 2Ki.19:35-37 –Easterners (Ambush): 2Chr.20

39 Peace found in: –Bodily Health, stability (Lev.26:6; Job 5:23) –welfare (2Sam.20:19) –family relationships (Gen.29:6; 37:4; 43:23-28) –friendships (Gen.43:27; Ex.18:28) –Persue Peace (Ps.34:14) –Israel’s peace (Num.6:24-26) –God’s relationship (2Sam.20:19; 1Kings 8:61) –Inner spiritual peace (Num.6:26; Ps.4:8; Isa.45:7) –Goal of war is Peace (Ps.72:7; 122:6-8) Messiah = ‘Prince of Peace’ (Isa.9:5-7; Mic.5:4-5) And when he comes: “Beat [our] swords into ploughshares and [our] spears into pruning hooks. Nation will not take up sword against nation, nor will they train for war anymore” (Isaiah 2:4)

40 New Testament = Eiréné ( state of Peace, opposite of War: Matt.10:34; Lk.12:51) Matthew 5:9 “Blessed are the Peacemakers” Matthew 5:39-44 “whoever slaps you on your right cheek, turn the other to him also. love your enemies and pray for those who persecute you MATTHEW 22:37-40 “YOU SHALL LOVE THE LORD YOUR GOD WITH ALL YOUR HEART, AND WITH ALL YOUR SOUL, AND WITH ALL YOUR MIND.''YOU SHALL LOVE YOUR NEIGHBOR AS YOURSELF. On these two commandments depend the whole Law and the Prophets.“ Matthew 26:52 ”Put away your sword, Jesus said to him, for all who live by the sword will die by the sword” (Lk.22:49-51; Jn 18:11)

41 Luke 6:27 “Love your enemies” ROMANS 10:15 Gospel is “the Gospel of Peace”, which is to be Preached (Acts 10:36; Eph.6:15) ROMANS 12:18 “If possible, so far as it depends on you, be at peace with all men” 2 COR.13:11 “live in peace, and the God of love and peace will be with you” COLOSSIANS 3:15 “Let the peace of Christ rule in your hearts” 1 THESS.5:13-16 “Live in peace with one another… See that no one repays evil for evil, but always seek after that which is good for one another and for all people” 1 PETER 3:11 “Seek Peace, and pursue it”

42 Peace between Husbands & Wives Love one’s wife: 1 Pet. 3:7, Col. 3:19 “husbands must love your wives & NEVER treat them harshly.” Ephesians 5 ‘A man must love his wife as Christ loved the church, and be willing to die for her’

43 Jesus’ teaching for Christians: Instead of Violence – Suffering (Matt. 5:38-39) Instead of Vengeance – Forgiveness (Matt.6:14-15; Luke 17:3-4; 23:34) Instead of Greed – Sharing (Luke 12:33-34: 18:22) Instead of Domination – Service (Luke 22:24-27) Instead of Hatred – Love (Matt.5:43-45; Luke 6:27-31)

44 Problem Passages: Temple Cleansing: (Mt. 21:12-13; Mk.11:15- 18; Lk.19:45-46; Jn.2:13-17) On animals, no violence, but authoritative words Not bring Peace, but Sword: (Mt.10:34; 12:51) Consequence of commission, and not sword, but ‘Word of God’ (“sharper than any double-edged sword” Heb.4:12) ‘Swords’ at Last Supper: (Lk.22:36-38) Be ready to defend against thieves, exampled with dinner knives. See its application the next day…with Peter (Mt. 26:52).

45 What about the Crusades, Inquisition? Ask criteria for their displeasure “One should not eradicate others for their God”…agree with them. Use Jesus as our paradigm, to condemn the crusades. Take them to the prophet’s example in Medina Then ask them to condemn that example Show them that we uniquely have the moral high ground on this issue…proving the relevance of Jesus.

46 CONCLUSIONS: If you want to find peace: –Don’t go to the Qur’an –Don’t go to the Prophet Muhammad –GO TO THE NEW TESTAMENT! –GO TO JESUS CHRIST! The whole world is looking for PEACE There is only one real source for it… –And WE HAVE IT!!

47 [5]PROBLEMS W/ JESUS

48 WHERE DOES JESUS CLAIM DIVINITY? Deut. 6:4 = “The Lord our God, the Lord is ONE” Phil. 2:11 = “Jesus Christ is Lord” Divine Titles: Matthe26:62-66 (Mark 14:61-64) Jesus before the Sanhedrin –vs. 63 = ‘Christ (Messiah ) –vs. 63 = Son of God –vs. 64 = ‘Son of Man’ (Daniel 7:14) John 8:58 = ‘Yahweh’

49 Deity of Jesus cont. Jesus claimed to be ‘God’: –John 1:1 “In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God” –John 20:28 “Thomas said to him ‘My Lord and My God’!” –Hebrews 1:8-9 “[God] says, ‘Your throne, O God will last forever and ever...therefore God, your God, has set you above your companions...’”

