Presentation on theme: "Midterm Review: Foundations Unit Through 600 C.E.."— Presentation transcript:
Midterm Review: Foundations Unit Through 600 C.E.
1. Hunter Gatherers Social – Lived in small bands; very few social distinctions during this period. Political – In permanent dwellings, in many cases there were rulers and craftsmen who organized the dwellings. Religious – Ritual observances; buried the dead with ceremony.; cave art showed ritual observances and Venus figurines represented fertility. This showed the ritual observances of Cro-magnon man. Intellectual – Systematic in their migrations, i.e. wore disguises (animal skins) Economic – Because of the life of the hunter gatherer, there was no private property and no economic system.
1. Transition to Agriculture The neolithic era and the transition to agriculture The origins of agriculture –Neolithic era; new stone age; refined tools and agriculture From about twelve thousand to six thousand years ago Neolithic women began systematic cultivation of plants Neolithic men began to domesticate animals –Early agriculture around 9000 B.C.E. Agriculture emerged independently in several parts of the world Merchants, migrants, and travelers spread food knowledge Slash-and-burn cultivation involved frequent movement of farmers
2. What role did the environment play in the development of human society? How did the development of human society affect the environment and technological change? Early societies built around major river systems. Early cultivators built reservoirs, dug canals and established irrigation systems Establishment of agricultural societies with surplus. Surplus allowed for specialization of labor The acquisition of private property brought about distinctions in class and patriarchal society.
1. Civilization (3200 to 2350 B.C.E.) Social – Agriculture allowed for the specialization of labor, increased population and the establishment of villages and ultimately cities. Class system emerged, including slaves; establishment of a patriarchal society Political – Establishment of city-states that directed not just cities but outlying areas. Kings and nobles ruled Religious – temples were built; priests, public rituals Intellectual – professional craftsmen, writing systems were developed. Technology – iron metallurgy, bronze metallurgy, the wheel, shipbuilding Economic – Based on agriculture; Market places provided a center for long distance trade.
3. Basic Features of Early Complex Societies: Mesopotamia (3200-586 B.C.E.)
Mesopotamian Civilization 3000 BCE –Settlement within the fertile crescent increases –Contact with other cultures in the area Sumerian cities develop –Concentrating in the southern regions of the alluvial plains of the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers Why? –Most fertile soil
Mesopotamian Civilization 2800 – 2370 BCE – Sumerian kingdom building –Dominant force in Mesopotamia –Created cuneiform –Started as pictograms –Used to record daily life Creation of City- states Establishment of set codes of laws
Mesopotamian Civilization Religion takes important role in life Deities are in human forms and represent some natural phenomenon No separation of Church and state Ziggurats – religious centers Humans were subservient to the Gods Gods are hard to predict Art of Divination
Epic of Gilgamesh The Epic of Gilgamesh recounts the adventures of Gilgamesh, king of the ancient Mesopotamian city of Uruk, in his quest for immortality. Composed about 2000 bce on clay tablets. One of the oldest literary works. The poem is probably Sumerian in origin but was absorbed and adapted by succeeding eastern Mediterranean civilizations. In the first prose passage, the goddess Ishtar tries to entice Gilgamesh to marry her; Gilgamesh’s rejection enrages Ishtar and she seeks revenge. In the second passage, the sage Utnapishtim reveals that the gods once attempted to exterminate humankind with a great flood.
