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2006/2007 Introdução à Medicina Estevão, Vânia; Fernandes, Daniela; Leite, Luís; Monteiro, Tiago; Pimenta, André; Rodrigues, João; Silva, Sandra; Teixeira,

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Presentation on theme: "2006/2007 Introdução à Medicina Estevão, Vânia; Fernandes, Daniela; Leite, Luís; Monteiro, Tiago; Pimenta, André; Rodrigues, João; Silva, Sandra; Teixeira,"— Presentation transcript:

1 2006/2007 Introdução à Medicina Estevão, Vânia; Fernandes, Daniela; Leite, Luís; Monteiro, Tiago; Pimenta, André; Rodrigues, João; Silva, Sandra; Teixeira, Hugo; Class 22 Supervisor: Santos, Cristina

2 it is necessary that the results given by a diagnostic test are as much trustful as possible [1] it is necessary that the results given by a diagnostic test are as much trustful as possible [1] i n oncology, diagnostic tests are essential to determinate if someone has a cancer and how to treat it, if present i n oncology, diagnostic tests are essential to determinate if someone has a cancer and how to treat it, if present [1] Smidt N, Rutjes A, van der Windt D, Ostelo R, Reitsma J, Bossuyt P, Bouter L, Vet H. Quality of Reporting of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies. Radiology 2005; 235: [1] Smidt N, Rutjes A, van der Windt D, Ostelo R, Reitsma J, Bossuyt P, Bouter L, Vet H. Quality of Reporting of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies. Radiology 2005; 235:

3 when a diagnostic test is used, it is necessary that who uses it knows its risks and benefits and the level of credibility [2] when a diagnostic test is used, it is necessary that who uses it knows its risks and benefits and the level of credibility [2] information obtained from it must be integrated with clinical history and other physical examinations information obtained from it must be integrated with clinical history and other physical examinations [2] Griner PF, Mayewski RJ, Mushlin AI, Greenland P. Selection and interpretation of diagnostic tests and procedures. Principles and applications. Ann Intern Med 1981; 94: [2] Griner PF, Mayewski RJ, Mushlin AI, Greenland P. Selection and interpretation of diagnostic tests and procedures. Principles and applications. Ann Intern Med 1981; 94:

4 the combinations between the result given by the diagnostic test and the patient’s real health condition are: the combinations between the result given by the diagnostic test and the patient’s real health condition are: Negative Positive True negative Disease absent Disease present Disease absent Disease present Test True positive False negative False positive

5 STARD c h e c k l i s t published by a group of scientists and editors in 2003 published by a group of scientists and editors in 2003 consists of 25 items and encourages the improvement of quality of reporting of studies of diagnostic accuracy [3] consists of 25 items and encourages the improvement of quality of reporting of studies of diagnostic accuracy [3] [3] Bossuyt PM, Reitsma JB, Bruns DE, Gatsonis CA, Glasziou PP, Irwig LM, Lijmer JG, Moher D, Rennie D, de Vet HCW, for the STARD group. Towards complete and accurate reporting of studies of diagnostic accuracy: the STARD initiative. Family Practice 2004; 21: 4–10 [3] Bossuyt PM, Reitsma JB, Bruns DE, Gatsonis CA, Glasziou PP, Irwig LM, Lijmer JG, Moher D, Rennie D, de Vet HCW, for the STARD group. Towards complete and accurate reporting of studies of diagnostic accuracy: the STARD initiative. Family Practice 2004; 21: 4–10

6 evaluate how the quality of reporting in oncology diagnostic test accuracy from 2001 to 2005 is developingevaluate how the quality of reporting in oncology diagnostic test accuracy from 2001 to 2005 is developing evaluate if the journals with lower and higher impact factor publish diagnostic test accuracy articles with different qualityevaluate if the journals with lower and higher impact factor publish diagnostic test accuracy articles with different quality compare the evolution in quality of the journals of higher and lower impact factorscompare the evolution in quality of the journals of higher and lower impact factors

7 Study design : Study design : Sistematic review Bibliographic search : we performed a systematic search in all issues of Reporting of Studies of Diagnostic Accuracy in Oncology Literature we performed a systematic search in all issues of Reporting of Studies of Diagnostic Accuracy in Oncology Literature

8 we created a query using specific terms (MeSH terms) and words that might be present in articles with interest to our work* we created a query using specific terms (MeSH terms) and words that might be present in articles with interest to our work* we used ISI Web of Knowledge to obtain the names of the journals which had the impact factor we wanted in each situation we used ISI Web of Knowledge to obtain the names of the journals which had the impact factor we wanted in each situation * based on a search strategy in PubMed (MEDLINE) for publications about the evaluation of diagnostic accuracy, suggested by a research article: Devillé, W. L. et. al., Conducting systematic reviews of diagnostic studies: didactic guidelines

9 we repeated 10 times the query, two for each year, and from these one to each group of impact factors we repeated 10 times the query, two for each year, and from these one to each group of impact factors the queries used to each year are the follow: the queries used to each year are the follow:

