Read ing Warming up Compre- hension & Sentence Vocabu- lary & Phrase Structure
B VWOPS Warming up 1. Please describe the general negotiation phases. 2. Which phases do negotiators from China and from Australia respectively spend their great time on? 3. What do negotiators from Australia usually do during the phase Debriefing do? 4. Why is it important to do cultural homework before international negotiation?
B VWOPS Listening 1 To achieve a favorable outcome from the negotiations, an exporter should draw up a plan of act on beforehand, which addresses a few key issues. Experienced negotiators consider that as much as 80% of the r overall time devoted to negotiations should go to such preparations. The preliminary work should be a med at obtaining relevant information on the target market and the buyers of the product. It should also include developing counter-proposals if objections are raised on any of the exporter’s opening negotiating points. The preparations should thus involve formulating the
B VWOPS Listening 1 the negotiating strategy and tactics. In international marketing negotiations, it is advisable for small- and medium sized exporters not just to limit their discussions on pricing issues, although pricing is a key factor in any business transaction, exporters should give more attention to the full range of marketing factors. They should stress the strengths of their firms and products and match them with the perceived needs of the buyers. Once these issues have been covered, they can consider the quest on of price and are able to develop a profitable business.
B VWOPS 2. Listen to the passage. Then fill in the blanks with the missing words you hear. Negotiations work (1). This is particularly so in international business since it is mostly through negotiations that exporters and importers (2) their differences and reach a (3) and mutually satisfactory deal. By (4) a more comprehensive negotiating (5) in a well planned and (6) manner, exporters should be able to improve the (7) of their business discussions and in the long (8) the profitability of their export operations. To avoid being (9) by costly demands, an exporter should try to determine the buyer’s real interest in the product from the (10). Listening 1 wonders bridge fair presenting packagingorganized effectiveness term confronted outset
B VWOPS 3. Listen to the passage again and choose the best answer from the choices given. (1) C (2) D (3) B (4) A (5) A
B VWOPS 4. Questions and Answers (1)What role does negotiation play in international business? Exporters and importers may bridge their differences and reach a fair and mutually satisfactory deal through negotiations. (2) How could exporters determine the buyer’s real interest in the product? This can be ascertained through appropriate questions but must also be based on research and other preparations before the negotiations. (3) Why can we say that the preparations involve formulating the negotiating strategy and tactics? The preliminary work should be aimed at obtaining relevant information on the target market and the buyers of the product. It should also include developing counter-proposals if objections are raised on any of the exporter’s opening negotiating points. The preparations should thus involve formulating the negotiating strategy and tactics.
B VWOPS 4. Questions and Answers (4) What advice s specially given to SMEs according to what you hear? In international marketing negotiations, it is advisable for small- and medium-sized exporters not just to limit their discussions on pr icing issues, although pricing is a key factor in any business transact ion, exporters should give more attention to the full range of marketing factors. They should stress the strengths of their firms and products and match them with the perceived needs of the buyers. Once these issues have been covered, they can consider the quest on of price and are able to develop a profitable business.