50 HOW CAN JESUS BE THE SON OF GOD? Sura 4:171: “Isa was a messenger...His Word...a spirit...not three...Allah is above having a son” – Cannot have a SON Sura 5:72: “...whosoever sets up partners...” – Cannot have PARTNERS Sura 5:75: “They (Mary & Jesus) both used to eat food” – Cannot eat FOOD Sura 5:116: “Worship me (Isa) and my mother (Mary) as two gods besides Allah” – Cannot have MARY in the TRINITY Sura 6:101: “...He (Allah) has no wife” – Cannot have a WIFE VS. Surah 39:4

51 HOW CAN GOD BECOME A MAN? ↑↓Not man becoming God ↑, but God becoming man ↓ (Phil.2:6-8) Can God do anything, in his omnipotence? Thus, can he become a man? Yes! So not how, but why! To Erradicate SIN Must remind them of theophanies (burning bush, Angel with Abraham, Jacob wrestling etc...) Mk 14:61-62 = Son of the Blessed One, and ‘Son of Man’ = Dan.7:13-14 = authority, glory, sovereign power, worship, dominion Issa - Jesus = God’s Word (S. 4:171; John 1:1) God’s Word = uncreated: Sura 85:22 (uncreated eternal tablets = mother of books S.43:4) Jesus = ‘Spirit proceeding from God’ (S. 4:171), ‘supported by the Holy Spirit’ (S. 12:87; 58:22), Spirit = Essence of God (S.2:253) Jesus= unique: Sinless (S. 19:19), born of virgin (S. 21:91), gave life to birds & the dead, healed, miraculous knowledge (S.3:49)

52 HOW CAN GOD BE ONE OF A TRINITY? Don’t initiate the discussion on the trinity. Don’t trust your opinion, nor your experience, but what the Bible says, in both the Old Testament and New Testament (see Blackham’s paper) The word ‘Trinity’ is not in the Bible, nor ‘Tawhid’ in the Qur’an? Tri-unity (coined by Tertullian 125 A.D.). Not mathematical (1+1+1, or 1x1x1, or  x  x  ) but organic: (i.e.: son, father, husband, brother, pen, water, sun, author, egg, body mind and spirit); not Sabellian (3 consecutive ‘gods’) nor Arian (‘man becomes God’)

53 Trinity cont. Qur’an stands against ‘Christian’ polytheism (S.4:17;5:73), but has a mistaken trinity, as it includes Mary (Sura 5:116) Qur’an = Jesus = God’s word, both eternal (S.85:22) ≠ ‘Tawhid’ since if Qur’an was created (Mutazilites) then at one time God was without his word Many mysteries we can’t explain (i.e. God’s omnipresence, eternity, virgin birth, or electricity etc...), yet we accept them

54 Trinity cont. Allah’s names include Love, Mercy & Compassion: yet all 3 require objects, so these names only exist due to Man’s creation, & not found or exampled in a 1-dimensional monad Allah, but found & exemplified in a trinitarian context! So Allah requires Man’s existence, while Yahweh chooses Man’s existence Personal man isn’t from impersonal God - except as Imago Dei (Gen.1:26-27) The Tawhid of Allah breeds totalitarian Ummah (many swallowed into the 1), exampled in Muslim family, community… The Trinity of Yahweh breeds individuals relating in community, exampled in Christian families, communities… Islamic trinity = Allah (S.13:16; 14:10), Ruh (S.50:16; 56:83), & Eternal tablets (S.85:22) Baptism of Christ (Luke 3:22)=voice of God the father, dove as spirit of God, and Son as Jesus. (Matt.6:11-13 = Lord’s Prayer)

55 Crucifixion of Jesus in the Qur’an: Primary Verses to be considered: Baidawi (1286 AD) changed 19:15, & 33 to the future, to 2nd coming (for 40 yrs.) because of the need to reconcile it with 4: , thus an internal contradiction.. Jesus will be taken up is promised in 3:55, 5:117

56 The main passage is: Sura 4: ) The Jews believe that they had killed Jesus. 2) God reveals that they definitely did not. Jesus was not killed nor crucified. 3) There was someone else (not named) who looked like Jesus who died in his place. 4) God instead took up Jesus, like an ascension.

