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A Talk on Listening and Speaking Skills By Dr. K. Ratna Shiela Mani.

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Presentation on theme: "A Talk on Listening and Speaking Skills By Dr. K. Ratna Shiela Mani."— Presentation transcript:

1 A Talk on Listening and Speaking Skills By Dr. K. Ratna Shiela Mani













14 The Syllable Monosyllabic Words: - I, cat, dog, owl, harm, pen, cream, crisp, sheet, stream, spray, texts, tempts, jumps,blades,splash.

15 Disyllabic Words: - 'pencil, 'tailor, 'market, be'hind, re'ceive, 'message, 'crisis, 'order, a'pply, 'under, mis'take, 'beauty, 'colour, 'artist, de'fend, 'butter.

16 Three syllables: - ciga'rette, 'anything, 'beautiful, 'customer, 'eagerly, con'nection, di'rector, after'noon, des'tructive.

17 Four syllables: 'absolutely, 'comfortable, a'bility, for'getfulness, in'tentional, accidental, circu'lation, diplo'matic, unim'portant.

18 More than four syllables: a l ffili'ation, l agri'cultural, l nationali'zation, l au'thoritative, in l feri'ority, e l xami'nation, l oppor'tunity, per l sonifi'cation, i l dentifi'cation.


20 Stress Shift 'advertise / 'ædvətaiz / ad'vertisement/ æd'və:tizmənt / e'xamine/ ig'zæmin / exami'nee/ igzæmi'ni: / in'ferior/ in'fiəriə / inferiority/ in l fiəri'  rəti / res'ponsible/ ris'p  nsəbl / responsibility/ ris l p  nsə'biləti /


22 Stress on first element: 'air-raid'lifeboat'tea-party 'bookshelf'pickpocket'school-bus 'cardboard'postman''hairbrush 'footprint'rain-coat'crossword Primary Stress on 2 nd element: l After-'noon l post-'graduate l bad-'tempered l Vice-'chancellor

23 Functional Stress Stress change according to the function of the word Noun / Adjective Verb /'conduct / 'k  ndәktcon'duct / kәn'd  kt / /'contrast / 'k  ntrastcon'trast / kәn'tra:st / / 'convict / 'k  nvikt con'vict / kәn'vikt / / 'desert / 'dezetde'sert / di'zә:t/ / 'export / 'eksp  :tex'port / iks'p  :t/ / 'import / 'imp  :tim'port / im'p  :t / / 'object / '  bd iktob'ject / әb'd ekt/ / 'permit / 'pә:mitper'mit / pә'mit / / 'present / 'prezntpre'sent / pri'zent / exceptions a'ccount, 'limit, 'order,'promise, re'mark, 'visit

24 Word Stress – Some Rules Rule 1:Words with weak prefixes always take the accent on the root. For example, A'head, a'lone, a'cross, be'cause, be'come, bet'ween, be'neath

25 Rule 2:The inflexional suffices –ed, -es and –ing do not affect the accent.For example, -edrecom 'mendrecom 'mended re 'latere 'lated -escom 'posecom 'poses -ingad 'vancead 'vancing com 'mitcom 'mitting

26 Rule 3:The derivational suffixes –age, -ance, -en, -er, -ess, - ful, -hood, -ice, -ish, -ive, -less, -ly, -ment, -ness, -or, - ship, -ter, -ure and –zen do not normally affect the accent. For example, -age 'carry'carriage -ance an 'noy an 'noyance ap 'pear ap 'pearance -erat 'tendat 'tender per 'formper 'former -ess'actor'actress -ful'beauty'beautiful 'colour'colourful -hood'brother'brotherhood -ice'coward'cowardice -ish'fever'feverish

27 -ivea 'busea 'busive -less'colour'colourless -ly'certain'certainly -menta 'chievea 'chievement -ness'bitter'bitterness -orcol 'lectcol 'lector -ship'scholar'scholarship -ter'laugh'laughter -zen'city'citizen

28 Rule 4: Words ending in –ion take the primary accent on the penultimate syllable. admi'ration, appli'cation, combi'nation, deco'ration, exami'nation, 'question.

