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Smart Distribution Systems: Communications Perspective S. S

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1 Smart Distribution Systems: Communications Perspective S. S
Smart Distribution Systems: Communications Perspective S. S. (Mani) Venkata Alstom Grid and University of Washington (UW) SECON Workshop Panel Presentation Salt Lake City, UT June 27, 2011 Co-author: Sumit Roy, UW

2 Traditional Grid Operation
“Edison’s Grid” Today Simple concept Robust; Effective Not much changed in the last century Complex in execution Thousands of classical, central power plants Web of transmission lines (above 120-kV) More complex web of distribution lines (below 69-kV) Generating Plant Transmission Line Substation Traditional Grid Operation We monitor very little of the grid’s operation Less as we get closer to the customer We don’t know how customers are using power at any time Outage monitor: you call us We control by starting or stopping power plants Customers have few opportunities to reduce demand in response to grid conditions No energy storage We design the system for the worst case Maximum expected load plus a reserve margin Result: System is overbuilt We sell almost all customers the same product Averaged-price per kwh plus some fixed charges Distribution System End User

3 Smart Grid: A Digital, Information-Age Grid
Basic structure Today’s (Edison’s) grid is the starting point Applies information technology Much more information and control Power of Timely information Deregulation Infusion of new technologies More precise system design and operation Improved reliability, efficiency, safety, security and cost Ability to meet customer needs More products and services Reduced emissions and environmental impact

4 What is in Store for the Future?
The real world is full of uncertainties Many needs of the society are geographically imbalanced Energy demand and supply unbalance will continue to exist in the future Global population will increase by 30% to 8 billion in the next 40 years How do we prepare to meet the challenges and take advantage of the opportunities? 4/8/2017 © 2010 Copyright S. S. Venkata

5 Global Issues of Concern (contd.)
Ecology and environment protection is essential Global warming is one critical example Next to air and water, energy is the most important need of the society How to achieve balance between all conflicting forces? Seeking sustainable energy resources is the answer without sacrificing air and water quality 4/8/2017 © 2010 Copyright S. S. Venkata

6 Need for Reduced Political Barriers
Governments should aim for reduced bureaucracy Regulators need to balance societal and utility needs. Reduced time for approval for new projects Utilities have to balance their internal enterprise management in the most efficient and effective ways 4/8/2017 © 2010 Copyright S. S. Venkata

7 3277 Electric Distribution System Utilities
Distribution Systems is neglected step child Distribution System serves 131 Million Customers 3.1 Million miles of Distribution lines Electrical infrastructure is ageing rapidly (?) Total Revenue $256 billion / year Average cost of retail energy sales $0.074 / kWh Average cost of power generation $0.041 / kWh Total cost of distribution losses $6.9 Billion / year

8 Legacy System Deficiencies
Little flexibility and intelligence Outdated network Unacceptable performance measures Consumer cost of service issues Environmental issues Limited information from the electric facilities. The visibility is only provided by SCADA monitoring and control of the distribution substations with little or no telemetry or control of distribution line devices. 4/8/2017 © 2010 Copyright S. S. Venkata

9 Why the Smart Grid Revolution?
‘‘ Running today's digital society through yesterday's grid is like running the Internet through an old telephone switchboard In North America & in all developed Countries the Transmission Grid is pretty smart and robust. Can today Smart Grid meet the challenges of the Future Power Electric Supply Chain? What are those challenges? ’’ 4/8/2017 © 2010 Copyright S. S. Venkata Reid Detchon

10 Impetus for Smart Grid Development
Deregulation (re-regulation?) Development of new technologies Protection of environment and ecology Meet customer needs and Birth of “Smart Grid” (Intelligent Grid) 4/8/2017 © 2010 Copyright S. S. Venkata

11 Optimal Performance Measures for Smart Grid Development
Customer Satisfaction Efficiency Reliability Voltage and frequency regulation Power Quality Economy Environment and ecology Regulatory Security (system and cyber) Safety 4/8/2017 © 2010 Copyright S. S. Venkata

12 Smart Grid Components Broadband over Power lines
Provide for two-way communications Monitors and smart relays at substations Monitors at transformers, circuit breakers and reclosers Bi-directional meters with two-way communication Generating Plant Transmission Line Substation Distribution System Incorporates entire energy pathway, from generation to customer High-speed, near real-time, two-way communications Sensors enabling rapid diagnosis and corrections Dispatched distributed generation Energy storage Smart Substations: allow the utility to better monitor and adapt to customer needs, while making real-time decisions based on current grid conditions. Smart Feeders: communication-enabled smart reclosers and switches to provide power system information and perform automated functions Allow us to monitor power flow, outages, and overall device health. Smart Distribution System: Power analyzers installed at each distribution transformer and incorporated into smart meters to provide real-time data on power consumption, outages, restorations, and fault locations. End User