Mesopotamian Civilization Akkadians rise to dominance Semitic speaking people from “upstream” Kingdom centered at Akkad –Near the site of the later city of Babylon 2,300 BCE – Sargon conquers the Sumerians Establishes a 200 year empire External attack and internal weakness end the dynasty
Mesopotamian Civilization Hammurabi (1792-1750 BCE) –Created most comprehensive and best preserved code of laws –Possibly the first written fully codified laws
Ancient Egypt Centered along the Nile River and its tributaries Nile River is 4,000 miles long flowing from Khartoum to the Mediterranean Flood cycle of the Nile helped shape ancient Egyptian life Protected by location Originally divided into two kingdoms –Upper Egypt – river valley –Lower Egypt – river delta
Ancient Egypt Menes unified Upper and Lower Egypt in approx. 3000 BCE, establishing the first Egyptian Dynasty Capital located at Memphis King or Pharaoh was considered divine Entire society was organized under the Pharaoh – trade, labor, religion…
Ancient Egypt Old Kingdom (2700-2200 BCE) Adopted the pictograph from from the Mesopotamians –Hieroglyphics Had intricate religious and afterlife detail Instituted magnificent burial practices to evidence the power of the Pharaoh
3. Basic Features of Early Complex Societies: Indus Valley – Harappan Society (2500 B.C.E. to 500 B.C.E.) Geographical – Like the Nile, the Indus draws its waters from rain and melting snow in the Hindu Kush and Himalayan Mountains. Social – Like in Mesopotamia and Egypt, agricultural surplus in India increased food supply, stimulated population, encouraged specialized labor, and established cities. Social - The Aryans brought the caste system to Harappan society; patriarchal (Lawbook of Manu encouraged men to treat women with respect and women to know their place) By end of the Vedic age, the merging of Aryan and Dravidian traditions generated a distinctive Indian society. Political – No evidence is available concerning the Harappan political system although ruins of structures indicate governmental centers. Religious – The Aryans (Indo European nomads) brought the Rig Veda (polytheistic hymns) to India. As centuries passed Dravidian ideas were introduced through the Upanishads which introduced the idea of reincarnation. Economic - traded wheat, barley, and cotton with Mesopotamia
3. Basic Features of Early Complex Societies: Shang China (1766 to 1122 B.C.E.) Geographical_ The Yellow River provided the water source at the high plateau of the Tibet. Loess soil carried by the river’s water produced the “yellow” color. Extensive flooding. Loess provided rich soil, soft and easy to work. Social – a privileged class of hereditary aristocrats, small class of free artisans and craftsmen, merchants and traders, peasant class. Women worked mostly in indoor activities, i.e. wine making, silkworms, etc. Society was patriarchal. Political – Ruled by kings who used the agricultural surplus to build the military into thousands. Also, used surplus to support military allies who could help them. Shang China included advisors, ministers, craftsmen, and metal smiths who helped Shang rulers spread their influence. Religious – No official state religion but there was Veneration of ancestors – worship of those who had passed on Intellectual – Oracle Bones were used to tell the future. Earliest form of Chinese writing was the pictograph. Technological – Bronze metallurgy transformed China during this period. Horses, horse-drawn chariots; they used the vehicles to conquer the Xia and other adversaries. Economic Wheat cultivation, bronze and iron metallurgy, horse-drawn chariots and wheeled vehicles made their way from SW Asia to China.-
3. Basic Features of Early Complex Societies: MesoAmerica (1200 B.C.E. to 700 C.E.) Geographical – By 9500 B.C.E. Migrants from Siberia had reached the southernmost part of South America—more than 10, 566 miles from the Bering land bridge. Social – Large class of priests and kings, merchants from the ruling and noble classes, peasants and slaves provided agricultural and physical labor for the construction of cities and monuments. Political – The Maya organized themselves politically into small city-kingdoms. Mayan kings and their families ruled. There were many conflicts between the kingdoms. Religious – Mayan religion was tied to agriculture. The Mayan people thought that the gods maintained agricultural cycle. Human sacrifice involved bloodletting. Intellectual – Mayan priests studied astronomy and mathematics and developed a calendar and writing system. Mayan script included ideological elements and symbols for syllables; creation of huge human heads (Olmecs) Technological – They built temples, palaces, pyramids, and monuments. Economic – produce maize, cotton, cacao beans
4. Basic Features of Classical Empires: China (500 B.C.E. to 220 C.E.) Shang, Qin, Han Social – Distinctions between the rich and poor increased during Han dynasty. Wealthy individuals wore silk, leather shoes, and gold while dining on pork, fish, and wine. The poor lived on rice. Political – Centralized imperial bureaucracy. China was divided into administrative provinces and districts and was governed by officers of the central government. Religious – Mandate of Heaven Intellectual –Confucianism advocated moral, ethical, and political character and practicality; he established cultivation of high moral standards. He emphasized filial piety or children’s respect for parents and family elders. Daoism – retreat from engagement in the world of politics and administration. This was in contradiction to Confucianism. Legalists didn’t care about morality or ethics. They argued that the state should be strengthened at all costs. Ban Zhao Admonitions for Women Technological – Roads, defensive walls, common script was established during this time Economic – Iron industry moved beyond agriculture to include pots, stoves, armor; Han invented paper; Manufacture of silk; high taxes forced many small landowners to sell their property or sell themselves into slavery. Land ended up in the hands of the rich.