29 Rule 5: Words ending in –ic, ical, ically, -ious, -ial and –ially take the primary accent on the syllable preceding the suffix. -icme'chanic, apolo'getic, pa'thetic -icalme'chanical, bio'logical, e'lectrical -icallyme'chanically, 'chemically, eco'nomically -iouscere'monius, no'torious -ialcom'mercial, confi'dential, me'morial -ialllycom'mercially, dra'matically

30 Rule 6: Words ending in –ity take the accent on the ante-penultimate syllable, or the third syllable from the end. a'bility, ca'pacity, elec'tricity, gene'rosity

31 WORD STRESS - Practice 1. Functional Stress noun/adj – Verb 'conduct - Con'duct 'object- Ob'ject

32 2. Words with weak prefixes: (Stress in the root Word) a'bout - a'rise 3. Words with prefixes with meening: (stress on both the prefix and the root word) l Dis'loyal - l in sin'cere

33 4.Some disyllabic words (Stress on the second syllable) Mis'tress- dis'til - dis'band di'sease- dis'turb

34 5. - ate nar'rate mi'grate de'bate lo'cate pul'sate vi'brate

35 5. - ise 'chastise 'comprise 5. - ize 'capsize 'baptize

36 5. - ct at'tract con'nect de'pict in'fect in'ject se'lect pro'tect

37 6. - ate 'complicate 'separate 'educate 'cultivate ar'ticulate

38 6. - ise, - ize 'colonise 'enterprise 'brutalise 'realize 'recognise mo'nopolise 'jeopardise

39 6. - ify 'justify 'classify 'beautify 'certify 'gratify 'modify 'nullify 'satisfy

40 7. - ion l appli'cation l civili'zation l compo'sition l conver'sation l culti'vation exami'nation l qualifi'cation intro’duction imagi'nation 'question sug'gestion con'gestion indi'gestion

41 8. - ity a'bility elec'tricity possi'bility ac'tivity e'quality proba'bility curi'osity gene'rosity

42 9. - ic apolo'getic e'lectric sympa'thetic patri'otic scien'tific

43 9. - ical 9. - ical - ically apolo'getically -ial

44 9. -ially me'morial o'ffical presi'dential in'dustrial 'special resi'dential cere'monial e'ssential super'ficial

45 9. -ian vic'torian lib'rarian elec'trician mu'sician poli'tician discipli'narian

46 10. -ious 'anxious in'dustrious in'jurious la'borious re'bellious

47 10. -eous 'piteous 'courageous 'gorgeous 'hideous 'righteous simul'taneous 'spontaneous advan'tageous

48 11. - cracy au'tocracy de'mocracy tech'nocracy plu'tocracy aris'tocracy bu'reaucracy

49 11. - crat 'autocrat 'democrat 'technocrat 'plutocrat 'bureaucrat

50 12. - graph 'autograph 'paragraph 'photograph 'spectrograph

51 12. - graphy pho'tography spec'trography bi'ography

52 12. - meter ther'mometer lac'tometer di'ameter pa'rameter

53 12. - logy psy'chology bi'ology zo'ology

54 13. - ain ob'tain main'tain per'tain re'frain ascer'tain ex'plain re'tain

55 13. - aire millio'naire questio'nnaire

56 13. - eer engi'neer volun'teer ca'reer marke'teer mountai'neer

57 14. - ental experi'mental funda'mental acci'dental depart'mental pa'rental inci'dental - ential exis'tential

58 15. - ese Bur'mese Chi'nese Assa'mese Japa'nese Sia'mese - esce coa'lesce conva'lesce acqui'esce

59 16. - escence effer'vescence ado'lescence - escent ado'lescent effer'vescent conva'lescent

60 17. - esque Pictu'resque gro'tesque bur'lesque - ique phy'sique u'nique cri'tique tech'nique

61 18. - itis neu'ritis arth'ritis bron'chitis laryn'gitis

62 19. - ee pa'yee addre'ssee emplo'yee absen'tee

63 - ette - ette ciga'rette ga'zette silhou'ette

64 - ete - ete de'lete re'plete con'crete com'plete

65 - ade barri'cade cas'cade de'grade lemo'nade per'suade

66 20. - compounds 'blacksmith 'blackbird 'New castle 'birthday 'darning needle 'sheep dog

67 Sentence Stress Accent & Rhythm in Connected Speech In connected speech we stress those words which are important for meaning. They are called content words – nouns, demonstratives, interrogative pronouns, main verbs, adjectives & adverbs. Structural (grammatical) words are normally not stressed. They are – articles, personal and relative pronouns, auxiliary verbs, prepositions & conjunctions.

68 This 'house is for 'sale. I’ve 'finished my 'lunch. I 'want you to 'take the 'dog for a 'walk. English rhythm : In speech stressed syllables are pronounced carefully and unstressed syllables are weakened. Thus all the grammatical words will have weak forms. Eg:-and – strong from / ænd/ Weak form / Ə n / or / n /

69 butter and jam bread and butter I am 'coming = I’m coming am strong form / æm / ; weak form / m A girl / Ə gƏ:l, an apple /Ən æpl / The girl, the orange.

