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1 ©2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education International Politics on the World Stage, Twelfth Edition John T. Rourke
2 ©2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education Chapter 1: Thinking and Caring about World Politics “Be not too tame neither, but let your own discretion be your tutor; suit the action to the word, the word to the action.” — William Shakespeare, Hamlet
3 Previewing the Global Drama Global Actors: Meet the cast States IGOs and NGOs MNCs Individuals How this text is structured Choosing between the competitive traditional path of world politics or an alternative path of greater cooperation ©2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education
4 The Importance of Studying World Politics Blurring of the line between the global and the local with intermestic issues such as: Trade and capital flow Defense spending Terrorism and political violence Disease Global warming ©2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education
5 World Politics and Your Finances: The Global Flow of Goods and Services Dependence of foreign sources for vital resources (i.e., crude oil prices) Jobs and trade – job gains and losses Foreign investment and international financial markets ©2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education
6 Domestic versus Defense Spending Guns versus butter–some ambiguity in relationship (See Table 1.1) Defense sector in the domestic economy–Homeland Security expenses ©2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education
7 World Politics and Your Living Space: Sharing Air, Water and Land As population increases, resources deplete Pollution and environmental destruction Global warming leads flooding, droughts, and other weather-related disasters Public health and disease control Deforestation and soil erosion ©2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education
8 World Politics and Your Life: Transnational Disease and Political Violence Increased human contact through advances in transportation technology West Nile virus outbreak Worsening AIDS epidemic in Africa War and international security Grave threats of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) Rise in civilian casualties Terrorism–unconventional forms of violence ©2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education
9 Can We Make a Difference? Take direct action at all levels of society Vote, vote, vote! Get involved Participate in issue-oriented groups Protest and write Congressmen and Congresswomen Donate money Support consumer boycotts ©2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education
10 ©2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education The World Tomorrow: Two Roads Diverge Realism versus Liberalism Two Competing Worldviews
11 Realism and Liberalism: Some Travel Notes on Two Roads Laying out the basics Realism: The traditional path that emphasizes the centrality of the state on the world stage and the pursuit of national self-interest above all else. Liberalism: The alternative path that emphasizes a more cooperative, globalist approach and the important role of global institutions and regional organization as authoritative actors on the world stage. ©2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education
12 Realism and the Nature of Politics Influence of Thomas Hobbes and Hans Morgenthau: Conflict is inevitable Largely pessimistic: Humans are aggressive and self-serving, and they are unlikely to change Neorealism: Focus on anarchic nature of world system based on competing sovereign states ©2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education
13 Liberalism and the Nature of Politics Influence of Jean-Jacques Rousseau: Humans join civil societies and cooperate to achieve mutual benefits. Neoliberalism: Emphasize international organization to build effective cooperation (also known as neoliberal institutionalism) ©2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education
14 The Roles of Power and Principles: Realism – an emphasis on power Power-based perspective – survival of the most powerful Emphasizes pragmatic, self-help policy prescriptions ‘Might makes right’ Liberalism – an emphasis on principles Based on cooperative and ethical standards Seeks to create policy norms of justice and peace ‘Right makes right’ ©2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education
15 Prospects for Competition and Cooperation Realism–realpolitik approach Place national interest first in international politics Practice balance-of- power politics Achieve peace through strength Do not waste power on peripheral issues Liberalism–globalist approach Power is not the essence of international relations Power politics is futile and destructive Peace is achieved through cooperative relations Willingness to surrender some sovereignty to international structures promoting cooperation ©2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education
16 Assessing Reality: Realism and Liberalism Comparing the ability of realism or liberalism to explain world history Competition has dominated world history Realpolitik is the order of the day Both realism and liberalism influence current policy ‘What should be’ and ‘What will be’ remain far more important questions than ‘What is’ ©2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education
17 ©2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education “All the world’s a stage, and all the men and women merely players.” – Shakespeare, As You Like It If we are all a part of and affected by the world drama, the question is… “What role are YOU playing?”
18 Postmodernism Political reality determined by how we consider, define, and communicate concepts such as technological/scientific progress Political values are merely mental constructs Postmodernists criticize liberals and realists for “narrow thinking” Postmodernists advocate an alternative path to peace that emphasizes the creation and promotion of political identities other than nationalism ©2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education
19 Feminist Theory Argues that women have been excluded by men from the international politics process and from the conceptualization of world politics More comprehensive concepts of peace and security represent examples of how women perceive international politics issues differently than men Seeks to forge a distinct political identity and heightened feminist consciousness for women living in nations around the world ©2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education
20 Economic Theories Economic nationalism—closely connected to realism with its emphasis on using economic strength to increase national power and vice versa. Economic internationalism—closely related to liberalism with its belief free economic interchange without political interference can bring prosperity to all nations Economic structuralism—holds that economics plays a fundamental, dominant role in determining world politics ©2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education
21 Constructivist Theory Affirms that the exchange of ideas among individuals, groups, and social structures, including states, produces global “structures” such as treaties, laws, and international organizations. These structures, in turn, shape the ideas of these individuals, groups, and social structures, including states identified collectively as “agents.” Rejects the view of realists and liberals that the agents and structures such as states and the international system are stable and unchanging. ©2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education
22 Constructivist Theory (cont…) National political identities, like all political identities, are more subject to change and adaptation by citizens than generally assumed by liberals and realists Nonmaterial goals such as ideology, morality, and other culture outlooks and values motivate citizens, groups, and states in international politics. ©2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education
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