4. Basic Features of Classical Empires: India (563 B.C.E. to 550 C.E.) Mauryan Dynasty – Gupta Dynasty Social – Caste System: brahmins (priests), kshatriyas (warriors and aristocrats), vaishyas (peasants and merchants), and shudras (serfs); Patriarchal dominance; child marriage was common Political – Chandragupta Maurya brought centralized, unified government to the subcontinent of India for a short period, but after the fall of Maurya’s empire, local rulers formed a series of kingdoms that brought order to large regions. Religious – Jainism (inspired by Upanishads) Everything in the universe possesses a soul, no recognition of social heirarchies; Buddhism, Hinduism Intellectual – Technological – roads between Persia and India, cotton, aromatics, black pepper, pearls, and gems were principal exports. Horses came from western lands, silk from China
4. Basic Features of Classical Empires: Classical Greek Society (220 B.C.E. to 323 B.C.E.) Social – Patriarchal society. Greek women were under the authority of their fathers, husbands, or sons. Women could not own land but they did operate small businesses. Sparta was an exception. Women were active participants in festivals and contest. Literacy was common among upper class Greek women. There were aristocratic families, slaves made up of free Greeks who could not pay their debts. Political – city-state or polis; There was no centralized, imperial state even though there were many colonies throughout the Mediterranean. Colonies relied on their own resources. Religious – polytheistic (Greek deities) Intellectual – Olympic games; They learned astronomy, science, math, medicine, and magic from the Babylonians and geometry and medicine from the Egyptians. They adapted Phoenician alphabet. Socrates and Plato – see video. Christian and Islamic theologians tried to harmonize their religious beliefs with philosophical views of Plato and Aristotle. Greek drama See video on Plato. Economic – Colonies encouraged trade. The cultivation of olives and grapes for wine
4. Basic Features of Classical Empires: Classical Roman Society (753 B.C.E. to 70 C.E.) Social – Patriarchal society. Greek women were under the authority of their fathers, husbands, or sons. Women could not own land but they did operate small businesses. Sparta was an exception. Women were active participants in festivals and contest. Literacy was common among upper class Greek women. There were aristocratic families, slaves who were originally made up of free Greeks who could not pay their debts. See video on Venice. Political – republic made up of consuls and a Senate; consuls were elected by wealthy aristocrats Religious – polytheistic (Greek deities) Intellectual – Olympic games; They learned astronomy, science, math, medicine, and magic from the Babylonians and geometry and medicine from the Egyptians. They adapted Phoenician alphabet. Socrates and Plato – see video. Christian and Islamic theologians tried to harmonize their religious beliefs with philosophical views of Plato and Aristotle. Greek drama (see class video) Technological – road, aqueducts, public works projects Economic – Colonies encouraged trade. Rome relied on the agriculture of other places, i.e. olives and Grapes from Greece, wine and horses from Spain. The Roman military and naval power kept the seas safe.
5. Basic Features of World Belief Systems through 600 C.E.: Hinduism, the World’s Oldest Religion The classical theory of the origins of Hinduism traces the religion's roots to the Indus valley civilization 4000 to 2200 B. C. E. The development of Hinduism was influenced by many invasions over thousands of years. The major influences occurred when light-skinned, nomadic "Aryan" Indo- European tribes invaded Northern India from the steppes of Russia and Central Asia. The Aryans brought with them their religion of Vedism. These beliefs mingled with the more advanced, indigenous Indian native beliefs.