57 Why must Jesus not have been crucified? The sovereignty of God; that Allah would not allow his prophets to suffer (S. 3: ) Islamic understanding of salvation - that no atonement is needed, since no one can pay for another’s sin (S.6:164; 53:38) –What about Garden of Eden, & Jesus’ sin?

58 Various Explanations by Muslim scholars: Al Baidawi (1286 AD)... ‘God took Jesus to heaven, The likeness was on someone else who died’. (Taken from Mani, a Persian in 276AD) –‘God took Jesus to heaven in his sleep’ (Taken from ‘Gospel of Peter’, 2nd C. Docetic heresy) Al-Zamakhshari.. ‘They imagined Jesus was crucified. But Jesus is alive in heaven’. –‘The substitution of a person for Jesus... Judas, another Jew, or Simon of Cyrene’ (Taken from Basilides, a Gnostic writer) Ahmadiyya view = Swoon Theory, ‘Jesus swooned, died later & was buried in Kashmir’ (Taken from the ‘Gospel of John’, 2nd C. Docetic heresy). Conclusion: there is no resurrection as there was no death.

59 Sources for these stories: Taken from 2nd cent. Docetic (Jesus only seemed physical) & Gnostic writings. The Apocryphal Gospel of Peter: “Jesus was taken up” (Sura 3:55) The Apocryphal Gospel of John: Jesus appeared to John in a cave, saying the sufferings did not happen to him. (Sura 4:157) Mani (Persian, 276AD): “The widow of Nain’s son was substituted for Jesus” (Sura 4:157) Basilides (Gnostic writer): “Jesus changed forms with Simon of Cyrene, a substitution” (Sura 5:116) Ignatius writes against them, quoting them when they say, “Jesus suffered in semblance”

60 Problems if Sura 4:157 is true: Qur’anic Confusion: Sura 19:33,15 “Blessed be on me, the day I was born, the day I Die, and the day I rise again” (Jesus & Yaxya) Theological Confusion: (S.6:164; 53:38)? Can one pay for another’s sin, since this goes against the Qur’anic objection on atonement Eye-Witnesses Confusion: Three eye-witnesses vs. one supposition years later (4 gospels vs. 1 Quran), who do you believe? Eyewitnesses Extra-Biblical Confusion:(Thallus = 50AD, Josephus 80-90AD, Tacitus 80AD, Pliny the Younger 112AD) Moral Confusion: (Sura 4: ) Is God deceitful, since he uses another man to die in Jesus’ place, and then tells no-one for 600 years?

61 Jesus vs. Muhammad 1.At His birth Jesus was born of a Virgin (19:20 & 7:14) 2.As a baby Jesus speaks from the cradle (3:46; 5:110; 19:29-30) –Did Muhammad speak as an infant? 3.As a child Jesus & Mary are fed miraculously by a Palm tree (S.19:22-26) –Was Muhammad ever fed miraculously? 4.As a child Jesus creates birds from clay (S.3:49; 5:110) –Could Muhammad create anything? 5.In adulthood 3:49 & 5:110 Jesus heals the lepers, gives sight to the blind, and raises the dead -Did Muhammad heal, give sight, or raise from the Dead? 6.Jesus was uniquely referred to as the ‘righteous one’ (19:19) -Was Muhammad sinless? No, see Sura 48:2 ‘Ask forgiveness for your Sins of the past & future’

62 CONCLUSIONS: Jesus is important to the Qur’an, referred to 93 times, but he’s not the Biblical ‘Jesus’ Qur’an uses the wrong name: ‘Isa’ (Syriac?) The Qur’anic titles emphasize his humanity (‘Isa ibn Maryam’, ‘Isa al-Masihu’) And confuses his mother with O.T. ‘Miriam’ Much is spoken of his childhood, but little of his adulthood, unlike the Biblical account

63 Historically, ‘Isa’ is derived from Sectarian sources ‘Isa’ = 5 th c. Syriac, while ‘Jesus’ = 1 st C. Muhammad is redacted from the 9 th C. Muhammad used violence, while Jesus spoke of and modelled Peace Seeming problem’s of Jesus’ Divinity help preach the Gospel Son of God points to his omnipotence Qur’anic view of Trinity is wrong, and borrowed Qur’anic Trinity exists, but unexplained

64 Crucifixion: Qur’anic = Internal confusion, no historicity, all can be traced to 2 nd C.writings Jesus vs. Muhammad? –Jesus is unique (birth, death, ministry) –Jesus = righteous (S. 19:19) Muh. forgiven 3 times! –Jesus did miracles, Muh. never could –Jesus is universally relevant, Muhammad fits 7 th C. only… –Jesus is God …Muhammad is merely a man…


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