Presentation on theme: "ITM Science Day 2002 Electronic journals : availability of full-text articles Dirk Schoonbaert ITM Library June 7, 2002."— Presentation transcript:
ITM Science Day 2002 Electronic journals : availability of full-text articles Dirk Schoonbaert ITM Library June 7, 2002
Major themes Journals: number and diversity. Electronic journals: availability and evolution. Linking of bibliographic databases with full-text articles.
Scientific publications Publications as the outcome of research: Scientific communication: maximum distribution. Permanent archive: ‘definitive version’. Authorship, recognition: priority claims, research assessment, vanity. Publications as a source for future research: starting point: use data, follow-up, enhance, contradict. Also: important source for education: e.g. ITM Masters.
Scientific journals Basic vehicle for the formal dissemination of scientific research results (except maybe for social sciences and humanities). Exponential growth since 1665: Cf. Derek de Solla Price, Science since Babylon. New Haven, Yale University Press, 1975.
How many journals? Definition: scientific vs. domestic; current vs. discontinued; splitters, mergers, title changes. E.g. Ulrich’s IPD: 250,000 periodicals. E.g. BLDSC (UK): 40,000 current periodicals + 170,000 ceased titles. E.g. Antilope (Belgium): 150,000 periodicals. Estimates: all journals >> 100,000. >> 20,000 of biomedical import.
Selection criteria Quality filters: Peer reviewed vs unreviewed; genuine science vs. promotional; vanity press. Impact filters: circulation; international vs. local audience; reporting original research vs. systematic reviews vs. loose digest. Bibliographic database coverage: Medline, etc. Citation analysis: SCI - Science Citation Index; JCR - Journal Citation Reports => (J)IF - Impact factor and other parameters.
Implications for ITM A specialised institute - yet a wide array of disciplines! Entomology  Health care sciences & services  Immunology  Infectious diseases  Medicine, general & internal  Microbiology  Mycology  Nutrition & dietetics  Parasitology  Public, environmenal & occupational health  Tropical medicine  Veterinary sciences  Virology  …
ITM library Librarian’s compromise: ‘just in case’ collection + ‘just in time’ document delivery mechanisms (delay; pay-per-article, administration). Current journal collection: Number of current journals: 460 Current journals with a JIF: 185 2002 journals budget: ± €
ITM 2002 journal prices 2,000 € : AIDS [incl. electronic edition] € : AIDS Hum Retroviruses [incl. electr.ed.] 1,400 € : Exp Parasitol 1,400 € : Int J Health Plann & Manag 3,200 € : Mol Biochem Parasitol 2,100 € : Parasitol Res 3,250 € : Soc Sci Med 1,950 € : Vet Parasitol
Serials crisis … Rising journal prices, diminishing library purchasing power: see ARL graphs. Need to discontinue expensive subscriptions ! How to finance new journal subscriptions ? (Budget + equilibrium between disciplines)
… Serials crisis Evolution: changing publisher roles: learned societies: disseminate knowledge. commercial publishers: make (some) profit. multinational holdings: please stockholders. Concentration: e.g. Elsevier ( > 1200 journals) + Harcourt/Academic Press ( > 400 journals). Benefits of ‘package deals’ are less evident for specialised institutes than for large universities (e.g. only interested in specific disciplines).
Publication paradox Scientific institutes pay several times: Researchers write the articles, act altruistically as free peer reviewers, give away their copyright and may have to pay author fees. Libraries pay expensive institutional subscriptions (e.g. TM&IH: £ 440 vs. £ 58). Libraries pay extra copyright fees (e.g. ReproBel, document delivery).
