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Diet and Lifestyle Influences on Prostate Cancer Keith D. Bishop Clinical Nutritionist B.Sc. Pharmacy.

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Presentation on theme: "Diet and Lifestyle Influences on Prostate Cancer Keith D. Bishop Clinical Nutritionist B.Sc. Pharmacy."— Presentation transcript:

1 Diet and Lifestyle Influences on Prostate Cancer Keith D. Bishop Clinical Nutritionist B.Sc. Pharmacy

2 Copyright 2009 Keith D. Bishop, Clinical Nutritionist, B.Sc. Pharmacy  The following research summary is for information and education use only.  The information and commentary provided are not intended to replace your doctors care.  You should consult with your health care provider before making changes in your diet, lifestyle and supplement program.

3 Copyright 2009 Keith D. Bishop, Clinical Nutritionist, B.Sc. Pharmacy Prostate Cancer: Diet and Lifestyle  I’m providing a summary of recent research on the effects diet and lifestyle has on prostate cancer.  This research information will enlighten and empower you in your quest for a healthier life.

4 Copyright 2009 Keith D. Bishop, Clinical Nutritionist, B.Sc. Pharmacy Prostate Cancer: Diet and Lifestyle  You will have the basic tools to maximize your body’s ability to fight prostate cancer, all other cancers and most other causes of early death.

5 Copyright 2009 Keith D. Bishop, Clinical Nutritionist, B.Sc. Pharmacy Prostate Cancer: Risks  Prostate cancer does not have a single cause.  Prostate cancer grows over many years before being diagnosed.  Prostate cancer does have some risk factors including age, race and family history or genetics.

6 Copyright 2009 Keith D. Bishop, Clinical Nutritionist, B.Sc. Pharmacy Prostate Cancer: Risks  Research shows many modifiable factors in our environment, diet and lifestyle influence the prevention, development, growth and death of prostate cancer cells.  Our body has natural mechanisms that can assist or hinder the ability to fight cancers.

7 Copyright 2009 Keith D. Bishop, Clinical Nutritionist, B.Sc. Pharmacy Prostate Cancer: Risks  It’s estimated that 50% of cancer is preventable.  Methods Mol Biol. 2009;472:25-56  One-third of the more than 500,000 cancer deaths that occur in the United States each year can be attributed to diet and physical activity habits, including overweight and obesity, while another third is caused by exposure to tobacco products. (66%)  CA Cancer J Clin 2006; 56:

8 Copyright 2009 Keith D. Bishop, Clinical Nutritionist, B.Sc. Pharmacy Prostate Cancer Fruits and Vegetables  Increased intake of bell peppers and broccoli decreased the risk of prostate cancer.  Fruit and other vegetables did not appear to decrease the risk of prostate cancer in this study.  Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis. 2008;11(1):61-6

9 Copyright 2009 Keith D. Bishop, Clinical Nutritionist, B.Sc. Pharmacy Prostate Cancer Fruits and Vegetables  Consuming broccoli interacts with GSTM1 genotype to result in complex changes to signaling pathways associated with inflammation and carcinogenesis in the prostate.  PLoS ONE Jul 2;3(7):e2568.

10 Copyright 2009 Keith D. Bishop, Clinical Nutritionist, B.Sc. Pharmacy Prostate Cancer: Fruits and Vegetables  Prostate cancer rates were lowest in those men with diets rich in fruits and vegetables.  Researchers recommended health practitioners apply these dietary factors to try to reduce the incidence of prostate cancer.  Aust Fam Physician Apr;34(4):265-7.

11 Copyright 2009 Keith D. Bishop, Clinical Nutritionist, B.Sc. Pharmacy Prostate Cancer: Fruits and Vegetables  Regular consumption of tomatoes and tomato products can be recommended for the prevention of PCA.  Aktuelle Urol Jan;40(1):  Higher tomato sauce intake is fatal for prostate cancer.  Int J Cancer Oct 1;121(7):

12 Copyright 2009 Keith D. Bishop, Clinical Nutritionist, B.Sc. Pharmacy Prostate Cancer: Fruits and Vegetables  Men with recurring cancer consumed a combined tomato-rich diet and soy protein supplements for 8 weeks.  > 25 mg of lycopene/day  mean soy intake was 39 g / day  Serum PSA decreased for 34% (14/41) of the men.  Nutr Cancer. 2008;60(2):

