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IT’S A GAS…

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Gases have some interesting characteristics that have fascinated scientists for 300 years. The first gas to be studied was air & it was a long time before it was discovered that air was actually a mixture of particles rather than a single gas. But this realization did not make the study of gas behavior more difficult.But this realization did not make the study of gas behavior more difficult. Although air is a mixture of several different gases, it behaves much the same as any single gas.Although air is a mixture of several different gases, it behaves much the same as any single gas. Gases have some interesting characteristics that have fascinated scientists for 300 years. The first gas to be studied was air & it was a long time before it was discovered that air was actually a mixture of particles rather than a single gas. But this realization did not make the study of gas behavior more difficult.But this realization did not make the study of gas behavior more difficult. Although air is a mixture of several different gases, it behaves much the same as any single gas.Although air is a mixture of several different gases, it behaves much the same as any single gas. The Nature of Gases

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Regardless of their chemical identity, gases tend to exhibit similar physical behaviors Gas particles can be monatomic (Ne), diatomic (N 2 ), or polyatomic (CH 4 ) – but they all have some common characteristics: The Nature of Gases 1.Gases have mass. 2.Gases are compressible. 3.Gases fill their containers. 4.Gases diffuse. 5.Gases exert pressure. 6.Pressure is related to Temperature

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Kinetic Molecular Theory There is a theory that modern day chemist’s use to explain the behaviors and characteristics of ideal gases - the Kinetic Molecular Theory of Matter. The theory states that the tiny particles in all forms of matter are in continuous motion.The theory states that the tiny particles in all forms of matter are in continuous motion. There are 3 basic assumptions of the KMT as it applies to ideal gases. Ideal gases are “perfect” gases that are used as a model to describe characteristics of real gases.Ideal gases are “perfect” gases that are used as a model to describe characteristics of real gases.

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KMT Assumption #1 A gas is composed of small hard particles. The particles have an insignificant volume and are relatively far apart from one another. There is empty space between particles. No attractive or repulsive forces between particles.

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The particles in a gas move in constant random motion. Particles move in straight paths and are completely independent of each of other Particles path is only changed by colliding with another particle or the sides of its container. KMT Assumption #2 Molecular motion Molecular motion

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All collisions a gas particle undergoes are perfectly elastic. They exert a pressure but don’t lose any energy during the collisions. KMT Assumption #3

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The Kinetic Molecular Theory

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Gases seem weightless, but they are classified as matter, therefore, they must have mass. The density of a gas is much less than the density of a liquid or solid. It’s this very low density that allows us to be able to walk through the room without concerning ourselves with air resistance.It’s this very low density that allows us to be able to walk through the room without concerning ourselves with air resistance. The mass is really only noticeable if we have a collection of gas in a container. Gases have mass.

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Gas particles have a high velocity, relative to their low masses. Which means they have a great deal of kinetic energyWhich means they have a great deal of kinetic energy This high velocity and low mass means the particles are spread far apart, with empty space in between particles.This high velocity and low mass means the particles are spread far apart, with empty space in between particles. Therefore, if you squeeze on a gas, its volume can be reduced considerably Gases “R” squeezable

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The gas particles empty space can be compressed by added pressure giving the gas particles less room to bounce around thus decreasing the overall volume. Compression allows us to package a lot of gas in a relatively small volume.Compression allows us to package a lot of gas in a relatively small volume. And compression generates a spring like character to develop to the gas collectionAnd compression generates a spring like character to develop to the gas collection

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Gases “R” squeezable There are a huge number of applications Storm door closersStorm door closers Pneumatic tube delivery devicesPneumatic tube delivery devices TiresTires Air tanksAir tanks Etc…Etc…

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Gases fill their containers Gases expand until they take up as much room as they possibly can. Gases spread out to fill containers until the concentration of gases is uniform throughout the entire space. This is why that nowhere around you is there an absence of air.

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Gases fill their containers Since the particles are in constant random motion, according to the KMT, then the gases move in a straight line until they collide with other particles or the sides of the container, which causes them to change directions until they collide with something else. This random bouncing motion, allows for the mixing up and spreading of the particles until they are uniform throughout the entire container.

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Gases diffuse Gases can move through each other rapidly. The movement of one substance through another is called diffusion.The movement of one substance through another is called diffusion. Because of all of the empty space between gas molecules, gas molecules can pass between each other until each gas is mixed evenly throughout the entire container. Since gases are in constant random motion, they are moving and colliding with everything around them, and there is so much empty space, the gases mix uniformly.

