More than four syllables: a l ffili'ation, l agri'cultural, l nationali'zation, l au'thoritative, in l feri'ority, e l xami'nation, l oppor'tunity, per l sonifi'cation, i l dentifi'cation.
Stress Shift 'advertise / 'ædvətaiz / ad'vertisement/ æd'və:tizmənt / e'xamine/ ig'zæmin / exami'nee/ igzæmi'ni: / in'ferior/ in'fiəriə / inferiority/ in l fiəri' rəti / res'ponsible/ ris'p nsəbl / responsibility/ ris l p nsə'biləti /
Stress on first element: 'air-raid'lifeboat'tea-party 'bookshelf'pickpocket'school-bus 'cardboard'postman''hairbrush 'footprint'rain-coat'crossword Primary Stress on 2 nd element: l After-'noon l post-'graduate l bad-'tempered l Vice-'chancellor
Word Stress – Some Rules Rule 1:Words with weak prefixes always take the accent on the root. For example, A'head, a'lone, a'cross, be'cause, be'come, bet'ween, be'neath
Rule 2:The inflexional suffices –ed, -es and –ing do not affect the accent.For example, -edrecom 'mendrecom 'mended re 'latere 'lated -escom 'posecom 'poses -ingad 'vancead 'vancing com 'mitcom 'mitting
Rule 3:The derivational suffixes –age, -ance, -en, -er, -ess, - ful, -hood, -ice, -ish, -ive, -less, -ly, -ment, -ness, -or, - ship, -ter, -ure and –zen do not normally affect the accent. For example, -age 'carry'carriage -ance an 'noy an 'noyance ap 'pear ap 'pearance -erat 'tendat 'tender per 'formper 'former -ess'actor'actress -ful'beauty'beautiful 'colour'colourful -hood'brother'brotherhood -ice'coward'cowardice -ish'fever'feverish
Rule 4: Words ending in –ion take the primary accent on the penultimate syllable. admi'ration, appli'cation, combi'nation, deco'ration, exami'nation, 'question.
Rule 5: Words ending in –ic, ical, ically, -ious, -ial and –ially take the primary accent on the syllable preceding the suffix. -icme'chanic, apolo'getic, pa'thetic -icalme'chanical, bio'logical, e'lectrical -icallyme'chanically, 'chemically, eco'nomically -iouscere'monius, no'torious -ialcom'mercial, confi'dential, me'morial -ialllycom'mercially, dra'matically
Rule 6: Words ending in –ity take the accent on the ante-penultimate syllable, or the third syllable from the end. a'bility, ca'pacity, elec'tricity, gene'rosity
WORD STRESS - Practice 1. Functional Stress noun/adj – Verb 'conduct - Con'duct 'object- Ob'ject
2. Words with weak prefixes: (Stress in the root Word) a'bout - a'rise 3. Words with prefixes with meening: (stress on both the prefix and the root word) l Dis'loyal - l in sin'cere
4.Some disyllabic words (Stress on the second syllable) Mis'tress- dis'til - dis'band di'sease- dis'turb
5. - ate nar'rate mi'grate de'bate lo'cate pul'sate vi'brate
Sentence Stress Accent & Rhythm in Connected Speech In connected speech we stress those words which are important for meaning. They are called content words – nouns, demonstratives, interrogative pronouns, main verbs, adjectives & adverbs. Structural (grammatical) words are normally not stressed. They are – articles, personal and relative pronouns, auxiliary verbs, prepositions & conjunctions.
This 'house is for 'sale. I’ve 'finished my 'lunch. I 'want you to 'take the 'dog for a 'walk. English rhythm : In speech stressed syllables are pronounced carefully and unstressed syllables are weakened. Thus all the grammatical words will have weak forms. Eg:-and – strong from / ænd/ Weak form / Ə n / or / n /
butter and jam bread and butter I am 'coming = I’m coming am strong form / æm / ; weak form / m A girl / Ə gƏ:l, an apple /Ən æpl / The girl, the orange.