B VWOPS Listening 2 2. Do the exercises to review the vocabulary. (1) A (2) D (3) C (4) B (5) C
B VWOPS 2. Listen to the passage. Then fill in the blanks with the missing words you hear. Joyce: We can offer your firm for Item No. 787 at US$120 per metric ton CIF Rotterdam. Peter: Oh, the price s rather too high. Would you please cut down the offer by $30? Joyce: Well, the price may vary according to the quantity (1). How many tons are you likely to take? Peter: 1,000 tons. Joyce: Well, in (2) of our newly-established business relationship, we’ll reduce the price by $10. Peter: I appreciate the concession you are making, but (3) speaking, the gap between your price and Listening 1 ordered consideration frankly
B VWOPS 2. Listen to the passage. Then fill in the blanks with the missing words you hear. mine is still enormous. What about $25? Don’t let us get stuck over the question of price. Joyce: Sorry, we are not in a position to reduce our prices to that (4). Peter: Can we split the difference and meet each other halfway? Joyce: Well, in order to (5) the bargain, we will reduce another $5. This is the best quotation we can make. Listening 1 strike extent
B VWOPS new words 1.naive 2.scenario 3.manipulate 4.resentful 5.squeeze 6.tactics 7.manoeuvre 8. maintenance 9. sophisticated 10.integrate
B VWOPS 1.naive = too willing to believe that someone is telling the truth, that people's intentions in general are good or that life is simple and fair e.g.: He is so naive as to believe such a lie. 他竟然幼稚得连这种谎言都相信。 Lacking sophistication or worldly experience; naive. 幼稚的，天真的不世故的，天真的 The politician made a naive decision. 这个政治家做了一个幼稚的决定。
B VWOPS 2. scenario = to be faced with and have to deal with; meet e.g.: For the rest of the day the port presented a scenario of furious productivity, guaranteed to warm the cockles of the dock boss's heart. 那天其余的时间里，码头掀起了戏剧 化的生产高潮，保证让船坞老板心满意足。 It looked ominously like we were about to repeat the earlier scenario. 而且看上去很不妙，好象我们又得重复上次那 一幕了。 That grim scenario is now unfolding. 这种严酷的前景, 目前 正在渐渐出现。
B VWOPS 3. manipulate = to control something or someone to your advantage, often unfairly or dishonestly e.g.: All we can do then is to manipulate and change the grammar to alleviate the conflict. 解决的办法只能是加工, 改变文法, 以便减少矛盾。 Do you know how to manipulate a computer? 你知道如何使用计算机吗 ? He was arrested for trying to manipulate the company's financial records. 他因企图窜改公司财务记录而被逮捕。
B VWOPS 4. resentful = feeling angry and upset about something that you think is unfair e.g.: For it produces a resentful animal who at a later stage may well turn man-killer. 因为这种方法会使动物 “ 怀恨在心 ”, 在以后某个阶段它很可能变成伤人的动物。 He is resentful at the way he has been treated. 他对所受的待遇感到忿恨。 His eyes were somber, resentful and yet nervous. 他的眼睛显得阴沉、愤懑, 然而又惶惶不安。
B VWOPS 5. squeeze = to press something firmly, especially from all sides in order to change its shape, reduce its size or remove liquid from it e.g.: It took some ingenuity to squeeze all the furniture into the little room. 把全部家具都塞进那个小房间是 很费了一番心思的。 The doll can squeak when you squeeze it. 这个玩具 娃娃一捏就会叫。 There were already four people in the lift, but he managed to squeeze in. 电梯里已经有四个人了, 但他 还是挤进去了.
B VWOPS 6. tactics = art of placing or moving fighting forces in a battle e.g.: They used surprise tactics. 他们采取了出人意料的作法。 These tactics are unlikely to help you. 这种方法对你未必有用。
B VWOPS 7. manoeuvre = a planned and controlled movement or operation by the armed forces for training purposes and in war e.g.: A rapid manoeuvre by the driver prevented an accident. 司机动作迅速而熟练因此避免了一场事故. This was a crafty manoeuvre to outwit his pursuers. 这是一个高招, 他以此骗倒了追逐他的人. These shameful manoeuvres were aimed at securing his election. 这种可耻的伎俩都是为了能让他当选.
B VWOPS 8. maintenance = the repairs, painting etc that are necessary to keep something in good condition ； money that someone gives regularly to another person to pay for the things that the person needs e.g.: This department is responsible for the maintenance of good relations between countries. 该部门负责保持 国与国之间的友好关系。 He lost the money for the maintenance of his family 他把 养家的钱丢了。 He's taking classes in car maintenance. 他正在上汽车维 修课.
