4 LANGUAGE STAGES Stage:Age: CryingBirth Cooing6 Weeks Babbling6 Months Intonation8 Months Holophrastic1 Year Pivot-Open18 Months Word Inflections2 Years Questions & Negatives2 ½ Years Rare & Complex Lg5 Years Mature Speech10 Years (Aitchison 570)
405 CARETAKER SPEECH Simplified Vocabulary Simplified Phonology Exaggerated Pitch & Intonation Many Questions by Mothers Many Imperatives by Fathers Baby-Talk Words e.g. wawa, choo-choo, tummy, scambled eggs, pasghetti (Moskowitz 534)
406 ACQUISITION OF SOUNDS Properties of easy sounds: Front of the Mouth Total Articulation Muscles already Developed (in Nursing) Easy Sounds: /m, p, b, t, d/ Hard Sounds: /ŋ, Θ, ð, š, r, l/ clusters Easy sounds occur in more languages and are learned earlier by children. (Fromkin, Rodman & Hyams  333-335)
407 ACQUISITION OF WORDS vov-vovdog for dogs, kittens, hens, zoo animals mooimoon for moon, cake anything round danybell sound for bell, clock, telephone, doorbell quackduck sound ducks, birds, insects, coins (because a coin had an eagle on it) kokorooster crowing rooster, merry-go-round, musical sounds, all sounds (Fromkin Rodman Hyams  335-336)
4010 Michael systematically substituted the alveolar stop [t] for the velar stop [k] as in his words for “cow,” “clean,” “kiss,” and his own name. He also replaced labial [p] with [t] when it occurred in the middle of a word, as in his words for “Papi” and “diaper.” He reduced consonant clusters in “spoon,” “plane,” and “stroller,” and he devoiced final stops as in “Big Bird.” In devoicing the final [d] in “bird,” he created an ambiguous form [b-rt] referring both to Bert and Big Bird. (Fromkin Rodman Hyams  341)
4011 “Michael’s substitutions are typical of the phonological rules that operate in the very early stages of acquisition.” “Other common rules are reduplication— ’bottle’ becomes [baba], ‘water’ becomes [wawa]; and the dropping of a final consonant—’bed’ becomes [be], ‘cake’ becomes ke]. These two rules show that the child prefers a simple CV syllable.” (Fromkin, Rodman & Hyams  341)
4013 ACQUISITION OF GRAMMAR Holophrastic (one part of speech) Pivot-Open (two parts of speech) Telegraphic (four parts of speech) Adult (eight parts of speech) Linguist (each part of speech has many sub- categories)
4014 THREE STAGES OF ACQUISITION OF MORPHOLOGY 1. Holophrastic: men, went, broke, brought Right Answer, but Wrong Reason 2. Rule-Governed: mans, goed, breaked, bringed Wrong Answer, but Right Reason 3. Knowledge of both Rules and Exceptions to the Rules: men, went, broke, brought Right Answer, and Right Reason NOTE: These stages also operate for adults learning a new profession (Moskowitz 533) (Fromkin Rodman Hyams  336, 370-371)
4015 WHAT WOULD A CHILD SAY? children went better best brought sang geese worst knives worse (Fromkin Rodman Hyams  371)
4016 GRAMMAR: TWO-WORD STAGE The two-word stage is also called the Pivot-Open stage because one of the words is usually a Lexical Word (an open set that refers to something), and the other word is a Functional Word (a closed set with grammatical rather than reference meaning). In the following sentences, indicate which is the Pivot word and which is the Open word:
4017 Allgone sock. Byebye boat. More wet. Katherine Sock. Hi Mommy. Allgone sticky. It ball. Dirty sock. (Fromkin Rodman Hyams  333)
4018 See boy See soci. Pretty boat. Pretty fan. More taxi. More melon. Push it. Move it. Mommy sleep. Bye-bye melon. Bye-bye hot. (Adam, Eve, and Sarah) (Fromkin Rodman Hyams  369-370)
4019 M. L. U. As children progress from the holophrastic to the pivot-open to the telegraphic to the mature stages of language development, a simple but effective gauge of their level of development is MLU. MLU means “Mean Length of Utterance.” “MLU is the average length of the utterances the child is producing at a particular point.” (Fromkin Rodman Hyams  347)
4020 TELEGRAPHIC SPEECH During this stage of development, the functional categories like Determiners, Auxiliaries, Prepositions, Conjunctions and Expletives are missing. And the Lexical categories like Nouns, Verbs, Adjectives, and Adverbs (usually without any suffixes) are present.