Stress in Connected Speech 1. They are pre'paring for their exami'nation. 2. Please per'mit me to pre'sent my 'case. 3. I’m dis'gusted with your be'haviour. 4. It’s a re'markable a'chievement. 5. He is a 'clever poli'tician 6. 'Meet the Di ' rector at 'ten in the 'morning. 7. 'London is the 'capital of 'England. 8. 'Green 'Vegetables are 'good for 'health. 9. I 'want to be'come an engi'neer. 10. We ex'port to'bacco to 'China.
Rhythm 'Jack and 'Jill went 'up the 'hill To 'fetch a 'pail of 'water 'Jack fell 'down and 'broke his 'crown And 'Jill came 'tumbling 'after. 'Twinkle, 'twinkle 'little 'star 'How I 'wonder 'what you 'are 'Up a'bove the 'world so 'high 'Like a 'diamond 'in the 'sky.
English Rhythm – Practice a.'Come`here 'Sit`down 'No`more 'Try`hard 'Ask`John b.'Trya`gain 'Note`nough 'Half an `inch 'Make the `tea 'Drop a `line
c.I `think so I 'd `like to I 'd `love to I `couldn't I `went there I d.It's `possible I 've `heard of it Get `rid of her He `borrowed it I `spoke to them
e.'Send him a `way 'Read it a `loud 'Give me a `pen 'Throw it a `way 'What have you `done f.I 'want to `know I 'thought I `could He 'had to `go He 'wants to `learn A 'glass of `wine
g.I 'wanted to `know She 'asked me to `go It 'used to be `mine You 'promised to `write I 'm 'glad you've `come I 'wanted to `see him There 's a 'hole in your `sock He 'put it on the `floor You 're 'wanted on the `phone 'What do you 'think you're `doing?
INTONATION Patterns of variation of the pitch of the voice constitute the Intonation of that language. It is an important feature of spoken language. Functions:Intonation indicates- a) the type of utterance said by the speaker (i.e. whether it is a question or a statement, a command or a request) b) the attitude of the speaker.
Intonation patterns vary from language to language. Tone -2 types (Static & Kinetic) Static Tone-stressed syllable said on a level pitch. Eg:- 'Sita is 'going to 'Delhi. Kinetic Tone-stressed syllable said with a changing pitch. Eg:- 'Sita is 'going to `Delhi.
Thus, Stress=Degree of prominence Tone=Stress + Pitch change All important words in a sentence are stressed. But one word (syllable) may be more important than others. It is the nucleus & it carries the tone. Eg:-I’ll 'ring you on `Monday. I’ve 'just 'bought a `car.
I.The Falling Tone. The pitch of the voice starts at a high level and falls to a low level on a single stressed syllable. `Thanks. `Yes. `No. Uses:- 1. In ordinary statements. 'Glad to `meet you. She can 'sing `well. I’m 'going to `London.
2.In wh-questions when said in a neutral way. 'What’s your `name? 'How’s your `father? 'When did you `come? 3.In commands, 'Go and `post it. 'Do it `tomorrow. 'Don’t `jump to coǹclusions. 4.In exclamations. 'How aǹnoyong! 'What 'lovely ròses ! 5.In question – tags when you expect agreement. You 'work in `London, / ‘don’t you? `yes, / I`do, You’re on `holiday, / `onen’t you? `yes, / I `am.
The Rising Tone The pitch of the voice starts from a low level and rises to a high level on a single stressed syllable. ِ Thanks. ِ Yes. ِ No. Uses:- 1.In incomplete utterances, often the first clause of a sentence. ِ Luckily, / the snake didn’t `bite anyone. 'When I ِ went there, / it was `dark. It I ِ go there, /I’ll 'buy you a `dress.
2.In Yes/No type questions. ' Can you ِ come? 'Are you ِ there? 'Is 'father at ِ home? 3.In wh-questions when said in a friendly way. 'What’s the ِ time? 'What’s the ِ matter? 'When are you ِ going?
4.In polite requests or encouraging invitations. 'Do sit ِdown. 'Come ِhere. 'Could I 'borrow your ِnewspaper. 'Please 'shut the ِdoor. 5.5. In question – tags when you do not expect agreement but simply seeking information. You 'work in `London, / ‘don’t you? `No, / I ِdon’t. You’re on `holiday, / ِ aren’t you? `No, / I’m ِ not.