13 Copyright 2009 Keith D. Bishop, Clinical Nutritionist, B.Sc. Pharmacy Prostate Cancer: Omega-3 Fatty Acids  Omega-3 reduce inflammation and pain  EPA (eicosapentanoic acid) and DHA (docosahexanoic acid)  Sources: Fish Oils  ALA (alpha linolenic acid)  Flax Seed, Walnuts, Canola Oil

14 Copyright 2009 Keith D. Bishop, Clinical Nutritionist, B.Sc. Pharmacy Prostate Cancer: Omega-3 Fatty Acids  Protective for aggressive prostate cancer, and this effect is modified by the COX-2 SNP rs  Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids may impact prostate inflammation and carcinogenesis through the COX-2 (inflammation) enzymatic pathway.  Clin Cancer Res Apr 1;15(7):

15 Copyright 2009 Keith D. Bishop, Clinical Nutritionist, B.Sc. Pharmacy Prostate Cancer: Omega-3 Fatty Acids  Dietary Omega-3 fatty acids may enhance the response of prostate cancer to removal therapy and retard progression to androgen-independent growth by altering tumor fatty acid content.  Am J Pathol Jul;173(1):

16 Copyright 2009 Keith D. Bishop, Clinical Nutritionist, B.Sc. Pharmacy Prostate Cancer: Omega-3 Fatty Acids  EPA and DHA intakes may reduce the risk of total and advanced prostate cancer.  Am J Clin Nutr Jul;80(1):

17 Copyright 2009 Keith D. Bishop, Clinical Nutritionist, B.Sc. Pharmacy Prostate Cancer: Omega-3 Fatty Acids  A reduced risk of prostate cancer associated with dietary fish oils, possibly acting via inhibition of arachidonic acid- derived eicosanoid biosynthesis.  Br J Cancer Dec;81(7):

18 Copyright 2009 Keith D. Bishop, Clinical Nutritionist, B.Sc. Pharmacy Prostate Cancer: Omega 6 Fatty Acids  Cause inflammation and pain  Linoleic acid  Corn oil  Safflower oil  Sunflower oil  Arachidonic acid  Animal Fat

19 Copyright 2009 Keith D. Bishop, Clinical Nutritionist, B.Sc. Pharmacy Prostate Cancer: Omega 6 Fatty Acids  Diets high in Omega-6 fatty acids are associated with an increased risk of bone metastasis from prostate cancers  Arachidonic acid (AA) and its precursor linoleic acid can be metabolized to produce pro-inflammatory chemicals.  Endocr Relat Cancer Mar;15(1):

20 Copyright 2009 Keith D. Bishop, Clinical Nutritionist, B.Sc. Pharmacy Prostate Cancer: Flax Seed  Studies examining the relation between ALA and prostate cancer have produced inconsistent findings.  High ALA intakes or high blood and adipose tissue concentrations of ALA may be associated with a small increased risk of prostate cancer.  Am J Clin Nutr Mar 25

21 Copyright 2009 Keith D. Bishop, Clinical Nutritionist, B.Sc. Pharmacy Prostate Cancer: Fats  There is a positive association between palmitic acid and risk of total, localized, and low-grade prostate cancer.  Palmitic acid is found in palm oil, dairy products and meat.  Am J Clin Nutr Nov;88(5):

22 Copyright 2009 Keith D. Bishop, Clinical Nutritionist, B.Sc. Pharmacy Prostate Cancer: Fats  High serum myristic acid associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer  Myristic acid is found in palm and coconut oils.  Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev Dec;12(12):  Margarine intake was positively associated with prostate cancer  Cancer Causes Control Feb;15(1):11-20.