4021 Cat stand up table. What that? He play little tune. Andrew want that. Cathy build house. No sit there. (Fromkin Rodman Hyams  347)
4022 ACQUISITION OF MORPHOLOGY AGE 2: Progressive –ing: I singing. Plural –s:blue shoes. Copula am, is, are:He is asleep. Articles a, the:He is a doctor. (Aitchison 574)
4023 ACQUISITION OF MORPHOLOGY 2 AGE 3: Third Person Singular –s:He wants an apple Past tense –d: I helped Mummy Full Progressive be + -ing: I am singing Shortened Copula:He’s a doctor Shortened Progressive:I’m singing (Aitchison 574)
4024 CHILD: Nobody don’t like me. MOTHER: No, say “Nobody likes me.” CHILD: Nobody don’t like me. (dialogue repeated eight times) MOTHER: Now, listen carefully, say “Nobody likes me.” CHILD: Oh, nobody don’t likes me. (Fromkin Rodman Hyams  326)
4025 ADULT: What does [maws] mean? CHILD: Like a cat. ADULT: Yes, What else? CHILD: Nothing else. ADULT: It’s part of your head. CHILD: [fascinated] ADULT: [touching child’s mouth] What’s this? CHILD: [maws] (Neil Smith talking to 2-year-old Amahl) (Fromkin Rodman Hyams  327)
4026 CHILDREN’S METAPHORS Don’t giggle me. I danced the clown. Yawny Baby—you can push her mouth open to drink her. Who deaded my kitty cat? Are you gonna nice yourself? CF: Colorless green ideas sleep furiously. (Fromkin Rodman Hyams  361)
4027 “WUG” AS A NOUN Make it plural. Make it possessive. Make it plural and possessive. (Fromkin Rodman Hyams  343-344)
4028 “WUG” AS A VERB Put it after “he” in a sentence. Make it past tense. Make it a past participle. Make it a present participle. (Fromkin Rodman Hyams  343-344)
4029 “WUG” AS AN ADJECTIVE OR ADVERB Make it comparative. Make it superlative. (Fromkin Rodman Hyams  343-344)
4031 ACQUISITION OF WH-QUESTIONS STAGE ONE: What Mummy doing?Why you singing? Where daddy go? STAGE TWO: Where you will go? Why kitty can’t see? Why you don’t know? STAGE THREE: Where will you go?Why can’t kitty see?Why don’t you know? (Aitchison, 575)
4032 CHILD: Want other one spoon, Daddy. FATHER: You mean, you want the other spoon. CHILD: Yes, I want the other one spoon, please Daddy. FATHER: Can you say, “the other spoon”? CHILD: Other … one … spoon. FATHER: Say “other.” CHILD: Other. FATHER: Spoon CHILD: Spoon FATHER: Other spoon. CHILD: Other … spoon. Now give me other one spoon? (Aitchison, 565)(Braine, 161) (Fromkin Rodman Hyams  327)
4033 CHILD: My teacher holded the baby rabbits and we patted them. ADULT: Did you say your teacher held the baby rabbits? CHILD: Yes ADULT: What did you say she did? CHILD: She holded the baby rabbits and we patted them. ADULT: Did you say she held them tightly? CHILD: No, she holded them loosely (Aitchison 566)(Cazden 92) (Fromkin Rodman Hyams  325)
4034 EXPLAIN THE FOLLOWING Self-Directed Louding: Baby’s getting a rash Rhetorical Questions: Don’t you know I just wiped that off? Self-Answered Questions: What does the lamb say? Baaa. Limiting Questions: Do you want chocolate or vanilla? What is the function of egocentric speech? Do adults use this device? (Heath 617)
4035 RESTRICTED AND ELABORATED CODES In 1971, Basil Bernstein distinguished between local language (restricted codes) and public language (elaborated codes). Restricted codes use “he” and “she” instead of “Mom” and “Dad.” They use back channels like “You know.” They use tags like “isn’t it.” They use fewer verbs and adjectives. They use more slang, fixed expressions, and cliches. (Bernstein 5)
4036 ACQUISITION OF HUMOR Even babies have a sense of humor. Adults laugh with children who are playing peek-a- boo or watching Sesame Street with its Big Bird and Oscar the Grouch. Young children are also fond of knock-knock jokes and riddles. (Nilsen & Nilsen 9-10)
4037 TOILET HUMOR Alvin Schwartz says that children who are six or seven enjoy toilet humor because they no longer have accidents, but they still remember when they did. They like the following poem:
4038 I see London; I see France. I see Betsy’s underpants. They aren’t green; they aren’t blue. They’re just filled with number two. They also like to talk about the secret parts of the body: Mary had a little bear, The best that she could find. And everywhere that Mary went, There was her bare behind. (Nilsen & Nilsen 11)
