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1 Smart Distribution Systems: Communications Perspective S. S. (Mani) Venkata Alstom Grid and University of Washington (UW)

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Presentation on theme: "1 Smart Distribution Systems: Communications Perspective S. S. (Mani) Venkata Alstom Grid and University of Washington (UW)"— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Smart Distribution Systems: Communications Perspective S. S. (Mani) Venkata Alstom Grid and University of Washington (UW) 2011 SECON Workshop Panel Presentation Salt Lake City, UT June 27, 2011 Co-author: Sumit Roy, UW

2 2 Simple concept  Robust; Effective  Not much changed in the last century Complex in execution  Thousands of classical, central power plants  Web of transmission lines (above 120-kV)  More complex web of distribution lines (below 69-kV) “Edison’s Grid” Today Generating Plant End User Transmission Line Substation Distribution System

3 3 Smart Grid: A Digital, Information- Age Grid  Basic structure – Today’s (Edison’s) grid is the starting point – Applies information technology – Much more information and control  Power of Timely information – Deregulation – Infusion of new technologies – More precise system design and operation – Improved reliability, efficiency, safety, security and cost – Ability to meet customer needs – More products and services – Reduced emissions and environmental impact

4 4 1/15/2015© 2010 Copyright S. S. Venkata 4 What is in Store for the Future?  The real world is full of uncertainties  Many needs of the society are geographically imbalanced  Energy demand and supply unbalance will continue to exist in the future  Global population will increase by 30% to 8 billion in the next 40 years  How do we prepare to meet the challenges and take advantage of the opportunities?

5 5 1/15/2015© 2010 Copyright S. S. Venkata 5 Global Issues of Concern (contd.)  Ecology and environment protection is essential – Global warming is one critical example  Next to air and water, energy is the most important need of the society  How to achieve balance between all conflicting forces?  Seeking sustainable energy resources is the answer without sacrificing air and water quality

6 6 1/15/2015© 2010 Copyright S. S. Venkata 6 Need for Reduced Political Barriers  Governments should aim for reduced bureaucracy  Regulators need to balance societal and utility needs. – Reduced time for approval for new projects  Utilities have to balance their internal enterprise management in the most efficient and effective ways

7 7 3277 Electric Distribution System Utilities  Distribution Systems is neglected step child  Distribution System serves 131 Million Customers  3.1 Million miles of Distribution lines  Electrical infrastructure is ageing rapidly (?)  Total Revenue $256 billion / year  Average cost of retail energy sales $0.074 / kWh  Average cost of power generation $0.041 / kWh  Total cost of distribution losses $6.9 Billion / year

8 8 Legacy System Deficiencies  Little flexibility and intelligence  Outdated network  Unacceptable performance measures  Consumer cost of service issues  Environmental issues  Limited information from the electric facilities.  The visibility is only provided by SCADA monitoring and control of the distribution substations with little or no telemetry or control of distribution line devices. © 2010 Copyright S. S. Venkata 81/15/2015

9 9 © 2010 Copyright S. S. Venkata 9 Why the Smart Grid Revolution? Running today's digital society through yesterday's grid is like running the Internet through an old telephone switchboard ’’ ‘‘ Reid Detchon

10 10 1/15/2015© 2010 Copyright S. S. Venkata 10 Impetus for Smart Grid Development  Deregulation (re-regulation?)  Development of new technologies  Protection of environment and ecology  Meet customer needs and  Birth of “Smart Grid” (Intelligent Grid)

11 11 1/15/2015© 2010 Copyright S. S. Venkata 11 Optimal Performance Measures for Smart Grid Development  Customer Satisfaction  Efficiency  Reliability  Voltage and frequency regulation  Power Quality  Economy  Environment and ecology  Regulatory  Security (system and cyber)  Safety

12 12 Smart Grid Components Generating Plant End User Transmission Line Substation Distribution System Broadband over Power lines — Provide for two-way communications Monitors and smart relays at substations Monitors at transformers, circuit breakers and reclosers Bi-directional meters with two-way communication

13 13  Incorporates entire energy pathway, from generation to customer  High-speed, near real-time, two-way communications  Sensors, solid-state controllers, switches, protective devices, transformers, enabling rapid diagnosis and corrections  Distributed Energy Resources (DER)  Distributed Generation  Energy Storage  Demand Response  Plug-in Electric Vehicles An Integrated Energy System