10 2001 – impact factor 1 or less (((((((("sensitivity and specificity"[All Fields] OR "sensitivity and specificity/standards"[All Fields]) OR "specificity"[All Fields]) OR "screening"[All Fields]) OR "false positive"[All Fields]) OR "false negative"[All Fields]) OR "accuracy"[All Fields]) OR (((("predictive value"[All Fields] OR "predictive value of tests"[All Fields]) OR "predictive value of tests/standards"[All Fields]) OR "predictive values"[All Fields]) OR "predictive values of tests"[All Fields])) OR (("reference value"[All Fields] OR "reference values"[All Fields]) OR "reference values/standards"[All Fields]) OR ((((((((((("roc"[All Fields] OR "roc analyses"[All Fields]) OR "roc analysis"[All Fields]) OR "roc and"[All Fields]) OR "roc area"[All Fields]) OR "roc auc"[All Fields]) OR "roc characteristics"[All Fields]) OR "roc curve"[All Fields]) OR "roc curve method"[All Fields]) OR "roc curves"[All Fields]) OR "roc estimated"[All Fields]) OR "roc evaluation"[All Fields]) OR ("likelihood ratio"[All Fields])) AND (((((((("sensitivity and specificity"[All Fields] OR "sensitivity and specificity/standards"[All Fields]) OR "specificity"[All Fields]) OR "screening"[All Fields]) OR "false positive"[All Fields]) OR "false negative"[All Fields]) OR "accuracy"[All Fields]) OR (((("predictive value"[All Fields] OR "predictive value of tests"[All Fields]) OR "predictive value of tests/standards"[All Fields]) OR "predictive values"[All Fields]) OR "predictive values of tests"[All Fields])) OR (("reference value"[All Fields] OR "reference values"[All Fields]) OR "reference values/standards"[All Fields]) OR ((((((((((("roc"[All Fields] OR "roc analyses"[All Fields]) OR "roc analysis"[All Fields]) OR "roc and"[All Fields]) OR "roc area"[All Fields]) OR "roc auc"[All Fields]) OR "roc characteristics"[All Fields]) OR "roc curve"[All Fields]) OR "roc curve method"[All Fields]) OR "roc curves"[All Fields]) OR "roc estimated"[All Fields]) OR "roc evaluation"[All Fields]) OR ("likelihood ratio"[All Fields])) AND (INT J HYPERTHER[Journal] OR AM J CLIN ONCOL-CANC[Journal] OR SURG ONCOL[Journal] OR TERATOGEN CANCIN MUT[Journal] OR CLIN ONCOL- UK[Journal] OR J EXP CLIN CANC RES[Journal] OR INT J GYNECOL CANCER[Journal] OR NEOPLASMSA[Journal] OR JPN J CLIN ONCOL[Journal] OR ONKOLOGIE[Journal] OR EUR J GYNAECOL ONCOL[Journal] OR BREAST[Journal] OR CURR PROB CANCER[Journal] OR B CANCER[Journal] OR BIODRUGS[Journal] OR PROSTATE CANCER P D[Journal] OR TUMORI[Journal] OR EUR J CANCER CARE[Journal] OR PEDIATR HEMAT ONCOL[Journal] OR ENVIRON CARCIN ECO R[Journal] OR ONCOLOGY-NY[Journal] OR EXP ONCOL[Journal] OR J TUMOR MARKER ONCOL[Journal])

11 2001 – impact factor 4 or higher (((((((("sensitivity and specificity"[All Fields] OR "sensitivity and specificity/standards"[All Fields]) OR "specificity"[All Fields]) OR "screening"[All Fields]) OR "false positive"[All Fields]) OR "false negative"[All Fields]) OR "accuracy"[All Fields]) OR (((("predictive value"[All Fields] OR "predictive value of tests"[All Fields]) OR "predictive value of tests/standards"[All Fields]) OR "predictive values"[All Fields]) OR "predictive values of tests"[All Fields])) OR (("reference value"[All Fields] OR "reference values"[All Fields]) OR "reference values/standards"[All Fields]) OR ((((((((((("roc"[All Fields] OR "roc analyses"[All Fields]) OR "roc analysis"[All Fields]) OR "roc and"[All Fields]) OR "roc area"[All Fields]) OR "roc auc"[All Fields]) OR "roc characteristics"[All Fields]) OR "roc curve"[All Fields]) OR "roc curve method"[All Fields]) OR "roc curves"[All Fields]) OR "roc estimated"[All Fields]) OR "roc evaluation"[All Fields]) OR ("likelihood ratio"[All Fields])) (((((((("sensitivity and specificity"[All Fields] OR "sensitivity and specificity/standards"[All Fields]) OR "specificity"[All Fields]) OR "screening"[All Fields]) OR "false positive"[All Fields]) OR "false negative"[All Fields]) OR "accuracy"[All Fields]) OR (((("predictive value"[All Fields] OR "predictive value of tests"[All Fields]) OR "predictive value of tests/standards"[All Fields]) OR "predictive values"[All Fields]) OR "predictive values of tests"[All Fields])) OR (("reference value"[All Fields] OR "reference values"[All Fields]) OR "reference values/standards"[All Fields]) OR ((((((((((("roc"[All Fields] OR "roc analyses"[All Fields]) OR "roc analysis"[All Fields]) OR "roc and"[All Fields]) OR "roc area"[All Fields]) OR "roc auc"[All Fields]) OR "roc characteristics"[All Fields]) OR "roc curve"[All Fields]) OR "roc curve method"[All Fields]) OR "roc curves"[All Fields]) OR "roc estimated"[All Fields]) OR "roc evaluation"[All Fields]) OR ("likelihood ratio"[All Fields])) AND (CA-CANCER J CLIN[Journal] OR J NATL CANCER I[Journal] OR ADV CANCER RES[Journal] OR BBA-REV CANCER[Journal] OR J CLIN ONCOL[Journal] OR CANCER RES[Journal] OR ONCOGENE[Journal] OR EXP CELL RES[Journal] OR CLIN CANCER RES[Journal] OR SEMIN CANCER BIOL[Journal] OR CARCINOGENESIS[Journal] OR GENE CHROMOSOME CANC[Journal] OR LEUKEMIA[Journal] OR INT J CANCER[Journal])