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Gases diffuse

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This doesn’t happen at the same speeds for all gases. Some gases diffuse more rapidly then other gases based on their size and their energy.Some gases diffuse more rapidly then other gases based on their size and their energy. KE=1/2mv 2KE=1/2mv 2 Diffusion explains why gases are able to spread out to fill their containers. It’s why we can all breath oxygen anywhere in the room.

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Gases exert pressure Gas particles exert pressure by colliding with objects in their path. The sum of all of the collisions makes up the pressure the gas exerts. The KMT says since they are in constant random motion, the particles will colliding with anything in their path. The definition of pressure is the force per unit area – so the total of all of the tiny collisions makes up the pressure exer- ted by the gas

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Gases exert pressure It’s the pressure exerted by the gases that hold the walls of a container out The pressure of gases is what keeps our tires inflated, makes our basketballs bounce, makes hairspray come out of the can, helps our lungs inflate, allow vacuum cleaners to work, etc.

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Pressure depends on Temp The average kinetic energy of the particles that make up an object is defined as temperature. Therefore, the higher the temperature the more energy the gas particle has.Therefore, the higher the temperature the more energy the gas particle has. So the collisions are more often and with a higher force. And since pressure is a function of force, the pressure increases inside the container. Think about the pressure of a set of tires on a car.Think about the pressure of a set of tires on a car.

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Pressure depends on Temp Pressure Gauge Pressure Gauge Today’s temp: 35°F

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Today’s temp: 85°F Pressure depends on Temp Pressure Gauge Pressure Gauge

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Characteristics of Gases

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Measuring Gases The conditions under which a gas is studied is very important to its behavior. Experimental work in chemistry requires the measurement of such quantities as volume, temperature, pressure, and the amount of sample. These quantities are called variables and if they are not accounted for then the results of the experiment might be jeopardized.

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Amount (n) The quantity of gas in a given sample is generally given in terms of moles of gas. This of course is in terms of 6.02 x molecules per mole of the gas.This of course is in terms of 6.02 x molecules per mole of the gas. Don’t forget to convert mass to moles you just divide by the molar mass of the gas. So amount of a gas, refers to how many gas particles are in the sample.

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Volume (V) The volume of a gas is simply the volume of the container it is contained in. The metric unit of volume, liter (L), is often used. There might also be problems that use cubic meters as the unit for volume L = 1 m L = 1 m 3

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Temperature (T) The temperature of a gas is generally measured with a thermometer in Celsius. All calculations involving gases should be made after converting the Celsius to Kelvin temperature. Kelvin = C° Celsius = K - 273

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Temperature (T)

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Pressure (P) The pressure of a gas is the force exerted on the wall of the container, in which a gas is trapped. There are several units for pressure depending on the instrument used to measure it including: 1) atmospheres (atm) 1) atmospheres (atm) 2) Millimeters of Mercury (mmHg) 2) Millimeters of Mercury (mmHg) 3) Kilopascal (kPa) 3) Kilopascal (kPa)

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S T P The behavior of a gas depends very strongly on the temperature and the pressure at which the gas is held. To make it easier to discuss the behavior of a gas, it is convenient to designate a set of standard conditions, called STP. Standard Temp and Standard PressureStandard Temp and Standard Pressure Standard Temperature = 0°C or 273KStandard Temperature = 0°C or 273K Standard Pressure = 1atm or 760mmHg or 101.3kPa (depending on the method of measure)Standard Pressure = 1atm or 760mmHg or 101.3kPa (depending on the method of measure)

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Atmospheric Pressure The gases in the air are exerting a pressure called atmospheric pressure Atmospheric pressure is a result of the fact that air has mass is and is colliding with everything under the sun with a force. Atmospheric pressure is measured with a barometer.

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Atmospheric Pressure

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Atmospheric pressure varies with altitude The lower the altitude, the longer and heavier is the column of air above an area of the earth. Look on the back of a box of cake mix for the difference in baking times based on the atmospheric pressure in your region. Atmospheric Pressure

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atmospheric Knowing this atmospheric pressure and predicting changes in the atmospheric pressure is how forecasters predict the weather. Low pressure or dropping pressure indicates a change of weather from fair to rain. High pressure is an ind- ication of clear skies & sun. Atmospheric Pressure

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Measuring Gases

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Gas Laws Studies of the behavior of gases played a major role in the development of physical sciences in the 7 th and 8 th centuries. The Kinetic Molecular theory marked a significant achievement in understanding the behavior of gases. Observations have become mathematical laws which we can use to predict quantitative outcomes.