B VWOPS 9. sophisticated = having a good understanding of the way people behave and/or a good knowledge of culture and fashion; clever in a complicated way and therefore able to do complicated tasks e.g.:Nobody is as sophisticated as a boy of nineteen who is just recovering from a baby- grand passion. 谁也不会象十九岁的男孩子那么别扭，他是刚刚要从 “ 大幼儿病 ” 恢复过来的嘛。 The electronics aboard the new aircraft are very sophisticated. 安装在新飞行器上的电子器件非常复杂。 。
B VWOPS 10. integrate = to mix with and join society or a group of people, often changing to suit their way of life, habits and customs; to combine two or more things in order to become more effective e.g.:It has been very difficult to integrate all of the local agencies into the national organization. 将所有的地方机 构合并为全国性的机构一直非常困难。 Some countries want to integrate into this organization. 一些国家想加入这个组织。 Some good suggestions will be able to integrate the plan. 一些好的建议将能使这一计划更为完整。
B VWOPS Useful Phrases 1.on behalf of 2.in advance 3.on the fly 4.come to a close 5.bargaining chip
B VWOPS 1.on behalf of = in the interest of; as a representative of e.g.: The legal guardian must act on behalf of the child. 法定监护人应该维护这个孩子的利益。 I am appealing on behalf of the famine victims. 我代表饥民恳求援助。 He agreed to testify on behalf of the accused man. 他同意为被告作证。
B VWOPS 2. in advance = before a particular time, or before doing a particular thing e.g.: Before visiting him, I called him up in advance. 在拜访他之前，我先打电话给他。 To make sure that he was at home, I called him up in advance. 为了确定他在家，我事先打电话给他。 Suppose I reserve seats in advance. 我先去定好 座位吧。
B VWOPS 3. on the fly (1) = in a hurry and often without preparation e.g.: They have developed a habit of making decisions on the fly. 他们已经习惯于不作准备就制 定决策。 (2) = simultaneously with another task e.g.: John is very busy, and people who want to talk to him have to catch him on the fly. 约翰非常忙，人们要 找他谈话只能在他百忙中瞅个空子。 Housework keeps mother on the fly all day. 家务劳 动使母亲整天忙忙碌碌。
B VWOPS 4. in terms of = with respect to or in relation to e.g.: In terms of money we're quite rich, but not in terms of happiness. 就钱来说我们很富有, 但论 及幸福就不然了。 Think of it in terms of an investment. 从投资的角度来考虑那件事. The figures are expressed in terms of a percentage. 那些数字是以百分数表示的.
B VWOPS 5. bargaining chip = something which someone else wants that you are willing to lose in order to reach an agreement e.g.: Missiles were used as a bargaining chip in negotiations for economic aid. 在寻求经济援助的谈判中，导弹被用作谈判的 筹码。 Rubio suggests that oil be used as a bargaining chip in any trade talks. 鲁维奥建议将原油作为贸 易谈判的筹码。
B VWOPS Difficult sentences 1.A failed negotiation might very well be the one in which you got everything you wanted (or thought you did) but ended up damaging your working relationship with a colleague, supplier, or competitor. (Para. 5) 此句中 “might very well” 意为 “ 很可能 ” ， in which 为 介词提前的定语从句，修饰 the one ， the one 指代前面的 a failed negotiation; 全句可以意为： 在失败的谈判中，你虽然得到了你想要的一切 （或者自认为如此），但你与同事、供应商或 竞争对手的关系却以失败告终。
B VWOPS Difficult sentences 2. It is not uncommon for the purchasing department of large companies to squeeze small suppliers and contractors to the point where there is no profit (or incentive) in the contract that is ultimately signed. 此 句 it 为形式主语，真正的主语是 to squeeze small suppliers and contractors to the point where there is no profit (or incentive) in the contract that is ultimately signed ，由于这个主语过长，为避免头 重脚轻，采用 it 作形式主语。在 to do 引导的主语中， 包含了两个定语从句，一个是 Where 引导的定语从 句，修饰 point ；一个是 that 引导的定语从句，修饰 contract 。
B VWOPS 3. Knowing what the salesman is interested other than just price allows you to develop more sophisticated, effective negotiation strategies and related tactics. (Para. 8) 此句中， Knowing what the salesman is interested other than just price 是主语， allows 是 谓语。 Other than 意为 “ 除了 ” 。全句意为：了解 推销员除了价格以外的兴趣，可以使你制定出 更周密、更有效的谈判战略和战术。
B VWOPS 4. Negotiating is the art of convincing the other side that you should get what you want. (Para. 9) 此句中用到了 convince sb. that… 句型，意为 “ 使 某人认识到 ……” 。全句意为：谈判是一门说服 对方并达到自己目的的艺术。
B VWOPS 5. Effective negotiation strategies mean knowing what you would settle for and how you are going to convince the other side to give it to you. (Para. 9) 此句为简单句，主语为 Effective negotiation strategies ，谓语为 mean ，宾语为 knowing what you would settle for and how you are going to convince the other side to give it to you ，其中， what you would settle for 和 how you are going to convince to the other side to give it to you 是两 个名词性从句，做 knowing 的宾语。
B VWOPS 1. Read the article and complete the chart. I found that my clients are not yet ready to begin an effective negotiation. Structure Raise the problem Analyze the problem Ill-prepared: one-sided planning Wrong idea about success: a win-lose approach Two-sided planning solve the problem A win-win approach
B VWOPS 2. Read Paragraphs  , and answer the questions. (1)What kind of negotiation plan is realistic? A plan is only realistic if you know what the other side wants, and you’ve figured out a way to give it to them (while getting what you want) or have figured out a way to change their minds to agree with your demands.