12 2002 – impact factor 1 or less (((((((("sensitivity and specificity"[All Fields] OR "sensitivity and specificity/standards"[All Fields]) OR "specificity"[All Fields]) OR "screening"[All Fields]) OR "false positive"[All Fields]) OR "false negative"[All Fields]) OR "accuracy"[All Fields]) OR (((("predictive value"[All Fields] OR "predictive value of tests"[All Fields]) OR "predictive value of tests/standards"[All Fields]) OR "predictive values"[All Fields]) OR "predictive values of tests"[All Fields])) OR (("reference value"[All Fields] OR "reference values"[All Fields]) OR "reference values/standards"[All Fields]) OR ((((((((((("roc"[All Fields] OR "roc analyses"[All Fields]) OR "roc analysis"[All Fields]) OR "roc and"[All Fields]) OR "roc area"[All Fields]) OR "roc auc"[All Fields]) OR "roc characteristics"[All Fields]) OR "roc curve"[All Fields]) OR "roc curve method"[All Fields]) OR "roc curves"[All Fields]) OR "roc estimated"[All Fields]) OR "roc evaluation"[All Fields]) OR ("likelihood ratio"[All Fields])) AND (((((((("sensitivity and specificity"[All Fields] OR "sensitivity and specificity/standards"[All Fields]) OR "specificity"[All Fields]) OR "screening"[All Fields]) OR "false positive"[All Fields]) OR "false negative"[All Fields]) OR "accuracy"[All Fields]) OR (((("predictive value"[All Fields] OR "predictive value of tests"[All Fields]) OR "predictive value of tests/standards"[All Fields]) OR "predictive values"[All Fields]) OR "predictive values of tests"[All Fields])) OR (("reference value"[All Fields] OR "reference values"[All Fields]) OR "reference values/standards"[All Fields]) OR ((((((((((("roc"[All Fields] OR "roc analyses"[All Fields]) OR "roc analysis"[All Fields]) OR "roc and"[All Fields]) OR "roc area"[All Fields]) OR "roc auc"[All Fields]) OR "roc characteristics"[All Fields]) OR "roc curve"[All Fields]) OR "roc curve method"[All Fields]) OR "roc curves"[All Fields]) OR "roc estimated"[All Fields]) OR "roc evaluation"[All Fields]) OR ("likelihood ratio"[All Fields])) AND (CHEMOTHERAPY[Journal] OR CURR PROB CANCER[Journal] OR ONKOLOGIE[Journal] OR CANCER PRACT[Journal] OR J CHEMOTHERAPY[Journal] OR UROL ONCOL[Journal] OR CLIN ONCOL- UK[Journal] OR J CANCER EDUC[Journal] OR J EXP CLIN CANC RES[Journal] OR JPN J CLIN ONCOL[Journal] OR NEOPLASMA[Journal] OR PEDIATR HEMAT ONCOL[Journal] OR BREAST[Journal] OR PROSTATE CANCER P D[Journal] OR B CANCER[Journal] OR EUR J CANCER CARE[Journal] OR EUR J GYNAECOL ONCOL[Journal] OR TUMORI[Journal] OR EXP ONCOL[Journal] OR J ENVIRON SCI HEAL C[Journal])

13 2002 – impact factor 4 or higher (((((((("sensitivity and specificity"[All Fields] OR "sensitivity and specificity/standards"[All Fields]) OR "specificity"[All Fields]) OR "screening"[All Fields]) OR "false positive"[All Fields]) OR "false negative"[All Fields]) OR "accuracy"[All Fields]) OR (((("predictive value"[All Fields] OR "predictive value of tests"[All Fields]) OR "predictive value of tests/standards"[All Fields]) OR "predictive values"[All Fields]) OR "predictive values of tests"[All Fields])) OR (("reference value"[All Fields] OR "reference values"[All Fields]) OR "reference values/standards"[All Fields]) OR ((((((((((("roc"[All Fields] OR "roc analyses"[All Fields]) OR "roc analysis"[All Fields]) OR "roc and"[All Fields]) OR "roc area"[All Fields]) OR "roc auc"[All Fields]) OR "roc characteristics"[All Fields]) OR "roc curve"[All Fields]) OR "roc curve method"[All Fields]) OR "roc curves"[All Fields]) OR "roc estimated"[All Fields]) OR "roc evaluation"[All Fields]) OR ("likelihood ratio"[All Fields])) AND (((((((("sensitivity and specificity"[All Fields] OR "sensitivity and specificity/standards"[All Fields]) OR "specificity"[All Fields]) OR "screening"[All Fields]) OR "false positive"[All Fields]) OR "false negative"[All Fields]) OR "accuracy"[All Fields]) OR (((("predictive value"[All Fields] OR "predictive value of tests"[All Fields]) OR "predictive value of tests/standards"[All Fields]) OR "predictive values"[All Fields]) OR "predictive values of tests"[All Fields])) OR (("reference value"[All Fields] OR "reference values"[All Fields]) OR "reference values/standards"[All Fields]) OR ((((((((((("roc"[All Fields] OR "roc analyses"[All Fields]) OR "roc analysis"[All Fields]) OR "roc and"[All Fields]) OR "roc area"[All Fields]) OR "roc auc"[All Fields]) OR "roc characteristics"[All Fields]) OR "roc curve"[All Fields]) OR "roc curve method"[All Fields]) OR "roc curves"[All Fields]) OR "roc estimated"[All Fields]) OR "roc evaluation"[All Fields]) OR ("likelihood ratio"[All Fields])) AND (CA-CANCER J CLIN[Journal] OR J NATL CANCER I[Journal] OR NAT REV CANCER[Journal] OR J CLIN ONCOL[Journal] OR ADV CANCER RES[Journal] OR BBA-REV CANCER[Journal] OR CANCER RES[Journal] OR ENDOCR-RELAT CANCER[Journal] OR CLIN CANCER RES[Journal] OR ONCOGENE[Journal] OR NEOPLASIA[Journal] OR SEMIN CANCER BIOL[Journal] OR CARCINOGENESIS[Journal] OR CANCER EPIDEM BIOMAR[Journal] OR EXP CELL RES[Journal] OR LEUKEMIA[Journal] OR CURR OPIN ONCOL[Journal] OR GENE CHROMOSOME CANC[Journal] OR INT J CANCER[Journal] OR STEM CELLS[Journal])

