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3rd European Conference on Positive Psychology, Braga, 4 July 2006 Some Predictors of Life Satisfaction in Older Men and Women in Western Croatia Marlena.

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Presentation on theme: "3rd European Conference on Positive Psychology, Braga, 4 July 2006 Some Predictors of Life Satisfaction in Older Men and Women in Western Croatia Marlena."— Presentation transcript:

1 3rd European Conference on Positive Psychology, Braga, 4 July 2006 Some Predictors of Life Satisfaction in Older Men and Women in Western Croatia Marlena Plavšić Association of Psychologists of Istria Neala Ambrosi-Randić Faculty of Philosophy, Pula, Univ. of Rijeka

2 3rd European Conference on Positive Psychology, Braga, 4 July 2006 Demographic picture – older than 60

3 3rd European Conference on Positive Psychology, Braga, 4 July 2006 Life satisfaction and elderly life satisfaction - critical dimension, directly attributable to elderly’s quality of life life satisfaction - concerned with the experience of life rather than the conditions of life

4 3rd European Conference on Positive Psychology, Braga, 4 July 2006 Life satisfaction and elderly positive levels of life satisfaction - normative throughout the world (exception: severely economically disadvantaged communities) positive levels of life satisfaction - normative throughout the world (exception: severely economically disadvantaged communities) little or no support is found for gender differences in satisfaction with life little or no support is found for gender differences in satisfaction with life

5 3rd European Conference on Positive Psychology, Braga, 4 July 2006 Study in Croatia (Plavšić and Ambrosi-Randić, 2005) majority of elderly report high satisfaction with their overall lives and important specific domains such as family, friends, living environment, self and job no gender differences were found however, the results revealed numerous gender differences in other groups of variables

6 3rd European Conference on Positive Psychology, Braga, 4 July 2006 Purpose of the study to investigate whether: socio-demographic socio-demographic problems related problems related health related and health related and activity related variables activity related variables predict satisfaction with life in men and women

7 3rd European Conference on Positive Psychology, Braga, 4 July 2006 Sample 452 subjects 452 subjects random sample (from the elections’ lists) random sample (from the elections’ lists) years old (M=70.7) years old (M=70.7) from Western Croatia (Istrian county) from Western Croatia (Istrian county) from 12 communities grouped in 3 sizes: smaller, medium, large from 12 communities grouped in 3 sizes: smaller, medium, large

8 3rd European Conference on Positive Psychology, Braga, 4 July 2006 Measures a modified version of the Questionnaire on needs and quality of life developed by Takšić and Spitek a modified version of the Questionnaire on needs and quality of life developed by Takšić and Spitek a modified version of Life satisfaction scale constructed by Huebner, Drane and Valois (5 - point responses: from completely satisfied to completely dissatisfied) a modified version of Life satisfaction scale constructed by Huebner, Drane and Valois (5 - point responses: from completely satisfied to completely dissatisfied)

9 3rd European Conference on Positive Psychology, Braga, 4 July 2006 Procedure this is a part of a larger survey studying needs and quality of life of elderly in Western Croatia this is a part of a larger survey studying needs and quality of life of elderly in Western Croatia it took part from Nov Jan 2005 it took part from Nov Jan 2005 individual administration of questionnaires individual administration of questionnaires

10 3rd European Conference on Positive Psychology, Braga, 4 July 2006 Groups of variables – predictors to life satisfaction socio-demographic (marital, educational, material status, social contacts) socio-demographic (marital, educational, material status, social contacts) problems problems health-related (health status, presence of illnesses) health-related (health status, presence of illnesses) activity-related (home-, culture, sport- related activities) activity-related (home-, culture, sport- related activities)

11 3rd European Conference on Positive Psychology, Braga, 4 July 2006 Marital status married married divorced divorced never married never married widowed widowed

12 3rd European Conference on Positive Psychology, Braga, 4 July 2006 Educational background uncompleted elementary school completed elementary school completed high school completed college

