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EAD 800 Day 2 Valbonne 04 Systems Theory Learning Organizations hypotheses.

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Presentation on theme: "EAD 800 Day 2 Valbonne 04 Systems Theory Learning Organizations hypotheses."— Presentation transcript:

1 EAD 800 Day 2 Valbonne 04 Systems Theory Learning Organizations hypotheses

2 Systems Perspectives Closed System Open System Rational System -Machine model -Structural view Natural System -Human Relations -Human Resources

3 Closed Systems Schools sealed off from outside Isolated Environment not considered

4 Open Systems Influenced by environments Dependent on environments Inputs – Transformation – Outputs Accommodates both rational and natural systems perspectives Accommodates both formal and informal organizational perspectives

5 Theorists who suggested this integration: Chester Barnard (1938) Structure – individual, cooperative system, formal organization, complex formal organization, informal organization Dynamic concepts – free will, cooperation, communication, authority, decision process, dynamic equilibrium

6 Theorists who suggested this integration: Herbert Simon (1947) Formal theory of motivation Organization an exchange system – inducements exchanged for work Organization limited in ability to collect and process information, search for alternatives, predict Satisficing is decision making process

7 Theorists who suggested this integration: Max Weber (1947) Mainly aligned with scientific managers Starting point for idea of social systems – discussions of bureaucracy and authority

8 Theorists who suggested this integration: Talcott Parsons (1960) Stressed importance of the environment on the organization Anticipated conception of organization as an open system

9 Hoy & Miskel’s Integration Open Systems Rational Systems Natural Systems

10 Rational Systems The Machine Model - The beginning - Scientific Management and Administrative Management The Structural Model - Contemporary View - Stress goal specificity and formalization

11 Scientific Management Frederick Taylor (1947) Workers need constant direction - Motivated by economics - Limited by physiology - Human engineers: worked up from the individual worker - Time and motion studies

12 Administrative Managers Fayol (Urwick, 1937) and Gulick (1937) POSDCoRB Division of Labor (Specialization) Span of Control Principle of homogeneity (purpose, process, clientele, or location)

13 Scientific Management in Schools Campbell et al. (1987) – parallel to field of administration Bobbit (1913) – job analyses, component tasks, efficiency Callahan (1962) – “cult of efficiency” Kanigel (1997) – Taylorism not a “fad” – living tissue of America

14 Rational Systems: A Structural View Behavior in organizations seen as purposeful, disciplined, and rational Limitations of individual decision makers (authority, rules and regulations, compliance, coordination, opportunities, constraints)

15 Rational Systems Clear Goals - direct decisions - influence structure - specify tasks - guide resource allocation - govern design - avoid ambiguity Formalization - rules and codes - standardization - regulation - governs behavior - visible structure - fact-based decisions - work separate from feelings

16 Rational Systems Seldon Wolin (1960) “ Organization, by simplifying and routinizing procedures, eliminates the need for surpassing talent. It is predicated on average human beings.”

17 Criticism of Rational Systems Rigid conception of organizations Structure and function affected by environment Undue emphasis on parts rather than the whole

18 Natural Systems Roots in Human Relations Movement - Mary Parker Follett (1924) Dynamic and harmonious relat. - Mayo & Roethlisberger (1939) Hawthorne studies – illumination and work efficiency

19 Hawthorne Studies Informal organization – worker behavior did not conform to official job specifications - Interaction patterns (cliques) - Informal norms - Behavior not a function of economic considerations

20 Criticisms of Human Relations Perspective Doesn’t take into account “conflicting values” Not all one happy family Concern for workers can be manipulative rather than genuine Often manifest in a series of “prescriptions” about how things should be and how individuals should behave.

21 Human Resources View Organizations are social groups trying to adapt and survive their particular situations Formal goals and structures often have little to do with what actually occurs in organizations Survival and equilibrium override other goals

22 Human Resources View Organizations are vehicles for humans to satisfy their human needs People are valuable resources for the organization Informal organization emphasized over formal organization

23 Human Resources View Workers bring heads and hearts to work Needs, beliefs, values and motivations Generate informal norms, status structures, power relations, communication networks and working arrangements

24 A bit more about Open Systems Inputs – Transformation – Outputs Feedback Boundaries Environment Homeostasis (equilibrium/disequilibrium) Entropy Equifinality

25 Elements of School Social System Structure (bureaucratic expectation) Individual (cognition & motivation) Culture (shared orientations) Politics (power relations) Technical core (teaching and learning) Environmentp. 24

26 Feedback Internal feedback loops - formal structure - informal structure External feedback loops - Community - Accountability indicators - State/national mandates (ESEA)

27 Schools as Learning Organizations Systems thinking Participants expand capacities to create and achieve Novel patterns of thinking are encouraged Collective aspirations are nurtured Participants learn to learn together Organization increases problem solving capabilities (Senge, 1990; Watson & Marsick, 1993)

28 Learning Organizations An organization in which the participants pursue common purposes with a collective commitment to routinely assessing the value of those purposes, modifying them when appropriate, and continually developing more effective and efficient ways to achieve those purposes. (Leithwood & Louis, 1998)

29 Learning Organizations Long on rhetoric and theoretical analysis and short on research. Weick & Westley, 1996 Hoy & Miskel, 2000

30 The Capacity for Organizational Learning Louis & Marks, 1999; Louis, Marks & Printy, 2000 Simplified organizational structure Participative decision making Shared commitment and collaborative activity Adequate knowledge and skills Transformational leadership Feedback and accountability

31 Summary Pages Rational Systems – pp. 13/14 Natural Systems – pp. 17/18 Schools as social systems – pp

32 Research questions and hypotheses Research questions can guide research when the analyst does not have a clear indication of relationship – no prior research, for example. Hypotheses guide research when a specific relationship has some empirical support. See p. 30.


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