5. Basic Features of World Belief Systems through 600 C.E.: Hinduism The primary sacred texts of Hinduism are the Vedas, a series of hymns, incantations, and rituals from ancient India.The Rig Veda (a.k.a. Rigveda) may be the oldest of the four. A short poetic work called the Bhagavad Gita introduced the concept of the caste system and salvation. The Upanishads deal with Vedic philosophy and form the conclusions of each of the Vedas. "They elaborate on how the soul (Atman) can be united with the ultimate truth (Brahman) through contemplation and mediation, as well as the doctrine of Karma-- the cumulative effects of a persons' actions."
5. Basic Features of World Belief Systems through 600 C.E.: Hinduism Hinduism has commonly been viewed in the west as a polytheistic religion - one which worships multiple deities: gods and goddesses. Although a widespread belief, this is not particularly accurate. Some have viewed it as a monotheistic religion, because it recognizes only one supreme God: the principle of Brahman. The entire universe is seen as one divine entity who is simultaneously at one with the universe and who transcends it as well. Strictly speaking, most forms of Hinduism recognize a single deity, and other gods and goddesses as facets, forms, manifestations, or aspects of that supreme God. Hinduism spread to Asia via the Silk Road.
5. Basic Features of World Belief Systems through 600 C.E.: Buddhism Originated in India Siddhartha Gautama (born 563 B.C.E.) left his comfortable and elaborate life in the foothills of the Himalayas for an ascetic, wandering life. He wanted to understand the phenomenon of suffering. According to legend, after 49 days of meditation, he received enlightenment. He understood the problem of suffering and how humans could escape it. At that point, he became Buddha, or the “enlightened one.” He attracted disciples who became known as monks. They traveled on foot, preaching Buddha’s doctrine.
5. Basic Features of World Belief Systems through 600 C.E.: Buddhism The Four Noble Truths All life involves suffering. Desire is the cause of suffering. Elimination of desire means the elimination of suffering. A disciplined life brings the elimination of desire.
5. Basic Features of World Belief Systems through 600 C.E.: Buddhism A reduction in the desire for material goods and other world attractions result in a detachment from the world itself. This would lead to personal salvation and an escape from the cycle of incarnation and attainment of nirvana, a state of perfect spiritual independence.
5. Basic Features of World Belief Systems through 600 C.E.: Buddhism Early preachers and monks avoided the use of Sanskrit, the literary language of the Veda that brahmins used in favor of the vernacular. This reached a larger audience. Ashoka Maurya embraced Buddhism and helped spread the faith throughout India. Buddhism attracted merchants, artisans, and others of low rank. It appealed to many because of its disregard for social classes. Buddhism spread to China via merchants on the Silk Road.
5. Basic Features of World Belief Systems through 600 C.E.: Judaism (Origins) –Monotheism, or the worship of one god is attributed to the Hebrews, or Jews. –The Hebrews trace their origins back to Abraham who migrated from Mesopotamia to the land of Canaan on the eastern shores of the Mediterranean about 2000 B.C.E –Because of famine in Canaan, the descendants of Abraham migrated to Egypt, which had escaped famine. –The Hebrews remained there about 430 years, part of this time serving as slaves under the pharaoh. –The Exodus from Egypt under the leadership of Moses was marked by the giving of the Ten Commandments. –Returning to the land of Canaan, or Palestine, they established a theocracy, or a government ruled by religious leaders.
Abraham’s Journey Moses and the Exodus from Egypt to Canaan
5. Basic Features of World Belief Systems through 600 C.E.: Judaism (Basic Beliefs) –The heart of Judaism was a covenant, or agreement, between God and Abraham in which Yahweh would be their god and the Jews would be his people. –The history of this covenant relationship became the basis of the Torah, or the Hebrew scriptures.
5. Basic Features of World Belief Systems through 600 C.E.: Judaism (A Brief History) –The Hebrews established the kingdom of Israel about 1000 B.C.E. under Saul. –During the rule of Saul’s successor, David, Jerusalem became the capital is Israel. –The kingdom weakened under David’s successor, Solomon, because of the heavy taxes he imposed. –Eventually dividing into two kingdoms, the Northern kingdom of Israel fell to the Assyrians in 722 B.C.E. –Its inhabitants scattered throughout the far reaches of the Assyrian empire, constituting the first Jewish diaspora or exile. –The southern kingdom, called Judah, endured until 586 B.C.E. –Conquered by the Chaldeans (from the same territory as the Babylonian empire, the people of Judah were carried off into captivity into Babylon. –When Cyrus conquered the Chaldeans and allowed the Jews to return to Palestine 70 years later, Palestine remained under Persian rule until it became into the Roman empire in 63 C.E. –In 132 C.E. after they rebelled against Roman rule, the Jews were spread throughout the Roman Empire in a second diaspora.