Electronic journals Originally ‘experimental’ electronic-only journals + ‘preprint archives’ (paradigm shift). Electronic ‘masthead’ for established journals. Additional contents: TOCs, abstracts, full-text (HTML vs PDF). Additional functionality: searching, SDI (TOCs or keywords), linking with databases, electronic submission and peer review, multimedia, online-only content, …
Current trends Electronic edition >> print edition (e.g. BMJ). ELPS: Electronic Long, Paper Short (BMJ). Concentration – portals: Publishers: Science Direct (Elsevier); Ideal (AP); Link (Springer); Blackwell Medical Collection; … Intermediaries: SwetsNet; Ebsco Online; Ingenta; …
Pricing policy Online access free for all: BMJ; MMWR; … Online access free for all after some delay: Proceedings NAS; ASM journals; … Online access included in print subscription: Blood; Health Policy & Planning. Online access as paid supplement to print subscription: TM&IH (e.g. 110% - 130%). Online access only at reduced price: ASM journals (e.g. 90%). Package deals (cf. above).
Complications Institutional vs. individual licencing and registration (administration !). Transparant IP-based registration vs. explicit username + password combination. HTML vs. PDF; separate figures and tables Backfiles: availability? permanence? Higher VAT category: 21% vs. 6% ! European Copyright legislation; no ILL. ‘No cancellation’ restrictions in package deals.
Organisation at ITM Linking page at ‘http://lib.itg.be/journals.htm’: Links and ‘degree of availability’ markers (e.g. bold type, functionality codes, …). No passwords because of public availability. Accurate up-to-date information: daily changes: policy, functionality, URL; …
Standard linking solutions DOI: Digital Object Identifier SFX technology SilverLinker (from SilverPlatter) But: ‘appropriate copy’ problem: which version or supplier is paid for by your institution? Pro: linking on individual article basis. Con: fine for large multidisciplinary collections, many false hits for smaller specialised libraries.
Current ITM solution … Out-linking from databases is mainly based on article-specific data, not on journal selection. Intermediation by the ‘electronic journals’ list: Selection: ‘Yes/No’ on journal level. Specification of holdings (both electronic and print) is clearly indicated on the list. Linking to electronic edition: direct (WebSPIRS) or copy/paste (WinSPIRS).
… Current ITM solution A few examples. Pro: good fit to the actually available collection; the list is easily adjustable, not dependent on database updates. Con: linking on the journal-level, not on the article level [= project still in progress].
New initiatives … PubMed Central: free access to established journals after 6 months. BioMed Central: a series of new electronic- only peer reviewed journals, financed by author fees. HighWire Press: re-empower learned societies as scientific publishers. HINARI – Health Internetwork & SciDev.Net: special conditions for developing countries.
… New initiatives SPARC – Scholarly Publishing & Academic Resources Coalition: offer new alternatives for expensive journals. Public Library of Science: boycot? revolution? Open Archives Initiative: self-archiving, using global interconnectivity protocols. Free Online Scholarship. Budapest Open Access Initiative. …
Conclusion Electronic journals as a new improved distribution medium for scientific information: no hype – compare e.g to Free availability of all journals for everybody: too naive a vision. Don’t expect too much. Authorship, responsibility, recognition ? Quality control for biomedical information ?
Additional materials ITM Library linking pages: ITM Library databases: Library & information science: selected literature on electronic journals, hybrid libraries, peer review, citation analysis, …
About ‘perspective’ « […] in 1992, when we were just starting our experimentation with electronic delivery of full text, I was approached by a very important person at the Library of Congress. […] And he said to me, « I want to get a site licence for Elsevier journals, » and I said, « For the Library of Congress? » He said, « No, for the whole country. » I said « I don’t have all the journals available. I might in 2 or 3 years. » He said, « It doesn’t matter. What would it cost? » I gave him a number for an annual subscrip- tion, and he said, « Well, what would it cost for all of them? Everything? » This is 1992, and I’m trying to guess. I said, « I dunno. Two billion dollars? Three billion dollars? I don’t know. » He said, « I can do that! That’s two bombers! » That put the whole issue in a new perspective. » [Karen Hunter, Elsevier, 1999]