14 2003 – impact factor 1 or less (((((((("sensitivity and specificity"[All Fields] OR "sensitivity and specificity/standards"[All Fields]) OR "specificity"[All Fields]) OR "screening"[All Fields]) OR "false positive"[All Fields]) OR "false negative"[All Fields]) OR "accuracy"[All Fields]) OR (((("predictive value"[All Fields] OR "predictive value of tests"[All Fields]) OR "predictive value of tests/standards"[All Fields]) OR "predictive values"[All Fields]) OR "predictive values of tests"[All Fields])) OR (("reference value"[All Fields] OR "reference values"[All Fields]) OR "reference values/standards"[All Fields]) OR ((((((((((("roc"[All Fields] OR "roc analyses"[All Fields]) OR "roc analysis"[All Fields]) OR "roc and"[All Fields]) OR "roc area"[All Fields]) OR "roc auc"[All Fields]) OR "roc characteristics"[All Fields]) OR "roc curve"[All Fields]) OR "roc curve method"[All Fields]) OR "roc curves"[All Fields]) OR "roc estimated"[All Fields]) OR "roc evaluation"[All Fields]) OR ("likelihood ratio"[All Fields])) AND (((((((("sensitivity and specificity"[All Fields] OR "sensitivity and specificity/standards"[All Fields]) OR "specificity"[All Fields]) OR "screening"[All Fields]) OR "false positive"[All Fields]) OR "false negative"[All Fields]) OR "accuracy"[All Fields]) OR (((("predictive value"[All Fields] OR "predictive value of tests"[All Fields]) OR "predictive value of tests/standards"[All Fields]) OR "predictive values"[All Fields]) OR "predictive values of tests"[All Fields])) OR (("reference value"[All Fields] OR "reference values"[All Fields]) OR "reference values/standards"[All Fields]) OR ((((((((((("roc"[All Fields] OR "roc analyses"[All Fields]) OR "roc analysis"[All Fields]) OR "roc and"[All Fields]) OR "roc area"[All Fields]) OR "roc auc"[All Fields]) OR "roc characteristics"[All Fields]) OR "roc curve"[All Fields]) OR "roc curve method"[All Fields]) OR "roc curves"[All Fields]) OR "roc estimated"[All Fields]) OR "roc evaluation"[All Fields]) OR ("likelihood ratio"[All Fields])) AND (CLIN ONCOL-UK[Journal] OR CANCER PRACT[Journal] OR JPN J CLIN ONCOL[Journal] OR TERATOGEN CARCIN MUT[Journal] OR NEOPLASMA[Journal] OR PROSTATE CANCER P D[Journal] OR PEDIATR HEMAT ONCOL[Journal] OR B CANCER[Journal] OR EUR J CANCER CARE[Journal] OR J EXP CLIN CANC RES[Journal] OR J ENVIRON SCI HEAL C[Journal] OR EUR J GYNAECOL ONCOL[Journal] OR BREAST[Journal] OR J CANCER EDUC[Journal] OR TUMORI[Journal] OR EXP ONCOL[Journal])

15 2003 – impact factor 4 or higher (((((((("sensitivity and specificity"[All Fields] OR "sensitivity and specificity/standards"[All Fields]) OR "specificity"[All Fields]) OR "screening"[All Fields]) OR "false positive"[All Fields]) OR "false negative"[All Fields]) OR "accuracy"[All Fields]) OR (((("predictive value"[All Fields] OR "predictive value of tests"[All Fields]) OR "predictive value of tests/standards"[All Fields]) OR "predictive values"[All Fields]) OR "predictive values of tests"[All Fields])) OR (("reference value"[All Fields] OR "reference values"[All Fields]) OR "reference values/standards"[All Fields]) OR ((((((((((("roc"[All Fields] OR "roc analyses"[All Fields]) OR "roc analysis"[All Fields]) OR "roc and"[All Fields]) OR "roc area"[All Fields]) OR "roc auc"[All Fields]) OR "roc characteristics"[All Fields]) OR "roc curve"[All Fields]) OR "roc curve method"[All Fields]) OR "roc curves"[All Fields]) OR "roc estimated"[All Fields]) OR "roc evaluation"[All Fields]) OR ("likelihood ratio"[All Fields])) (((((((("sensitivity and specificity"[All Fields] OR "sensitivity and specificity/standards"[All Fields]) OR "specificity"[All Fields]) OR "screening"[All Fields]) OR "false positive"[All Fields]) OR "false negative"[All Fields]) OR "accuracy"[All Fields]) OR (((("predictive value"[All Fields] OR "predictive value of tests"[All Fields]) OR "predictive value of tests/standards"[All Fields]) OR "predictive values"[All Fields]) OR "predictive values of tests"[All Fields])) OR (("reference value"[All Fields] OR "reference values"[All Fields]) OR "reference values/standards"[All Fields]) OR ((((((((((("roc"[All Fields] OR "roc analyses"[All Fields]) OR "roc analysis"[All Fields]) OR "roc and"[All Fields]) OR "roc area"[All Fields]) OR "roc auc"[All Fields]) OR "roc characteristics"[All Fields]) OR "roc curve"[All Fields]) OR "roc curve method"[All Fields]) OR "roc curves"[All Fields]) OR "roc estimated"[All Fields]) OR "roc evaluation"[All Fields]) OR ("likelihood ratio"[All Fields])) AND (NAT REV CANCER[Journal] OR CA-CANCER J CLIN[Journal] OR CANCER CELL[Journal] OR J NATL CANCER I[Journal] OR J CLIN ONCOL[Journal] OR ENDOCR-RELAT CANCER[Journal] OR CANCER RES[Journal] OR BBA REV CANCER[Journal] OR ADV CANCER RES[Journal] OR LANCET ONCOL[Journal] OR CLIN CANCER RES[Journal] OR ONCOGENE[Journal] OR STEM CELLS[Journal] OR SEMIN CANCER BIOL[Journal] OR LEUKEMIA[Journal] OR SEMIN ONCOL[Journal] OR CANCER EPIDEM BIOMAR[Journal] OR CARCINOGENESIS[Journal] OR CURR OPIN ONCOL[Journal] OR INT J CANCER[Journal] OR NEOPLASIA[Journal] OR INT J RADIAT ONCOL[Journal] OR GENE CHROMOSOME CANC[Journal] OR CANCER[Journal])