B VWOPS 2. Read Paragraphs  , and answer the questions. (2) How to understand negotiation success? Success is determined when a mutual agreement is met and both sides are satisfied without any hard feelings. (3) What is the major difference between strategy and tactics? Strategy is developed from your analysis of what are reasonable targets and objectives. Your negotiation strategies are your approach to how you are going to convince the other side to agree to what you want. Tactics are specific, dentifiable manoeuvres that implement the negotiation strategies.
B VWOPS 1. (1)h (2) d (3) e (4) g (5) b (6) i (7) a (8) c (9) f 2. (1) D (2) A Vocabulary (3) A (4) A (5) B
B VWOPS 1. (1)C (2)B (3) B Comprehension 2. (1) C (2) C (3) B (4) D (5) B (4) B (5) A (6) D (7) D (8) C (9) A (10) C
B VWOPS speakingactivity1activity2
B VWOPS The passage below outlines the stages of a sales negotiation. Put the sentences in the correct order. 1.Then both sides should put forward their proposals before you get down to trading. 2.Ideally a negotiation should be a win-win situation so both you and your customer will probably have to give in on some points, and you should be prepared in case your customer turns down your proposals by having a second plan to fall back on. 3.Before you go to visit a new customer to negotiate a sale you should find out as much as you can about them. Activity 1
B VWOPS 4.As the salesperson, you should write up the agreement as soon as possible after the negotiation and send a copy to your customer. 5.Before closing the sale it’s a good idea to run through the main points you’ve agreed on again. 6.At the beginning of the negotiation you should draw up an agenda together with you customer.
B VWOPS Below are seven stages of a negotiation process. Match the stages on the left with the phrases from a negotiation on the right. Some stages require more than one sentence. Activity 2
B VWOPS Translation (1) 我们的谈判一直进行得很好，但是，今天我想和你谈一件事 情，此事还是件麻烦事。 Our negotiations have been going on very well, but today I’d like to talk with you about something that is getting to be rather a problem. (2) 我们非常欣赏你们在这件事上采取的正确态度。真心地希望 我们以后的业务往来能诸事顺利。 I really appreciate your correct attitude in this case. And I sincerely hope that everything will be smooth in our future business.
B VWOPS Translation (3) 交货期我方会接受，不过，我方希望贵方能够在价格方面做 出让步。 We will accept the date of delivery, but we would like you to compromise on the price. (4) 除非双方都愿意做出些让步，否则我们就此打住吧。 Unless both of us are prepared to make some sort of concess on, otherwise I think we have to call it a day.
B VWOPS Translation (5) 原则上，我们赞同新提案。但目前我们必须深入研究之后才 能做出最后决定。 In principle, we agree on the new proposals. But we now have to study them in depth before reaching a final decision.