14 14 Demand Management Better demand control = reduced generation reserve requirement Control demand to match supply Pricing based on real-time market Renewables Management Shape load to generation Manage intermittency Maximize renewables Supply-based pricing Asset Management Improve field efficiency Real-time asset status & control Expanded reliability Extended asset life Customer-Enabled Management Automatic control of electronic devices Real-time pricing New services and products Enable customer choice Smart Grid Benefits

15 15 Smart Grid: Architectural View

16 16 Smart Grid Comm. Standards Domains

17 17 T&D Wide-Area Networks  Many of these are considered obsolete or aging in the general IT world  Still in common use in the power system NameNotes Frame RelayPacket-switched, no reliability guarantee SONETCampus or city backbones WDMWavelength Division Multiplexing – follows SONET MicrowaveProprietary, used in geographically difficult areas SatelliteVarious proprietary technologies, costly Trunked RadioLicensed, one broadcast channel, one return Spread-SpectrumUnlicensed frequencies, more efficient IP RadioLike trunked radio but with IP addressing

18 18 T&D Substations  Automation common in transmission  Business case tough in distribution  Well-known problems and solutions  Moving to the next level Name / No.DescriptionStatus IEC 61850Object models, self-describing, high-speed relaying, process bus Widespread in Europe, beginning here DNP3Distributed Network ProtocolMost popular in NA ModbusEvolved from process automationClose second COMTRADEFault Capture file formatWidespread PQDIFPower Quality file formatIn use IEC 62351Security for power systemsRecently released

19 19 Access Wide-Area Networks  Used to reach the Collector or Substation  Too expensive, too unreliable or too slow for actual access to home NameNotes PSTNPublic Switched Telephone Network – dial-up, leased lines DSLDigital Subscriber Line - Telco IP-based home access CableDOCSIS standard for coax IP-based home access WiMAXWiFi with a backbone, cellular-type coverage CellularVarious technologies e.g. GSM/GPRS or CDMA/EVDO FTTHFiber to the Home. Passive Optical Networks (PONs) PLCNarrowband Power Line Carrier – the “old stuff” Access BPLBroadband over power line to the home PagingVarious proprietary systems, POCSAG

20 20 Field Area Networks – Distribution and AMI  Offerings mostly proprietary – Wireless mesh, licensed or unlicensed – Power line carrier, narrowband or broadband – New standard activity just started in 2008  Open standards not useful yet – Cellular, WiMAX, ADSL, Cable, FITL – Not economical or not reliable or both – Mostly only reach the Collector level  Interop solution: common upper layer – Network layer preferred: IP suite – Most don’t have bandwidth  Application layer instead: ANSI C12.22 – Too flexible, not enough interoperability – Need guidelines, profile from users  More bandwidth the main solution! Network A Network B AB BA

21 21 Home Area Networks  ZigBee and HomePlug alliance – Popular open specifications  LONWorks, Insteon, Z-Wave, X10 – popular proprietary networks  Challenges coming in Electric Vehicles NameNumberNotes EthernetIEEE 802.3Substation LANs, usually fiber optic WiFiIEEE 802.11Access by field tool, neighborhood AMI net ZigBeeIEEE 802.15.4Customer premises automation network HomePlug1.0, AV, BPLPowerline comms, in and outside premises 6LowPANIEEE 802.15.4The “approved” IPv6 wireless interface OpenHANHAN SRS v1.04- 2008 Power Industry requirements definition!

22 22 Submission Claudio Lima, Sonoma Innovation October 2009 The Smart Grid Communications Physical Architecture Page 6 doc.: IEEE P2030-09-0110-00-0011

23 23 NIST’s System Architecture 23

24 24 Submission Claudio Lima, Sonoma Innovation October 2009 Smart Grid Logical Communications Architecture Page 7 doc.: IEEE P2030-09-0110-00-0011

25 25 Central Generating Station Step-Up Transformer Distribution Substation Receiving Station Distribution Substation Distribution Substation Commercial Industrial Commercial Gas Turbine Recip Engine Cogeneration Recip Engine Fuel cell Micro- turbine Flywheel Residential Photo voltaics Batteries Residential Data Concentrator Control Center Data network Users Distributed Computing Infrastructure Power Infrastructure Power and Computing Infrastructure Source: EPRI IntelliGrid SM Project

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