23 Copyright 2009 Keith D. Bishop, Clinical Nutritionist, B.Sc. Pharmacy Prostate Cancer: Omega-9 Fatty Acids  A low ratio of oleic-to-stearic acid associated with prostate cancer risk. (oleic acid is protective)  Oleic acid is an Omega-9  Stearic Acid is a thickening agent use in food preparation and common in desserts, chocolate and candy.  J Urol Dec;178(6):2391-6

24 Copyright 2009 Keith D. Bishop, Clinical Nutritionist, B.Sc. Pharmacy Prostate Cancer: Omega-9 Fatty Acids  Olive oil  Avocado  Peanuts  Almonds

25 Copyright 2009 Keith D. Bishop, Clinical Nutritionist, B.Sc. Pharmacy Prostate Cancer: Trans Fatty Acids  Blood levels of trans-fats are associated with an increased risk of non-aggressive prostate tumors.  Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev Jan;17(1):  Trans Fats: hydrogenated or partially hydrogenated fats and oils. Read your food labels.

26 Copyright 2009 Keith D. Bishop, Clinical Nutritionist, B.Sc. Pharmacy Prostate Cancer: Trans Fatty Acids  A strong interaction between risk and trans-FA intake for the RNASEL QQ/RQ genotype that is present in about 35 % of the population.  Nutr Res Rev Dec;21(2):

27 Copyright 2009 Keith D. Bishop, Clinical Nutritionist, B.Sc. Pharmacy Prostate Cancer: Oxidative Damage  MDA (malondialdehyde) levels were significantly higher in patients with prostate cancer  Clin Chem Lab Med. 2006;44(2):  The MDA levels were higher and the antioxidant activity and zinc levels lower in the prostate cancer groups than in the healthy control.  Biol Trace Elem Res Apr;98(1):13-19

28 Copyright 2009 Keith D. Bishop, Clinical Nutritionist, B.Sc. Pharmacy Prostate Cancer: MDA  MDA is elevated by  Low vegetable and fruit intake  Elevated toxic metals and minerals  Mercury, lead, cadmium, arsenic, copper, etc.  MDA Oxidative Free Radical Urine Tests and Heavy Metal Urine Tests are available with out a prescription.

29 Copyright 2009 Keith D. Bishop, Clinical Nutritionist, B.Sc. Pharmacy Prostate Cancer: Copper  Consistently, high levels of copper have been found in many types of human cancers, including prostate, breast, colon, and lung. Recent studies suggest that copper (removal) could be used as a novel selective target for cancer therapies.  Cancer Res Feb 15;67(4):

30 Copyright 2009 Keith D. Bishop, Clinical Nutritionist, B.Sc. Pharmacy Prostate Cancer: Copper  Copper was higher (p<0.001) in patients with prostate cancer than in controls.  Clin Chem Lab Med. 2006;44(2):  Copper is a co-factor essential for tumor angiogenesis (growth of new blood vessels) processes and high levels of copper have been found in many types of human cancers, including prostate, breast and brain.  Front Biosci Sep 1;10: 

31 Copyright 2009 Keith D. Bishop, Clinical Nutritionist, B.Sc. Pharmacy Prostate Cancer: Lead  Environmental exposure of aging males to lead may be a risk factor for prostate cancer and/or benign prostate hyperplasia possibly through generation of reactive oxygen species and/or reducing the level of zinc which acts as a cellular growth protector.  Biomed Environ Sci Dec;15(4): 

32 Copyright 2009 Keith D. Bishop, Clinical Nutritionist, B.Sc. Pharmacy Prostate Cancer: Carbohydrates  Tumor growth can be altered by either a vegan low-fat diet or eliminating simple carbohydrates accompanied by weight loss.  Curr Opin Urol May;19(3):  Starch food intake was directly associated with prostate cancer risk.  Ann Oncol Jan;16(1):152-7.

33 Copyright 2009 Keith D. Bishop, Clinical Nutritionist, B.Sc. Pharmacy Prostate Cancer: Carbohydrates  Increased risk of prostate cancer was associated with the highest servings of grains.  Nutr Cancer. 2009;61(2):

34 Copyright 2009 Keith D. Bishop, Clinical Nutritionist, B.Sc. Pharmacy Prostate Cancer: Soy  A daily diet containing four slices of a bread rich in soy grits favorably influences the PSA level and the free/total PSA ratio in patients with prostate cancer.  This work provides some evidence to support epidemiologic studies claiming that male populations who consume high phytoestrogen diets have a reduced risk of prostate cancer development and progression.  Urology Sep;64(3):510-5