16 2004 – impact factor 1 or less (((((((("sensitivity and specificity"[All Fields] OR "sensitivity and specificity/standards"[All Fields]) OR "specificity"[All Fields]) OR "screening"[All Fields]) OR "false positive"[All Fields]) OR "false negative"[All Fields]) OR "accuracy"[All Fields]) OR (((("predictive value"[All Fields] OR "predictive value of tests"[All Fields]) OR "predictive value of tests/standards"[All Fields]) OR "predictive values"[All Fields]) OR "predictive values of tests"[All Fields])) OR (("reference value"[All Fields] OR "reference values"[All Fields]) OR "reference values/standards"[All Fields]) OR ((((((((((("roc"[All Fields] OR "roc analyses"[All Fields]) OR "roc analysis"[All Fields]) OR "roc and"[All Fields]) OR "roc area"[All Fields]) OR "roc auc"[All Fields]) OR "roc characteristics"[All Fields]) OR "roc curve"[All Fields]) OR "roc curve method"[All Fields]) OR "roc curves"[All Fields]) OR "roc estimated"[All Fields]) OR "roc evaluation"[All Fields]) OR ("likelihood ratio"[All Fields])) AND (((((((("sensitivity and specificity"[All Fields] OR "sensitivity and specificity/standards"[All Fields]) OR "specificity"[All Fields]) OR "screening"[All Fields]) OR "false positive"[All Fields]) OR "false negative"[All Fields]) OR "accuracy"[All Fields]) OR (((("predictive value"[All Fields] OR "predictive value of tests"[All Fields]) OR "predictive value of tests/standards"[All Fields]) OR "predictive values"[All Fields]) OR "predictive values of tests"[All Fields])) OR (("reference value"[All Fields] OR "reference values"[All Fields]) OR "reference values/standards"[All Fields]) OR ((((((((((("roc"[All Fields] OR "roc analyses"[All Fields]) OR "roc analysis"[All Fields]) OR "roc and"[All Fields]) OR "roc area"[All Fields]) OR "roc auc"[All Fields]) OR "roc characteristics"[All Fields]) OR "roc curve"[All Fields]) OR "roc curve method"[All Fields]) OR "roc curves"[All Fields]) OR "roc estimated"[All Fields]) OR "roc evaluation"[All Fields]) OR ("likelihood ratio"[All Fields])) AND (BIRTH DEFECTS RES B[Journal] OR JPN J CLIN ONCOL[Journal] OR INT J BIOL MARKER[Journal] OR CLIN ONCOL-UK[Journal] OR NEOPLASMA[Journal] OR BREAST[Journal] OR B CANCER[Journal] OR TERATOGEN CARCIN MUT[Journal] OR EUR J CANCER CARE[Journal] OR TUMORI[Journal] OR J EXP CLIN CANC RES[Journal] OR EUR J GYNAECOL ONCOL[Journal] OR J CANCER EDUC[Journal] OR PEDIATR HEMAT ONCOL[Journal] OR EXP ONCOL[Journal])

17 2004 – impact factor 4 or higher (((((((("sensitivity and specificity"[All Fields] OR "sensitivity and specificity/standards"[All Fields]) OR "specificity"[All Fields]) OR "screening"[All Fields]) OR "false positive"[All Fields]) OR "false negative"[All Fields]) OR "accuracy"[All Fields]) OR (((("predictive value"[All Fields] OR "predictive value of tests"[All Fields]) OR "predictive value of tests/standards"[All Fields]) OR "predictive values"[All Fields]) OR "predictive values of tests"[All Fields])) OR (("reference value"[All Fields] OR "reference values"[All Fields]) OR "reference values/standards"[All Fields]) OR ((((((((((("roc"[All Fields] OR "roc analyses"[All Fields]) OR "roc analysis"[All Fields]) OR "roc and"[All Fields]) OR "roc area"[All Fields]) OR "roc auc"[All Fields]) OR "roc characteristics"[All Fields]) OR "roc curve"[All Fields]) OR "roc curve method"[All Fields]) OR "roc curves"[All Fields]) OR "roc estimated"[All Fields]) OR "roc evaluation"[All Fields]) OR ("likelihood ratio"[All Fields])) (((((((("sensitivity and specificity"[All Fields] OR "sensitivity and specificity/standards"[All Fields]) OR "specificity"[All Fields]) OR "screening"[All Fields]) OR "false positive"[All Fields]) OR "false negative"[All Fields]) OR "accuracy"[All Fields]) OR (((("predictive value"[All Fields] OR "predictive value of tests"[All Fields]) OR "predictive value of tests/standards"[All Fields]) OR "predictive values"[All Fields]) OR "predictive values of tests"[All Fields])) OR (("reference value"[All Fields] OR "reference values"[All Fields]) OR "reference values/standards"[All Fields]) OR ((((((((((("roc"[All Fields] OR "roc analyses"[All Fields]) OR "roc analysis"[All Fields]) OR "roc and"[All Fields]) OR "roc area"[All Fields]) OR "roc auc"[All Fields]) OR "roc characteristics"[All Fields]) OR "roc curve"[All Fields]) OR "roc curve method"[All Fields]) OR "roc curves"[All Fields]) OR "roc estimated"[All Fields]) OR "roc evaluation"[All Fields]) OR ("likelihood ratio"[All Fields])) AND (CA-CANCER J CLIN[Journal] OR NAT REV CANCER[Journal] OR CANCER CELL[Journal] OR BBA-REV CANCER[Journal] OR J NATL CANCER I[Journal] OR J CLIN ONCOL[Journal] OR EJC SUPPL[Journal] OR LANCET ONCOL[Journal] OR CANCER RES[Journal] OR SEMIN CANCER BIOL[Journal] OR ONCOGENE[Journal] OR ADV CANCER RES[Journal] OR LEUKEMIA[Journal] OR CLIN CANCER RES[Journal] OR STEM CELLS[Journal] OR CARCINOGENESIS[Journal] OR MOL CANCER THER[Journal] OR MOL CANCER RES[Journal] OR ONCOLOGIST[Journal] OR EBDOCR RELAT CANCER[Journal] OR CANCER EPIDEM BIOMAR[Journal] OR CANCER[Journal] OR INT J CANCER[Journal] OR NEOPLASIA[Journal] OR ANN ONCOL[Journal] OR INT J RADIAT ONCOL[Journal] OR GENE CHROMOSOME CANC[Journal] OR ANN SURG ONCOL[Journal] OR EXP CELL RES[Journal])