B VWOPS 2. Please translate the following English sentences into Chinese. (1) Although the wording of his remark was polite, it was however clearly in the nature of a threat. 虽然他的话措辞很客气，但是明显带有威胁的口吻。 (2) Any dispute and disagreements that may arise in connect on with this contract shall be settled through friendly negotiation by all the parties. 由本协议（合同）可能引起的任何争议与纠纷，各方应通过友好协 商解决。 (3) Disputes and disagreements that cannot be settled through friendly negotiation between parties shall be decided by China International Economic & Trade Arbitration committee. The arbitration award shall be final and binding upon the parties concerned. 友好协商不能解决的争议与纠纷，应交由中国国际经贸仲裁委员会 仲裁。仲裁结果为终局裁决，对涉案各方有约束力。
B VWOPS 2. Please translate the following English sentences into Chinese. (4) The sellers shall not be held responsible for the delay in shipment or non-del very of the goods due to Force Majeure, which might occur during the process of manufacturing or in the course of loading or transit. 在制造、装载或运输的过程中发生的不可抗力导致卖方延期交货或 不能交货时，卖方可免除责任。 (5) The sellers shall advise the buyers immediately of the occurrence mentioned above and within fourteen days thereafter, the sellers shall send by air mail to the buyers for their acceptance a certificate of the accident. Under such circumstances the sellers, however, are still under the obligation to take all necessary measures to hasten the del very of the goods. 发生上述事件后，卖方须立即告知买方并在 14 天内以空邮方 式向买方提供事故发生的证明文件。在上述情况下，卖方仍须采 取各种必要措施尽快发货。
B VWOPS Writing activities 1. Write a letter according to the following situation. Rose Green, the sales manager of a trading company, received a letter complaining about the CFR price quoted being too high and out of line with the prevailing market level from her major client. Therefore she wrote a letter to the supplier, making a counter offer. And she hoped to get an early reply.
B VWOPS Writing activities 2. Draft an import-export contract in both English and Chinese. In your contract, you must include the following clauses. 1 ） Contract No. 2 ） Name of Commodity ： 3 ） Quantity 4 ） Unit price 5 ） Total Value: 6 ） Packing 7 ） Country of Origin 8 ） Terms of Payment 9 ） Insurance 10 ） Time of Shipment 11 ） Port of Lading 12 ） Port of Destination 13 ） Claims 14 ） Force Majeure 15 ） Arbitration
B VWOPS Sample1: Dear Sirs, We wish to thank you for your letter of the 17th inst. offering us 50 long tons of the captioned goods at $135 per long ton CFR Shanghai usual terms. In reply, we very much regret to state that our end users here find your price too high and out of line with the prevailing market level. Information indicates that some parcels of Japanese make have been sold at the level of $125 per long ton. Such being the case, it is impossible for us to persuade our end users to accept your price, as material of similar quality s easily obtainable at a much lower f gure. Should you be prepared to reduce your pr ce by, say 8%, we m ght come to terms. It s n v ew of our long-stand ng bus ness relat onsh p that we make you such a counter offer most favorably and cable us acceptance at your earl est conven ence. We are ant c pat ng your early reply. Yours fa thfully,
B VWOPS Sample1: obtainable at a much lower figure. Should you be prepared to reduce your price by, say 8%, we might come to terms. It is in view of our long-standing business relationship that we make you such a counter offer most favorably and cable us acceptance at your earliest convenience. We are anticipating your early reply. Yours faithfully,
B VWOPS Sample2: 买卖双方经协商同意按下列条款成交： The undersigned Seller and Buyer have agreed to close the following transactions according to the terms and conditions set forth as below: 1. 货物名称、规格和质量 (Name, Specifications and Quality of Commodity) ： 2. 数量（ Quantity ）： 3. 单价及价格条款 (Unit Price and Terms of Delivery) ： ( 除非另有规定， “FOB” 、 “CFR” 和 “CIF” 均应依照国际商会 制定的《 2007 年国际贸易术语解释通则》 (INCOTERMS 2007) 办理。 ) The terms FOB, CFR, or CIF shall be subject to the Internat ional Rules for the Interpretat on of Trade Terms (INCOTERMS 2007) prov ded by Internat onal Chamber of Commerce (ICC) unless otherw se st pulated here n.)