13 An Integrated Energy System
Incorporates entire energy pathway, from generation to customer High-speed, near real-time, two-way communications Sensors, solid-state controllers, switches, protective devices, transformers, enabling rapid diagnosis and corrections Distributed Energy Resources (DER) Distributed Generation Energy Storage Demand Response Plug-in Electric Vehicles Reference point: What technologies will be implemented in SmartGridCity™? ·        Transformation of existing metering infrastructure to a robust, dynamic communications network, providing real time, high-speed, two-way communication throughout the distribution grid. ·        Conversion of substations to “smart” substations capable of remote monitoring, near real-time data and optimized performance. ·        At the customer’s invitation, installation of programmable in-home control devices and the necessary systems to fully automate home energy use. ·        Integration of infrastructure to support easily dispatched distributed generation technologies (such as plug-in hybrid electric vehicles with vehicle-to-grid technology; battery systems; wind turbines; and solar panels). How long will it take to implement Smart Grid across Xcel Energy’s entire service territory? If we were being very aggressive, we could do this in five to 10 years in certain areas, but that's not the model we're working with right now. If we make this change as we naturally refresh our infrastructure it would take about 20 to 25 years.

14 Smart Grid Benefits Demand Management
Better demand control = reduced generation reserve requirement Control demand to match supply Pricing based on real-time market Renewables Management Shape load to generation Manage intermittency Maximize renewables Supply-based pricing Asset Management Improve field efficiency Real-time asset status & control Expanded reliability Extended asset life Customer-Enabled Management Automatic control of electronic devices Real-time pricing New services and products Enable customer choice

15 Smart Grid: Architectural View

16 Smart Grid Comm. Standards Domains
16 16

17 T&D Wide-Area Networks
Name Notes Frame Relay Packet-switched, no reliability guarantee SONET Campus or city backbones WDM Wavelength Division Multiplexing – follows SONET Microwave Proprietary, used in geographically difficult areas Satellite Various proprietary technologies, costly Trunked Radio Licensed, one broadcast channel, one return Spread-Spectrum Unlicensed frequencies, more efficient IP Radio Like trunked radio but with IP addressing Many of these are considered obsolete or aging in the general IT world Still in common use in the power system 17 17

18 T&D Substations Automation common in transmission
Name / No. Description Status IEC 61850 Object models, self-describing, high-speed relaying, process bus Widespread in Europe, beginning here DNP3 Distributed Network Protocol Most popular in NA Modbus Evolved from process automation Close second COMTRADE Fault Capture file format Widespread PQDIF Power Quality file format In use IEC 62351 Security for power systems Recently released Automation common in transmission Business case tough in distribution Well-known problems and solutions Moving to the next level 18

19 Access Wide-Area Networks
Name Notes PSTN Public Switched Telephone Network – dial-up, leased lines DSL Digital Subscriber Line - Telco IP-based home access Cable DOCSIS standard for coax IP-based home access WiMAX WiFi with a backbone, cellular-type coverage Cellular Various technologies e.g. GSM/GPRS or CDMA/EVDO FTTH Fiber to the Home. Passive Optical Networks (PONs) PLC Narrowband Power Line Carrier – the “old stuff” Access BPL Broadband over power line to the home Paging Various proprietary systems, POCSAG Used to reach the Collector or Substation Too expensive, too unreliable or too slow for actual access to home 19 19

20 Field Area Networks – Distribution and AMI
Offerings mostly proprietary Wireless mesh, licensed or unlicensed Power line carrier, narrowband or broadband New standard activity just started in 2008 Open standards not useful yet Cellular, WiMAX, ADSL, Cable, FITL Not economical or not reliable or both Mostly only reach the Collector level Interop solution: common upper layer Network layer preferred: IP suite Most don’t have bandwidth Application layer instead: ANSI C12.22 Too flexible, not enough interoperability Need guidelines, profile from users More bandwidth the main solution! Network A B 20 20

21 Home Area Networks ZigBee and HomePlug alliance
Name Number Notes Ethernet IEEE 802.3 Substation LANs, usually fiber optic WiFi IEEE Access by field tool, neighborhood AMI net ZigBee IEEE Customer premises automation network HomePlug 1.0, AV, BPL Powerline comms, in and outside premises 6LowPAN The “approved” IPv6 wireless interface OpenHAN HAN SRS v Power Industry requirements definition! ZigBee and HomePlug alliance Popular open specifications LONWorks, Insteon, Z-Wave, X10 – popular proprietary networks Challenges coming in Electric Vehicles 21 21

22 The Smart Grid Communications Physical Architecture
doc.: IEEE yy/xxxxr0 January 2005 October 2009 doc.: IEEE P The Smart Grid Communications Physical Architecture Submission Page 6 Claudio Lima, Sonoma Innovation Dorothy Stanley, Agere Systems

23 NIST’s System Architecture

24 Smart Grid Logical Communications Architecture
doc.: IEEE yy/xxxxr0 January 2005 October 2009 doc.: IEEE P Smart Grid Logical Communications Architecture Submission Page 7 Claudio Lima, Sonoma Innovation Dorothy Stanley, Agere Systems

25 Power and Computing Infrastructure
Residential Data Concentrator Control Center Data network Users Distributed Computing Infrastructure Power Infrastructure Central Generating Station Step-Up Transformer Distribution Substation Receiving Commercial Industrial Gas Turbine Recip Engine Cogeneration Fuel cell Micro- turbine Flywheel Residential Photo voltaics Batteries Source: EPRI IntelliGridSM Project 25


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