35 Copyright 2009 Keith D. Bishop, Clinical Nutritionist, B.Sc. Pharmacy Prostate Cancer: Cholesterol  High cholesterol may increase the risk of prostate cancer.  Cancer Causes Control Dec;19(10):  Men with low cholesterol had a lower risk of high-grade prostate cancer.  Int J Cancer Oct 1;123(7):

36 Copyright 2009 Keith D. Bishop, Clinical Nutritionist, B.Sc. Pharmacy Prostate Cancer: Sunshine and Vitamin D  Elevated PSA was associated with seasons (spring and winter) and being isolated indoors.  Eur Urol Sep;52(3):  Patients diagnosed during the summer and autumn had the best prognosis.  Prostate Sep 1;67(12):

37 Copyright 2009 Keith D. Bishop, Clinical Nutritionist, B.Sc. Pharmacy Prostate Cancer: Sunshine and Vitamin D  It is estimated that there is a 30 to 50% reduction in risk for developing colorectal, breast, and prostate cancer by either increasing vitamin D intake to least 1000 IU/d vitamin D or increasing sun exposure to raise blood levels of 25(OH)D >30 ng/ml.  Clin J Am Soc Nephrol Sep;3(5):

38 Copyright 2009 Keith D. Bishop, Clinical Nutritionist, B.Sc. Pharmacy Prostate Cancer: Sunshine and Vitamin D  Geographic distribution of prostate cancer mortality is the inverse of that of UV radiation.  This effect is strongest in counties north of 40 degrees N latitude, where vitamin D synthesis is limited to non-winter months.  These findings add additional support for the hypothesis that vitamin D insufficiency increases risk for prostate cancer.  Cancer Causes Control Oct;17(8):

39 Copyright 2009 Keith D. Bishop, Clinical Nutritionist, B.Sc. Pharmacy Prostate Cancer: Sunshine and Vitamin D  Statistically significant correlations of effective or actual survival rates with increasing latitude were found for breast, colon, gastric, lung, ovarian, pancreatic, prostate and renal cancer, and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.  Five-year survival rates south of 50 degrees N were 20%-50% higher than those near 55 degrees N.  Anticancer Res Jul-Aug;26(4A):

40 Copyright 2009 Keith D. Bishop, Clinical Nutritionist, B.Sc. Pharmacy Prostate Cancer: Sunshine and Vitamin D  Get a Blood Test!  25 Hydroxyvitamin D3  Available through your doctor or my office.

41 Copyright 2009 Keith D. Bishop, Clinical Nutritionist, B.Sc. Pharmacy Prostate Cancer: Dairy  Skim milk, but not other dairy foods, was associated with increased risk of advanced prostate cancer.  In contrast, calcium from nondairy foods was associated with lower risk of non- advanced prostate cancer.  Am J Epidemiol Dec 1;166(11):

42 Copyright 2009 Keith D. Bishop, Clinical Nutritionist, B.Sc. Pharmacy Prostate Cancer: Dairy  Low-fat milk is a potential risk factor for prostate cancer.  Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev May;

43 Copyright 2009 Keith D. Bishop, Clinical Nutritionist, B.Sc. Pharmacy Prostate Cancer: Obesity  The increase in obesity from 1980 to 2002 increased high-grade prostate cancer incidence by 15.5% and prostate cancer mortality by between 7.0% and 23.0%  Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev Mar;18(3):808-15

44 Copyright 2009 Keith D. Bishop, Clinical Nutritionist, B.Sc. Pharmacy Prostate Cancer: Obesity  BMI (body mass index) appeared to have no prognostic value for chemotherapy failure in Dutch patients with clinically localized prostate cancer and treated with prostate removal.  BJU Int Feb 11

45 Copyright 2009 Keith D. Bishop, Clinical Nutritionist, B.Sc. Pharmacy Prostate Cancer: Obesity  Higher BMI correlated strongly with black race, the presence of extra-capsular extension, and higher pathologic stage.  Prostate Apr 1;69(5):520-7.