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Boyle’s Law Robert Boyle was among the first to note the inverse relationship between pressure and volume of a gas. As the pressure on a gas increased the volume of the gas will decrease.As the pressure on a gas increased the volume of the gas will decrease. He measured the volume of air at different pressures, and observed a pattern of behavior. During his experiments Temperature and amount of gas weren’t allowed to changeDuring his experiments Temperature and amount of gas weren’t allowed to change

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Boyle’s Law

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How does Pressure and Volume of gases relate graphically? Volume Pressure PV = k Temperature, # of particles remain constant Temperature, # of particles remain constant

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Boyle’s Mathematical Law: since PV equals a constant P 1 V 1 = P 2 V 2 Ex: A gas has a volume of 3.0 L at 2 atm. What will its volume be at 4 atm? Ex: A gas has a volume of 3.0 L at 2 atm. What will its volume be at 4 atm? If we have a given amount of a gas at a starting pressure and volume, what would happen to the pressure if we changed the volume? Or to the volume if we changed the pressure?

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Boyle’s Mathematical Law: 1)List the variables or clues given: 2)determine which law is being represented: P 1 = 2 atm V 1 = 3.0 L P 2 = 4 atm V 2 = ? P 1 V 1 = V 2 P 2 3) Plug in the variables & calculate: (2 atm) (3.0 L) = (4 atm) (V 2 )

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Charles’s Law Jacques Charles studied the direct mathematical relationship between temp- erature and volume of a gas. As temperature increases the volume of the gas increasesAs temperature increases the volume of the gas increases Charles measured the volume of air at different temperatures, and recorded the results. During his experiments pressure of the system and amount of gas were held constant.During his experiments pressure of the system and amount of gas were held constant.

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Charles’ Law

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Temp How does Temperature and Volume of gases relate graphically? Volume V/T = k Pressure, # of particles remain constant Pressure, # of particles remain constant

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Charles’ Law

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Charles’s Mathematical Law: since V/T = k Ex: A gas has a volume of 3.0 L at 400K. What is its volume at 500K? Ex: A gas has a volume of 3.0 L at 400K. What is its volume at 500K? = V 1 V 2 T 1 T 2 If we have a given amount of a gas at a starting volume and temperature, what would happen to the volume if we changed the temperature? Or to the temperature if we changed the volume?

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Charles’s Mathematical Law: 2)determine which law is being represented: T 1 = 400K V 1 = 3.0 L T 2 = 500K V 2 = ? 1)List the variables or clues given: V1V1V1V1 V1V1V1V1 T1T1T1T1 T1T1T1T1 V2V2V2V2 V2V2V2V2 T2T2T2T2 T2T2T2T2 == 3) Plug in the variables & calculate: 3.0L 400K500K X L X L=

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Gay-Lussac’s Law Old man Lussac studied the direct relationship between temperature and pressure of a gas. As the temperature increases the press- ure a gas exerts on its container increases.As the temperature increases the press- ure a gas exerts on its container increases. During his experiments volume of the system and amount of gas were held constant.

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Gay-Lussac’s Law

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Temp Pressure How does Pressure and Temperature of gases relate graphically? P/T = k Volume, # of particles remain constant Volume, # of particles remain constant

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since P/T = k P 1 P 2 T 1 T 2 = Ex: A gas has a pressure of 3.0atm at 400K. What is its pressure at 500K? Ex: A gas has a pressure of 3.0atm at 400K. What is its pressure at 500K? If we have a given amount of a gas at a starting temperature and pressure, what would happen to the pressure if we changed the temperature? Or to the temp. if we changed the pressure? Gay-Lussac’s Mathematical Law:

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2)determine which law is being represented: T 1 = 400K P 1 = 3.0 atm T 2 = 500K P 2 = ? 1)List the variables or clues given: P1P1 P1P1 T1T1T1T1 P2P2P2P2 T2T2T2T2 = 3) Plug in the variables & calculate: 3.0atm 400K500K X L X L = =

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LAW RELAT- IONSHIP LAW CON- STANTS Boyle’s P VP VP VP V P 1 V 1 = P 2 V 2 T, n Charles’ V TV TV TV T V 1 /T 1 = V 2 /T 2 P, n Gay- Lussac’s P TP TP TP T P 1 /T 1 = P 2 /T 2 V, n Summary of the Named Gas-Laws:

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Combined Gas Law

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Class Work 1)A balloon contains 30.0 L of He gas at 103kPa. What is the volume of He when the balloon rises to an altitude where the pressure is only 25.0kPa? 2)A balloon inflated in a room at 24.0˚C has a volume of 4.00 L. The balloon is heated to a temperature of 58.0˚C. What is the new volume? 3)A sample of N 2 (g) is at STP. What will the pressure (in atm) be if the temp is increased to 373K? 4)The volume of a gas-filled balloon is 30.0L at 98.0˚C and 1147 mmHg. What would the volume be at STP? 1) 156 L 2) 4.46 L 3) 1.37 atm 4) 33.3 L

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