13 3rd European Conference on Positive Psychology, Braga, 4 July 2006 Self-estimated material status – compared with peers better than others’ better than others’ similar to others’ similar to others’ worse than others’ worse than others’

14 3rd European Conference on Positive Psychology, Braga, 4 July 2006 Social relationships (frequency and quality) with: the spouse children and grandchildren siblings and relatives friends neighbours colleagues parents

15 3rd European Conference on Positive Psychology, Braga, 4 July 2006 Problems money money health health loneliness loneliness fear of ageing fear of ageing medical/health services medical/health services boredom boredom repairing tools repairing tools public transport public transport helplessness housekeeping food supply environmental maintenance living conditions family relationships personal hygiene

16 3rd European Conference on Positive Psychology, Braga, 4 July 2006 Health-related variables Self-evaluated health status: rather healthy rather healthy neither healthy, nor ill neither healthy, nor ill sickly sickly suffering of one/more illness(es) suffering of one/more illness(es) Self-evaluated presence of: cardiac insufficiency, high pressure pulmonary problems endocrine problems rheumatic disease loss of visual ability digestive diseases allergies loss of auditory acuity cancer neurotic and mental illness

17 3rd European Conference on Positive Psychology, Braga, 4 July 2006 Activities – composite of: watching TV watching TV housekeeping housekeeping listening to radio listening to radio reading reading walking walking time with grandchildren time with grandchildren gardening gardening taking care of domestic animals taking care of domestic animals fixing, repairing fixing, repairing going to church solving crosswords handicrafts chess, cards sports/recreation club activities taking care of parents cultural events computers

18 3rd European Conference on Positive Psychology, Braga, 4 July 2006 For both - men and women life satisfaction positively correlates with: activities activities social relationships social relationships material status material status educational background educational background illness illness negatively correlates with: problems marital status

19 3rd European Conference on Positive Psychology, Braga, 4 July 2006 Results of multiple regression significant predictors for life satisfaction For men less problems less problems more social relationships more social relationships more activities more activities lower education lower education better evaluated health better evaluated health more illnesses more illnesses For women: less problems more social relationships

20 3rd European Conference on Positive Psychology, Braga, 4 July 2006 Results of regression analyses of life satisfaction for women (n = 158)

21 3rd European Conference on Positive Psychology, Braga, 4 July 2006 Results of regression analyses of life satisfaction for men (n = 131)

22 3rd European Conference on Positive Psychology, Braga, 4 July 2006 Conclusion Although older men and women expressed the same high levels of life satisfaction, these high scores may be explainable, as least partly, with different variables reflecting men and women’s different gender life styles

23 3rd European Conference on Positive Psychology, Braga, 4 July 2006 Appendices

24 Means and standard deviations of all measures VariablesMenWomen MSDMSD Life satisfaction Marital status Material status Educational background Social relationships Activities Problems Health Illnesses

25 3rd European Conference on Positive Psychology, Braga, 4 July 2006 Correlations between all measures for women (n = 158) and men (n = 131) SatisActivProblSocMaritMaterEducHealIlln Satis Activ Probl Soc Marit Mater Educ Health Illness

26 3rd European Conference on Positive Psychology, Braga, 4 July 2006 Correlations between socio- demographic, activity related, health related variables and life satisfaction Variables Life satisfaction Men Life satisfaction Women Marital status Material status Educational background Social relationships Activities Problems Health Illnesses

27 3rd European Conference on Positive Psychology, Braga, 4 July 2006 Multiple linear regression analysis of life satisfaction for women Variablesβtp Problems Social relationships R = 0.63 R 2 = 0.40 F (8, 149) = p<0.001

28 3rd European Conference on Positive Psychology, Braga, 4 July 2006 Multiple linear regression analysis of life satisfaction for men Variablesβtp Problems Social relat Activities Education Health Illness R = 0.68 R 2 = 0.46 F (8, 122) = p<0.001


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