Division of Israel into northern and southern kingdoms
5. Basic Features of World Belief Systems through 600 C.E.: Judaism –Unlike other religions of the period, notably Buddhism and Christianity, Judaism was not a missionary religion.
5. Basic Features of World Belief Systems through 600 C.E.: Christianity (Origins) A key element of early Judaism was the belief that God had promised to send the Jews a Messiah or a savior form their sins. Some of the early Jews felt that promise was fulfilled when Jesus was born in the Roman province of Judea about 4 to 6 B.C.E. As an adult, Jesus and his 12 disciplines went throughout the land of Judea, preaching the forgiveness of sins. Jesus was also called Christ meaning, “annointed.” When Jesus’ teachings were feared as a threat to Roan and Jewish authority, cooperation between both Jewish and Roman leaders led to his trial and death by crucifixion. After Jesus’ execution, his followers strongly felt his presence and proclaimed that he had triumphed over death by rising from the grave.
5. Basic Features of World Belief Systems through 600 C.E.: Christianity (Origins) Following Jesus’ teachings, Christians compiled a body of writing about Jesus’ life, reports of his followers’ works, and letters outlining Christian beliefs. Christians referred to this body of writing as the New Testament. It became the holy book of Christianity. The principal figure in the expansion of Christianity was Paul of Tarsus, a Jew from Anatolia who preached his faith throughout the Roman empire. Paul’s doctrine promised a glorious future for those who conscientiously observed the faith. Paul traveled widely throughout Greece, Anatolia, Syria and Palestine
5. Basic Features of World Belief Systems through 600 C.E.: Christianity Several Roman emperors considered Christianity a threat to their rule. Emperor Diocletian persecuted the Christian church, but it continued to grow in spite of this. In 313, the Roman Emperor Constantine change the position of earlier Roman emperors. In the Edict of Milan, Constantine permitted the practice of Christianity in the Roman empire. Christianity became the official religion of the Roman empire in 381 under the Emperor Theodosius. After its adoption as the state church of Rome, Christianity began developing an organization under the leadership of the bishop of Rome or pope. Christianity gained popularity because of its appeal to all social classes, especially the poor. Women received new status as Christianity taught that men and women were equal in matters of faith. After the fall of the Roman Empire, Christianity spread to northern Europe, the Balkans, and Russia.
5. Basic Features of World Belief Systems through 600 C.E.: Confucianism Confucius (551-479 B.C.E.) and his school Confucius –Educator and political advisor –Sayings were compiled in the Analects by his disciples Confucian ideas –Fundamentally moral and ethical in character –Thoroughly practical: how to restore political and social order –Concentrated on formation of junzi--"superior individuals" –Edited and compiled the Zhou classics for his disciples to study Key Confucian values –Ren--a sense of humanity, kindness, benevolence –Li--a sense of propriety, courtesy, respect, deference to elders –Xiao--filial piety, familial obligation –Cultivate personal morality and junzi for bringing order to China Mencius (372-289 B.C.E.), spokesman for the Confucian school –Believed in the goodness of human nature (ren) –Advocated government by benevolence and humanity Xunzi (298-238 B.C.E.) had a less positive view of human nature –Believed that humans selfishly pursue own interests –Preferred harsh social discipline to bring order to society –Advocated moral education and good public behavior
5. Basic Features of World Belief Systems through 600 C.E.: Daoism (see Taylor and Katie’s video) Daoism featured prominent critics of Confucian activism Preferred philosophical reflection and introspection, a life in harmony with nature Laozi, founder of Daoism, allegedly wrote the Daodejing (Classic of the Way and of Virtue) Zhuangzi (compendium of Daoist philosophy) The Dao--the way of nature, the way of the cosmos –Elusive concept: an eternal principle governing all the workings of the world –Dao is passive and yielding, does nothing yet accomplishes everything –Humans should tailor their behavior to the passive and yielding nature of the Dao –Ambition and activism had only brought the world to chaos –Doctrine of wuwei: disengagement from worldly affairs, simple life –Advocated small, self-sufficient communities Political implications: served as counterbalance to Confucian activism