70 Stress in Connected Speech 1. They are pre'paring for their exami'nation. 2. Please per'mit me to pre'sent my 'case. 3. I’m dis'gusted with your be'haviour. 4. It’s a re'markable a'chievement. 5. He is a 'clever poli'tician 6. 'Meet the Di ' rector at 'ten in the 'morning. 7. 'London is the 'capital of 'England. 8. 'Green 'Vegetables are 'good for 'health. 9. I 'want to be'come an engi'neer. 10. We ex'port to'bacco to 'China.

71 Rhythm 'Jack and 'Jill went 'up the 'hill To 'fetch a 'pail of 'water 'Jack fell 'down and 'broke his 'crown And 'Jill came 'tumbling 'after. 'Twinkle, 'twinkle 'little 'star 'How I 'wonder 'what you 'are 'Up a'bove the 'world so 'high 'Like a 'diamond 'in the 'sky.

72 English Rhythm – Practice a.'Come`here 'Sit`down 'No`more 'Try`hard 'Ask`John b.'Trya`gain 'Note`nough 'Half an `inch 'Make the `tea 'Drop a `line

73 c.I `think so I 'd `like to I 'd `love to I `couldn't I `went there I d.It's `possible I 've `heard of it Get `rid of her He `borrowed it I `spoke to them

74 e.'Send him a `way 'Read it a `loud 'Give me a `pen 'Throw it a `way 'What have you `done f.I 'want to `know I 'thought I `could He 'had to `go He 'wants to `learn A 'glass of `wine

75 g.I 'wanted to `know She 'asked me to `go It 'used to be `mine You 'promised to `write I 'm 'glad you've `come I 'wanted to `see him There 's a 'hole in your `sock He 'put it on the `floor You 're 'wanted on the `phone 'What do you 'think you're `doing?

76 INTONATION Patterns of variation of the pitch of the voice constitute the Intonation of that language. It is an important feature of spoken language. Functions:Intonation indicates- a) the type of utterance said by the speaker (i.e. whether it is a question or a statement, a command or a request) b) the attitude of the speaker.

77 Intonation patterns vary from language to language. Tone -2 types (Static & Kinetic) Static Tone-stressed syllable said on a level pitch. Eg:- 'Sita is 'going to 'Delhi. Kinetic Tone-stressed syllable said with a changing pitch. Eg:- 'Sita is 'going to `Delhi.

78 Thus, Stress=Degree of prominence Tone=Stress + Pitch change All important words in a sentence are stressed. But one word (syllable) may be more important than others. It is the nucleus & it carries the tone. Eg:-I’ll 'ring you on `Monday. I’ve 'just 'bought a `car.

79 I.The Falling Tone. The pitch of the voice starts at a high level and falls to a low level on a single stressed syllable. `Thanks. `Yes. `No. Uses:- 1. In ordinary statements. 'Glad to `meet you. She can 'sing `well. I’m 'going to `London.

80 2.In wh-questions when said in a neutral way. 'What’s your `name? 'How’s your `father? 'When did you `come? 3.In commands, 'Go and `post it. 'Do it `tomorrow. 'Don’t `jump to coǹclusions. 4.In exclamations. 'How aǹnoyong! 'What 'lovely ròses ! 5.In question – tags when you expect agreement. You 'work in `London, / ‘don’t you? `yes, / I`do, You’re on `holiday, / `onen’t you? `yes, / I `am.

81 The Rising Tone The pitch of the voice starts from a low level and rises to a high level on a single stressed syllable. ِ Thanks. ِ Yes. ِ No. Uses:- 1.In incomplete utterances, often the first clause of a sentence. ِ Luckily, / the snake didn’t `bite anyone. 'When I ِ went there, / it was `dark. It I ِ go there, /I’ll 'buy you a `dress.

82 2.In Yes/No type questions. ' Can you ِ come? 'Are you ِ there? 'Is 'father at ِ home? 3.In wh-questions when said in a friendly way. 'What’s the ِ time? 'What’s the ِ matter? 'When are you ِ going?

83 4.In polite requests or encouraging invitations. 'Do sit ِdown. 'Come ِhere. 'Could I 'borrow your ِnewspaper. 'Please 'shut the ِdoor. 5.5. In question – tags when you do not expect agreement but simply seeking information. You 'work in `London, / ‘don’t you? `No, / I ِdon’t. You’re on `holiday, / ِ aren’t you? `No, / I’m ِ not.

84 Thank you

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