18 2005 – impact factor 1 or less (((((((("sensitivity and specificity"[All Fields] OR "sensitivity and specificity/standards"[All Fields]) OR "specificity"[All Fields]) OR "screening"[All Fields]) OR "false positive"[All Fields]) OR "false negative"[All Fields]) OR "accuracy"[All Fields]) OR (((("predictive value"[All Fields] OR "predictive value of tests"[All Fields]) OR "predictive value of tests/standards"[All Fields]) OR "predictive values"[All Fields]) OR "predictive values of tests"[All Fields])) OR (("reference value"[All Fields] OR "reference values"[All Fields]) OR "reference values/standards"[All Fields]) OR ((((((((((("roc"[All Fields] OR "roc analyses"[All Fields]) OR "roc analysis"[All Fields]) OR "roc and"[All Fields]) OR "roc area"[All Fields]) OR "roc auc"[All Fields]) OR "roc characteristics"[All Fields]) OR "roc curve"[All Fields]) OR "roc curve method"[All Fields]) OR "roc curves"[All Fields]) OR "roc estimated"[All Fields]) OR "roc evaluation"[All Fields]) OR ("likelihood ratio"[All Fields])) AND (((((((("sensitivity and specificity"[All Fields] OR "sensitivity and specificity/standards"[All Fields]) OR "specificity"[All Fields]) OR "screening"[All Fields]) OR "false positive"[All Fields]) OR "false negative"[All Fields]) OR "accuracy"[All Fields]) OR (((("predictive value"[All Fields] OR "predictive value of tests"[All Fields]) OR "predictive value of tests/standards"[All Fields]) OR "predictive values"[All Fields]) OR "predictive values of tests"[All Fields])) OR (("reference value"[All Fields] OR "reference values"[All Fields]) OR "reference values/standards"[All Fields]) OR ((((((((((("roc"[All Fields] OR "roc analyses"[All Fields]) OR "roc analysis"[All Fields]) OR "roc and"[All Fields]) OR "roc area"[All Fields]) OR "roc auc"[All Fields]) OR "roc characteristics"[All Fields]) OR "roc curve"[All Fields]) OR "roc curve method"[All Fields]) OR "roc curves"[All Fields]) OR "roc estimated"[All Fields]) OR "roc evaluation"[All Fields]) OR ("likelihood ratio"[All Fields])) AND (EJSO[Journal] OR MED ONCOL[Journal] OR EUR J CANCER CARE[Journal] OR CANCER NURS[Journal] OR B CANCER[Journal] OR EXP ONCOL[Journal] OR TUMORI[Journal] OR NEOPLASMA[Journal] OR J CANCER EDUC[Journal] OR J EXP CLIN CANC RES[Journal] OR CURR PROB CANCER[Journal] OR EUR J GYNAECOL ONCOL[Journal] OR PEDIATR HEMAT ONCOL[Journal] OR TERATOGEN CARCIN MUT[Journal])