6. Causes for the Decline of Empire: Han China Heavy taxes levied on peasants The decline in the interest in Confucian intellectual goals. Poor harvests. Population declines from epidemic disease Social unrest, i.e. Yellow Turban Uprising Weak emperors and the increased influence of army generals Unequal land distribution A decline in trade Invasions from nomadic tribes
6. Causes for the Decline of Empire: Western Roman Empire Ineffective later emperors The influence of army generals The decline of trade Increasingly high taxes Decreased money flow into empire as conquests of new territory ceased. Population declines as a result of epidemic disease Poor harvests Unequal land distribution Social and moral decay and disinterest of the elite classes Recruitment of non-Romans in the Roman army Vastness of the empire, making it difficult to rule Outside invasions
7. What was the impact of the Huns in India? The White Huns, a nomadic people from central Asia, crossed the Hindu Kush mountains into India. For the first half of the 5 th century, the Guptas were able to fight off the Huns. By the end of the fifth century, the Huns had established several kingdoms in northern and western India. This helped aid the decentralization and establishment of regional kingdoms in India.
7. What was the impact of the Germanic invasions and the Huns in Western Europe during the late classical period? In the 5 th century, nomadic Huns began migrating south and west in search of better pasturelands. The movement of the Huns exerted pressure on Germanic tribes who already lived around the border of the Roman Empire. These tribes, in turn, overran the Roman borders. By 425, several Germanic kingdoms were set up within the empire. By 476, the last western Roman emperor was replaced by a Germanic ruler from the tribe of the Visigoths, settled agriculturalists.
7. What was the impact of the Germanic invasions and the Huns in Western Europe during the late classical period? Under the leadership of Attila the Hun, the Huns achieved hegemony over several well-organized rivals by using superior weaponry such as the composite bow and a well-organized system of taxation. Supplementing their wealth by plundering wealthy Roman cities to the south, the Huns maintained the loyalties of a diverse number of tributary tribes. Both the Germanic and Hun invasions were instrumental forces in the dissolution of the Roman empire.
8. Explain the exchange of goods and ideas on the Silk Roads. Trade routes –Overland trade routes linked China to Roman empire –Sea lanes joined Asia, Africa, and Mediterranean basin into one network Trade goods –Silk and spices traveled west –Central Asia produced large horses and jade, sold in China –Roman empire provided glassware, jewelry, artworks, perfumes, textiles The organization of long-distance trade –Merchants of different regions handled long-distance trade in stages –On the seas, long-distance trade was dominated by different empires
8. Religion on the Silk Road –Buddhism in central Asia and China First present in oasis towns of central Asia along silk roads Further spread to steppe lands Foreign merchants as Buddhists in China, first century B.C.E. Popularity of monasteries and missionaries, fifth century C.E. –Buddhism and Hinduism spread to Southeast Asia
8. Religion on the Silk Road –Christianity in Southwest Asia follows the trade routes Sizable communities in Mesopotamia and Iran, second century C.E. Sizable number of converts in southwest Asia until the seventh century C.E. Their ascetic practices influenced Christian practices in the Roman empire Nestorians emphasized human nature of Jesus, fifth century C.E. Nestorian communities in central Asia, India, and China by seventh century C.E.
8. Religion on the Silk Road The spread of Manichaeism; best example of religion spread on silk roads –Mani and Manichaeism Prophet Mani, a Zoroastrian, drew influence from Christianity and Buddhism Dualism: perceived a cosmic struggle between light and darkness, good and evil Offered means to achieve personal salvation Ascetic lifestyle and high ethical standards Differentiation between the "elect" and the "hearers" –Spread of Manichaeism; appealed to merchants Attracted converts first in Mesopotamia and east Mediterranean region Appeared in all large cities of Roman empire, third century C.E.