B VWOPS Sample2: (INCOTERMS 2007) provided by International Chamber of Commerce (ICC) unless otherwise stipulated herein.) 4. 总价 (Total Value) ： 5. 允许溢短装（ More or Less ）： % 。 6. 装运期限（ Time of Shipment ）： 收到可以转船及分批装运之信用证天内装运。 With n days after receipt of L/C allowing transhipment and partial shipment. 7. 付款条件（ Terms of Payment ）： 买方须于 前将保兑的、不可撤销的、可转让的、可分割 的即期付款信用证开到卖方，该信用证的有效期延至装 运期后天在中国到期，并必须注明允许分批装运和转船。
B VWOPS Sample2: By Confirmed, Irrevocable, Transferable and Divisible L/C to be available by sight draft to reach the Seller before and to remain valid for negotiation in China until after the Time of Shipment. The L/C must specify that transshipment and partial shipments are allowed. 买方未在规定的时间内开出信用证，卖方有权发出通知 取消本合同，或接受买方对本合同未执行的全部或部分， 或对因此遭受的损失提出索赔。 The Buyer shall establish a Letter of Credit before the above-stipulated time, failing which, the Seller shall have the right to rescind this Contract upon the arrival of the notice at Buyer or to accept whole or part of this Contract non-fulfilled by the Buyer, or to lodge a claim for the direct losses sustained, fiany.
B VWOPS Sample2: 8. 包装（ Packing ）： 9. 保险（ Insurance ）： 按发票金额的 % 投保 险，由 负责 投保。 Covering Risks for % of Invoice Value to be effected by the. 10. 品质 / 数量异议 (Quality/Quantity Discrepancy) ： 如买方提出索赔，凡属品质异议须于货到目的口岸之日 起 30 天内提出，凡属数量异议须于货到目的口岸之日起 15 天内提出，对所装货物所提任何异议于保险公司、轮 船公司、其他有关运输机构或邮递机构所负责者，卖方 不负任何责任。
B VWOPS Sample2: In case of quality discrepancy, claim should be filed by the Buyer with n 30 days after the arrival of the goods at port of destination, while for quantity discrepancy, claim should be filed by the Buyer with n 15 days after the arrival of the goods at port of destination. It s understood that the Seller shall not be liable for any discrepancy of the goods shipped due to causes for which the Insurance Company, Shipping Company, other Transportation Organization or Post Office are liable. 11. 不可抗力（ Force Majeure ）： 由于发生人力不可抗拒的原因，致使本合约不能履行， 部分或全部商品延误交货，卖方概不负责。本合同所指 的不可抗力系指不可预见、不能避免且不能克服的客观 情况。
B VWOPS Sample2: The Seller shall not be held responsible for failure or delay in delivery of the entire lot or a port on of the goods under this Sales Contract in consequence of any Force Majeure incidents which might occur. Force Majeure as referred to in this contract means unforeseeable, unavoidable and insurmountable objective conditions. 12. 仲裁（ Arbitration ）： 凡因本合同引起的或与本合同有关的任何争议，如果协 商不能解决，应提交中国国际经济贸易仲裁委员会深圳 分会。按照申请仲裁时该会当时施行的仲裁规则进行仲 裁。仲裁裁决是终局的，对双方均有约束力。 Any dispute arising from or in connect on with the Sales Contract shall be settled through friendly negotiation. In
B VWOPS Sample2: case no settlement can be reached, the dispute shall then be submitted to China International Economic and Trade Arbitration Commission (CIETAC), Shenzhen Commission for arbitration n accordance with its rules n effect at the time of applying for arbitration. The arbitral award is final and binding upon both parties. 13. 通知（ Notices ）： 所有通知用 文写成，并按照如下地址用传真 / 电子邮 件 / 快件送达给各方。如果地址有变更，一方应在变更 后 日内书面通知另一方。 All notices shall be written in and served to both parties by fax/ /courier according to the following addresses. If any changes of the addresses occur,
B VWOPS Sample2: one party shall inform the other party of the change of address within days after the change. 14. 本合同为中英文两种文本，两种文本具有同等效力。 本合同一式份。自双方签字（盖章）之日起生效。 This Contract s executed in two counterparts each in Chinese and English, each of which shall be deemed equally authentic. This Contract is in copies effective since being signed/sealed by both parties. The Seller: The Buyer: 卖方签字： 买方签字：