19 2005 – impact factor 4 or higher (((((((("sensitivity and specificity"[All Fields] OR "sensitivity and specificity/standards"[All Fields]) OR "specificity"[All Fields]) OR "screening"[All Fields]) OR "false positive"[All Fields]) OR "false negative"[All Fields]) OR "accuracy"[All Fields]) OR (((("predictive value"[All Fields] OR "predictive value of tests"[All Fields]) OR "predictive value of tests/standards"[All Fields]) OR "predictive values"[All Fields]) OR "predictive values of tests"[All Fields])) OR (("reference value"[All Fields] OR "reference values"[All Fields]) OR "reference values/standards"[All Fields]) OR ((((((((((("roc"[All Fields] OR "roc analyses"[All Fields]) OR "roc analysis"[All Fields]) OR "roc and"[All Fields]) OR "roc area"[All Fields]) OR "roc auc"[All Fields]) OR "roc characteristics"[All Fields]) OR "roc curve"[All Fields]) OR "roc curve method"[All Fields]) OR "roc curves"[All Fields]) OR "roc estimated"[All Fields]) OR "roc evaluation"[All Fields]) OR ("likelihood ratio"[All Fields])) (((((((("sensitivity and specificity"[All Fields] OR "sensitivity and specificity/standards"[All Fields]) OR "specificity"[All Fields]) OR "screening"[All Fields]) OR "false positive"[All Fields]) OR "false negative"[All Fields]) OR "accuracy"[All Fields]) OR (((("predictive value"[All Fields] OR "predictive value of tests"[All Fields]) OR "predictive value of tests/standards"[All Fields]) OR "predictive values"[All Fields]) OR "predictive values of tests"[All Fields])) OR (("reference value"[All Fields] OR "reference values"[All Fields]) OR "reference values/standards"[All Fields]) OR ((((((((((("roc"[All Fields] OR "roc analyses"[All Fields]) OR "roc analysis"[All Fields]) OR "roc and"[All Fields]) OR "roc area"[All Fields]) OR "roc auc"[All Fields]) OR "roc characteristics"[All Fields]) OR "roc curve"[All Fields]) OR "roc curve method"[All Fields]) OR "roc curves"[All Fields]) OR "roc estimated"[All Fields]) OR "roc evaluation"[All Fields]) OR ("likelihood ratio"[All Fields])) AND (CA-CANCER J CLIN[Journal] OR NAT REV CANCER[Journal] OR CANCER CELL[Journal] OR J NATL CANCER I[Journal] OR BBA-REV CANCER[Journal] OR J CLIN ONCOL[Journal] OR LANCET ONCOL[Journal] OR CANCER METAST REV[Journal] OR SEMIN CANCER BIOL[Journal] OR ADV CANCER RES[Journal] OR CANCER RES[Journal] OR ONCOGENE[Journal] OR LEUKEMIA[Journal] OR STEM CELLS[Journal] OR CLIN CANCER RES[Journal] OR MOL CANCER RES[Journal] OR MOL CANCER THER[Journal] OR ONCOLOGIST[Journal] OR CARCINOGENESIS[Journal] OR ENDOCR- RELAT CANCER[Journal] OR CANCER[Journal] OR INT J CANCER[Journal] OR BREAST CANCER RES TR[Journal] OR INT J RADIAT ONCOL[Journal] OR CANCER TREAT REV[Journal] OR CANCER EPIDEM BIOMAR[Journal] OR ANN ONCOL[Journal] OR PROG EXP TUMOR RES[Journal] OR CELL ONCOL[Journal] OR NEURO-ONCOLOGY[Journal] OR EXP CELL RES[Journal] OR BRIT J CANCER[Journal] OR CANCER IMMUNOL IMMUN[Journal] OR BREAST CANCER RES[Journal])

20 With these queries, 695 articles were obtained with impact factor 1 or less and 3984 articles were obtained with impact factor 4 or higher year impact factor or less or higher

21 Inclusion criteria ― deal with studies that evaluate the accuracy of oncology diagnostic tests the articles should: the articles should: - be written in english, french, spanish or portuguese

22 they must have been published in a journal with impact factor 1 or less or at least 4 and published in the years studied they must have been published in a journal with impact factor 1 or less or at least 4 and published in the years studied ― have an abstract ― deal with human research

23 Exclusion criteria full article is not available full article is not available review articles and case reports will be excluded review articles and case reports will be excluded

24 using SPSS we required 10 random samples of 50 articles, 2 for each of the five years (one random sample for each of the impact factors) using SPSS we required 10 random samples of 50 articles, 2 for each of the five years (one random sample for each of the impact factors) the articles were then analysed by title and abstract (when necessary and available) and included or not accordingly the inclusion criteria the articles were then analysed by title and abstract (when necessary and available) and included or not accordingly the inclusion criteria Selecting articles

25 when the number of articles selected was not the desired we performed new one-on-one random samples until we obtained them when the number of articles selected was not the desired we performed new one-on-one random samples until we obtained them when analysing the articles by abstract, as soon as we got 10 articles for the year and impact factor wanted we stopped our analysis when analysing the articles by abstract, as soon as we got 10 articles for the year and impact factor wanted we stopped our analysis

26 Article’s quality the article’s quality was determined by the number of points from the STARD checklist present* the article’s quality was determined by the number of points from the STARD checklist present* * (Bossuyt, P. M. et. al., Towards Complete and Accurate Reporting of Studies of Diagnostic Accuracy: The STARD Initiative, Annals of Internal Medicine Vol 138 – nº1, 7 January 2003) each article was submitted to evaluation by two reviewers that independently graded them as far as quality was concerned each article was submitted to evaluation by two reviewers that independently graded them as far as quality was concerned

27 disagreements were solved by a third reviewer disagreements were solved by a third reviewer the results obtained were stored in a database on SPSS for posterior analysis the results obtained were stored in a database on SPSS for posterior analysis

28 Data extraction For each article, the information extracted was: For each article, the information extracted was: - the year of publication - the journal of publication (and its impact factor) - The number of STARD points present

29 - Statistical methods the total number of STARD items follows a normal distribution, so we used mean and standard deviation the total number of STARD items follows a normal distribution, so we used mean and standard deviation however, the ANOVA method for homogeneity of variances is not accomplished however, the ANOVA method for homogeneity of variances is not accomplished this way we used a non-parametric test (Kruskal Wallis) in our analysis to check if the results have statistic significance this way we used a non-parametric test (Kruskal Wallis) in our analysis to check if the results have statistic significance

30 Results - Article selection - titles from the random samples required to SPSS, we obtained 522 articles from the random samples required to SPSS, we obtained 522 articles after analysing the titles, we selected 202 articles to read the abstracts after analysing the titles, we selected 202 articles to read the abstracts