4039 CONSERVATION HUMOR Paul McGhee told a joke to children of different ages: “A man goes into a pizza parlor and tells the server to cut his pizza into four pieces because he isn’t hungry enough to eat six pieces.” 1 st Graders didn’t laugh because they didn’t get the joke. They hadn’t yet mastered conservation. (Nilsen & Nilsen 10)
40 8 th Graders didn’t laugh because they had mastered conservation so long ago that there was no tension. The students in the middle grades laughed the hardest. They experienced pleasure because they could take pride in the fact that they were able to figure out that the amount of pizza was the same regardless of how many pieces it was cut into. (Nilsen & Nilsen 10)
4041 !6 LEVELS OF HUMOR DEVELOPMENT In Antony Chapman’s It’s a Funny Thing, Humor, Alice Sheppard has outlined six levels of humor development for children: LEVEL 1 (IDIOSYNCRATIC): Involves amusement related to a young child’s individual experience as with a surprise, a physical sensation, or a response to someone else’s smile or laughter. (Nilsen & Nilsen 10)
4042 !LEVEL 2 (NORMATIVE): Involves a generalization that implies a rule, or a convention. Later, the child will violate the rule or convention. LEVEL 3 (EXPECTATION): Involves a reference to the unusualness or the improbability of an event. LEVEL 4 (RELATIONAL): Involves concern for inner motives related to a situation, relations among events, and multiple aspects of the situation. (Nilsen & Nilsen 10)
4043 !! LEVEL 5 (EXTRA-CONTEXTUAL): Involves context beyond the situation implied in the notion of parody, take-off, irony, or satire. It also involves the distinction between appearance and reality; the humor is revealed as contingent upon subtle aspects of events. LEVEL 6 (PHILOSOPHICAL): Involves the ability to see what is ridiculous in the nature of things and to generalize an outlook from humor examples. (Nilsen & Nilsen 10)
4045 References: Aitchison, Jean. “Predestinate Grooves: Is There a Preordained Language `Program’?” (Clark, 560-579). Bernstein, Basil. Class, Codes and Control: Three Volumes. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1971-1975. Braine, M. D. S. “The Acquisition of Language in Infant and Child.” in The Learning of Language Ed. C. E. Reed. New York, NY: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1971. Cazden, Courtney. Child Language and Education New York, NY: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1972. Chapman, Antony J., and Hugh C. Foot, eds. Humor and Laughter: Theory, Research, and Applications. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction, 1996.
4046 Clark, Virginia, Paul Eschholz, and Alfred Rosa. Language: Readings in Language and Culture, 6th Edition. New York, NY: St. Martin’s Press, 1998. Fromkin, Victoria, Robert Rodman, and Nina Hyams. “Language Acquisition.” An Introduction to Language, 9th Edition. Boston, MA: Thomson Wadsworth, 2011, 324-374. Fromkin, Victoria, Stephen Krashen, Susan Curtiss, David Rigler and Marilyn Rigler. “The Development of Language in Genie: A Case of Language Acquisition beyond the `Critical Period’” (Clark, 588-604). Groch, A. “Joking and Appreciation of Humor in Nursery School Children.” Child Development 45.4 (1974): 1098-1102. Heath, Shirley Brice. “Teaching How to Talk in Roadville: The First Words” (609-625).
4047 Hyams, Nina. Language Acquisition and the Theory of Parameters. New York, NY: D. Reidel Publishers, 1986. Lenneberg, Eric. “Developmental Milestones in Motor and Language Development (Clark, 556-559). McGhee, Paul E. How to Develop Your Sense of Humor: An 8-Step Humor Development Training Program. Dubuque, IA: Kendall/Hunt, 1994. McGhee, Paul E. Humor and Children’s Development: A Guide to Practical Applications. New York, NY: Haworth, 1989. McGhee, Paul E. Humor Log for the 8-Step Humor Development Training Program. Dubuque, IA: Kendall/Hunt, 1994.
4048 Miller, George and Patricia Gildea. “How Children Learn Words” (Clark, 580-587). Moskowitz, Breyne. “The Acquisition of Language (Clark, 529-555). Nilsen, Alleen Pace, and Don L. F. Nilsen. “Acquisition of a Sense of Humor.” Encyclopedia of 20 th Century American Humor. Westport, CT: Greenwood, 2000, 9-11. Pines, Maya. “Genie: A Postscript” (Clark, 605-608).
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