Presentation on theme: "Insights from Radio Wavelengths into Supernova Progenitors Laura Chomiuk Jansky Fellow, Michigan State University."— Presentation transcript:
Insights from Radio Wavelengths into Supernova Progenitors Laura Chomiuk Jansky Fellow, Michigan State University
Supernova Types: I vs. II Type I: No Hydrogen Thermonuclear WD explosions (Ia) and Core collapse of massive stars stripped of H envelopes (Ib/c) Type II: Show Hydrogen Core collapse of massive stars with H envelope
Supernova Types: A Continuum of H-richness Ic (No H) (No He) Ib (No H) IIb (H goes away) II (some H) IIn (Lots of H)
(Smartt 2009) A diverse, complicated zoo of massive stars and core- collapse SNe + SNe Ia
Searching for SN progenitors directly with optical imaging SN 2005gl Before During After
Or, constraining SN progenitors indirectly- - in the radio Soderberg et al (2008)
1970 SN 1970G: The first SN detected in the radio (Gottesman et al. 1972, Goss et al. 1973)
SN 20 cm Weiler et al. (2011) absorbed (either free-free or synchrotron) synchrotron τ ≈ 1 fading because blast decelerates and CSM decreases in density
v w ≈ 30 km/s v sn ≈ 10,000 km/s SN blast probes ~1 year of mass loss in one day!
What makes a SN bright at radio wavelengths? A fast blastwave Expansion into dense surroundings
Radio bolsters a division in Type I SNe: Type Ib/c: Show radio emission, core collapse Type Ia: No radio emission, thermonuclear (Panagia et al. 1986)
Relativistic SN 1998bw associated with GRB (Kulkarni et al. 1998, Wieringa et al. 1999)(Galama et al. 1998)
A diversity of mass loss histories SN 2003bg (Soderberg et al. 2006)
Shells, Spirals, and Shelves SN 1993J (Weiler et al. 2007) SN 2007bg (Salas et al. 2012) (Ryder et al. 2004) SN 2001ig
SNe Ib/c: WR stars or interacting binaries?
Mdot/v wind = M yr -1 / km s SNe Ib/c show mass loss rates consistent with WR stars.
Still no radio emission from SNe Ia (Panagia et al. 2006) Time Since Explosion (Days) Radio Luminosity (erg/s/Hz)
WD + Giant WD + Sub- giant or Main Sequence WD + WD (NASA/Swift/ Aurore Simonnet, Sonoma State Univ.) Different progenitor models predict different circumbinary environments.
...And still no radio emission from SNe Ia! Assumes v w = 50 km/s VLA JVLA n ISM = 1 cm -3 M = M yr
Strong limits on the environment of SN 2011fe from EVLA (Chomiuk et al. 2012, Horesh et al. 2011) SN 2011fe assumes v w = 50 km/s n ISM = 1 cm -3 M = M yr -1.
Chomiuk et al. (2012), Margutti et al. (2012) Strong limits on the environment of SN 2011fe from EVLA
SN 2009ip: Watching an LBV explode (Mauerhan et al. 2012)
SN 2009ip: No longer an impostor since ~Sept 15 No radio detection yet; VLA monitoring ongoing
SN 1970G revisited 33.7 ± GHz (Dittman et al. in prep)
SN 1970G consistently challenges our radio facilities (Stockdale et al. 2001, Dittman et al. in prep)
SN 1970G: Decline in Radio + Rise in X- rays = Compact Object? (Dittman et al. in prep)
Radio light curves of SNe trace mass loss histories of progenitors Discovery of first radio SN Theory of radio SN Type I SNe split into Ia and Ib/c Long GRB associated with a relat-ivistic SN Diversity of mass loss histories Ib/c mass loss consistent with WR No Ia radio detections Jansky VLA Era: Sensitivity Bonanza! Relativistic SNe w/o GRBs Still no Ia radio detections
A continuum in blast wave velocities between normal SNe Ib/c and GRBs (Soderberg et al. 2010, more in prep)