31 the first and second reviewers agreed 492 times – 94% - by accepting 199 articles and rejecting 293. the first and second reviewers agreed 492 times – 94% - by accepting 199 articles and rejecting 293. the level of agreement is shown by the value Kappa = 0,881 the level of agreement is shown by the value Kappa = 0,881 the difference between the 199 included by agreement and the 202 abstracts analysed are the articles included by the third reviewer the difference between the 199 included by agreement and the 202 abstracts analysed are the articles included by the third reviewer

32 - Article selection - abstracts the 202 articles included by the title were then analysed by abstract the 202 articles included by the title were then analysed by abstract after analysing the abstracts, we selected 103 articles to include in our work: 88 were not accepted and 11 were unavailable after analysing the abstracts, we selected 103 articles to include in our work: 88 were not accepted and 11 were unavailable

33 the first and second reviewers agreed 189 times – 94% - by accepting 102 articles and rejecting 87 the first and second reviewers agreed 189 times – 94% - by accepting 102 articles and rejecting 87 the level of agreement is shown by the value Kappa = 0,979 the level of agreement is shown by the value Kappa = 0,979 the difference between the 102 included by agreement and the 103 full texts selected is the article included by the third reviewer the difference between the 102 included by agreement and the 103 full texts selected is the article included by the third reviewer

34 - Article analysis – STARD checklist we splited the analysis by the two groups of impact factors and the five years analysed we splited the analysis by the two groups of impact factors and the five years analysed we then analysed both variables togheter to reach some conclusions we then analysed both variables togheter to reach some conclusions we had no access to 3 full papers, so we needed 103 articles to collect the 100 we included in the work we had no access to 3 full papers, so we needed 103 articles to collect the 100 we included in the work

35 - First and second reviewer agreement 1 – Identify the article as a study of diagnostic accuracy (recommended MeSH heading “sensitivity and specificity”) 25 – Discuss the clinical applicability of the study findings STARD item agreement percentage of agreement Kappa presentabsent , , , , , , , ,940

36 STARD item agreement percentage of agreement Kappa presentabsent , , , , , , , ,911

37 STARD item agreement percentage of agreement Kappa presentabsent , , , , , , , , ,841 6 – Data collection: was data collection planned before the index test and reference standard were performed (prospective study) or after (retrospective study) 14 – When study was done, including beginning and ending dates of recruitment

38 - Global analysis 25 – Discuss the clinical applicability of the study findings 21 – Estimates of diagnostic accuracy and measures of statistical uncertainty (e.g. 95% confidence intervals) 20 – Any adverse events from performing the index tests or the reference standard 24 – Estimates of test reproducibility, typically imprecision (as CV) at 2 or 3 concentrations

39 - Impact factor 1 or less 25 – Discuss the clinical applicability of the study findings 8 – Technical specifications of material and methods involved including how and when measurements were taken, and/or cite references for index tests and reference standard 17 – Time interval from the index tests to the reference standard, and any treatment administered between 24 – Estimates of test reproducibility, typically imprecision (as CV) at 2 or 3 concentrations

40 - Impact factor 4 or higher 25 – Discuss the clinical applicability of the study findings 21 – Estimates of diagnostic accuracy and measures of statistical uncertainty (e.g. 95% confidence intervals) 24 – Estimates of test reproducibility, typically imprecision (as CV) at 2 or 3 concentrations 20 – Any adverse events from performing the index tests or the reference standard

41 year impact factor p 1 or less 9 (2) 6 (2) 8 (2) 11 (2) 15 (2) <0,01 4 or higher 11 (2) 10 (2) 11 (4) 14 (3) 16 (3) <0,01 - Confronting years and impact factors Mean (standard deviation) of the STARD score of the journals with impact factor ≤ 1 e ≥4 splited by year

42 Group Statistics - T-Test * these results have statistic significance because p<0,01 impact factor Mean Std. Deviation total STARD 4 or higher 12 * 4 * 1 or less 10 * 3 *

43

44

45

46

47 Discussion it is possible to see that in both impact factors the article quality is improving from 2001 to 2005 it is possible to see that in both impact factors the article quality is improving from 2001 to 2005 the improvement of quality might be as a consequence of the increasing demanding of magazines reviewers that only publish articles with quality the improvement of quality might be as a consequence of the increasing demanding of magazines reviewers that only publish articles with quality

48 we believe that these improvement is just the beginning of a great improvement in all articles quality in this area we believe that these improvement is just the beginning of a great improvement in all articles quality in this area the evolution was higher in the articles with impact factor 1 or less – will they, within some years, have the same quality that the ones with impact factor 4 or higher? the evolution was higher in the articles with impact factor 1 or less – will they, within some years, have the same quality that the ones with impact factor 4 or higher?

49 in order to get some definitive conclusion about this, this study should be repeated, for example, within 2 years in order to get some definitive conclusion about this, this study should be repeated, for example, within 2 years

50 it is not possible to conclude if the STARD checklist had influence or not, because: it is not possible to conclude if the STARD checklist had influence or not, because: - we only analysed two years after its publication - the differences might have happened as a consequence of a increasing attention with the readers’ demands on quality

51 from our analysis, we can conclude that: from our analysis, we can conclude that: - in both impact factors the quality of the articles is increasing (except 2002, that in both cases it decreased) Conclusions

52 - even though both impact factors have increased their article's quality, the better articles are published in the journals with higher impact factor - from 2003, the improvement in quality is higher than it was before

53 Website

54 Planning our work w e created a Gantt chart where we inserted all the tasks to be done, the finishing time of each task and who was responsible to do it w e created a Gantt chart where we inserted all the tasks to be done, the finishing time of each task and who was responsible to do it Gantt chart the Gantt chart was updated during the time the work was being carried on, each time some change was necessary the Gantt chart was updated during the time the work was being carried on, each time some change was necessary

55 Methods flowchart

56 Participants flowchart Participants flowchart

57 Acknowledgements Professor Altamiro da Costa Pereira Professora Cristina Santos


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