46 Copyright 2009 Keith D. Bishop, Clinical Nutritionist, B.Sc. Pharmacy Prostate Cancer: Obesity  Weight but not prevalent diabetes is associated with greater prostate cancer mortality in men receiving combined modality treatment for locally advanced disease.  J Clin Oncol Sep 10;26(26):

47 Copyright 2009 Keith D. Bishop, Clinical Nutritionist, B.Sc. Pharmacy Prostate Cancer: Obesity  Obese patients that receive radiation therapy have a very high failure rate.  Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys Mar 15;73(4):

48 Copyright 2009 Keith D. Bishop, Clinical Nutritionist, B.Sc. Pharmacy Prostate Cancer: Obesity  Serum PSA level is influenced by some components of the metabolic syndrome (obesity, diastolic BP, HDL, and fasting blood glucose).  Urology Oct;72(4):749-54;

49 Copyright 2009 Keith D. Bishop, Clinical Nutritionist, B.Sc. Pharmacy Prostate Cancer: Obesity  Free BMI calculator is available at

50 Copyright 2009 Keith D. Bishop, Clinical Nutritionist, B.Sc. Pharmacy Prostate Cancer: Calories  High energy intake (calories) may increase the risk of prostate (especially advanced prostate cancer).  Prostate Apr 1;69(5):520-7

51 Copyright 2009 Keith D. Bishop, Clinical Nutritionist, B.Sc. Pharmacy Prostate Cancer: Exercise  Physical activity did not predict prostate cancer mortality  J Phys Act Health Nov;5(6):  There was a significantly increased risk of prostate cancer in the most active men compared with the least active men.  Eur J Epidemiol. 2008;23(11):

52 Copyright 2009 Keith D. Bishop, Clinical Nutritionist, B.Sc. Pharmacy Prostate Cancer: Exercise  Prostate cancer survivors were more likely to be active.  Cancer Jun;112(11):  Higher vigorous physical activity level was associated with lower risk.  Int J Cancer Oct 1;121(7):

53 Copyright 2009 Keith D. Bishop, Clinical Nutritionist, B.Sc. Pharmacy Prostate Cancer: Alcohol  Slightly lower risks were observed for men who consumed 4 glasses/week.  Int J Cancer Apr 1;120(7):

54 Copyright 2009 Keith D. Bishop, Clinical Nutritionist, B.Sc. Pharmacy Prostate Cancer: Alcohol  Men who consumed more than one drink per month had a small increased risk of prostate cancer  White wine consumption was associated with increased risk  Red wine, liquor, and beer were not associated with prostate cancer  Nutr Cancer. 2006;56(1):50-6.

55 Copyright 2009 Keith D. Bishop, Clinical Nutritionist, B.Sc. Pharmacy Prostate Cancer: Alcohol  Consumption of beer or liquor is not associated with prostate cancer. There may be, however, a reduced relative risk associated with increasing level of red wine consumption.  Int J Cancer Jan 1;113(1):

56 Copyright 2009 Keith D. Bishop, Clinical Nutritionist, B.Sc. Pharmacy Prostate Cancer: Meat  Three month randomized trial showed significant reduction in the consumption of saturated fat, animal protein, and increased consumption of vegetable proteins increased the PSA doubling time in the intervention group compared to controls. They also showed improved quality of life.  Urology Dec;72(6): Epub 2008 Apr 8.

57 Copyright 2009 Keith D. Bishop, Clinical Nutritionist, B.Sc. Pharmacy Prostate Cancer: Meat  Increased risk of prostate cancer was associated with the highest intake of meat protein.  Nutr Cancer. 2009;61(2):

58 Copyright 2009 Keith D. Bishop, Clinical Nutritionist, B.Sc. Pharmacy Prostate Cancer: Grilled Meat  Grilled red meat consumption was significantly associated with higher growth levels in tumor cells. (Heterocyclic amines)  Grilled hamburger consumption had the highest association with growth levels.  Grilled white meat had a slight increase in growth levels.  Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev Apr;16(4):803-8

59 Copyright 2009 Keith D. Bishop, Clinical Nutritionist, B.Sc. Pharmacy Health Nut Rx – Natural Care Solution Collonade Center 9612 N. May Avenue, OKC, OK


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