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Early Life Full name: Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus Born: c. 22 December 244 – 3 December 311(Age 66) On the Dalmatian Coast (present day: Solin,

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Presentation on theme: "Early Life Full name: Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus Born: c. 22 December 244 – 3 December 311(Age 66) On the Dalmatian Coast (present day: Solin,"— Presentation transcript:


2 Early Life Full name: Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus Born: c. 22 December 244 – 3 December 311(Age 66) On the Dalmatian Coast (present day: Solin, Croatia) Illyrian family: low social status

3 Rise To Power He began working his way through the military ranks “Duke of Moesia” protected border and proved his value as a soldier 282-Carus was pronounced emperor Diocletian was promoted to commander of the cavalry arm of the imperial bodyguard 283-granted honor of consulate by Carus

4 Rise To Power continued 284- Carus dies while on campaign against the Persians Empire left to his two sons, Numerian and Carinus Numerian mysteriously dies of natural causes- Diocletian proclaimed emperor 285-Battle of Margus- Carinus’s men kill him; giving Diocletian complete power over the empire

5 Early Rule most immediate concerns were to bring the mutinous and increasingly barbarized Roman armies back under control and to make the frontiers once again secure from invasion His long-term goals were to restore effective government and economic prosperity to the empire and believed stern measures were necessary to accomplish these goals Divided the 50 providences into 100 and created a system of people to rule them 285- He named Maximian co-emperor and his “Augustan son” in order to provide a successor in case of his death He fought many wars with many different barbarian tribes including, the Sarmations and took the name Sarmaticus Maximus upon defeating them in in 289 He and Maximian met in Milan (selection of location over Rome, displayed imperial view that center of Rome was wherever the leaders were) in 291 to discuss the state of the empire

6 Tetrarchy Diocletian’s daughter (Valeria) husband Galerius named his “Caesar” and given control of Egypt, Syria, Palestine, and the whole eastern border Maximian’s daughter’s husband Constantius was named his “Caesar” and given Gaul and Britain to rule This alliance was called the “tetrarch” from the greek for “rule by four” Diocletian and Maximian considered each other brothers and Galerius and Constantius as their sons He created an order to secession; every Augusti would select a Caesar to secede them (there was no system before and with the frequent assignations of the time there were many issues over emperor secession)

7 Wars/Campaigns Sarmation and Danubian tribes (285-300) Alamanni (288) Usurpers in Egypt (297-98) Sassanid Persia (299)- Diocletian and Rome reached a lasting and favorable peace with this traditional enemy 302-ordered that the leading followers of Mani be burnt alive along with their scriptures Killed and enslaved Manicheans

8 Reforms large increase in the number of bureaucrats at the government's command greater number of governors (praesides) ruling over smaller regions and smaller populationspraesides under the new system vicarii and governors were responsible for justice and taxation, and a new class of duces ("dukes"), acting independently of the civil service, had military commandducesdukes The sharp increase in the number of edicts and rescripts produced under Diocletian's rule has been read as evidence of a thorough going effort to realign the whole empire on terms dictated by the imperial center Diocletian's reign marks the end of the classical period of Roman law. Diocletian's system of rescripts shows an adherence to classical tradition, but Constantine's law was full of Greek and eastern influences

9 Reforms continued The army expanded to about 580,000 men from a 285 strength of 390,000 men. The growth was smaller in the East, which only expanded from 250,000 men to 310,000 men, most of whom manned the Persian frontier. The navy's forces increased from approximately 45,000 to approx 60,000 “Compulsory Service”- occupations so important to Rome’s function (bakers, farmers,soldiers,ect.) that Diocletian made those who held them stick to it for life Diocletian introduced an extensive new tax system based on heads (capita) and land (iuga) and tied to a new, regular census of the empire's population and wealth Inflation was a major issue during Diocletian Rome, the lack of gold and silver coinage made it impossible for a standard currency to be established Diocletian released numerous edicts in attempt to fix the system, but his lack of understanding of basic supply and demand laws prevented these attempts from succeeding Fortunately these edicts were quickly destroyed or edited The Diocletianic Persecutions (303–11), was the empire's last, largest, and bloodiest official persecution of Christianity (Diocletian believe in Olympiad gods)

10 Legacy Diocletian left the imperial office on May 1, 305, and became the first Roman emperor to voluntarily abdicate the position Diocletian's reforms fundamentally changed the structure of Roman imperial government and helped stabilize the empire economically and militarily for nearly 100 years, those system’s that were once near the brink of collapse during Diocletian’s childhood He lived out his retirement in peace in his famous Dalmatian coast palace He rejected opportunity to return in 308 His tetrarch system fell and led to civil war quickly after his and Maximian’s departure and there was civil war till 324 when Constantine came to power Bureaucratic and military growth, constant campaigning, and construction projects increased the state's expenditures, and necessitated a major tax reform. From at least 297 on, imperial taxation was standardized, made more equitable, and levied at generally higher rates.

11 Sources “Diocletian and the Roman Recovery” by Stephen Williams ors/diocletian.htm ors/diocletian.htm

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