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The ImPActS model of principled living: Measuring the extent that people view principles to be Important, Pressured by others, Activated, and Successfully.

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Presentation on theme: "The ImPActS model of principled living: Measuring the extent that people view principles to be Important, Pressured by others, Activated, and Successfully."— Presentation transcript:

1 The ImPActS model of principled living: Measuring the extent that people view principles to be Important, Pressured by others, Activated, and Successfully engaged. Dr. Joseph Ciarrochi, School of Psychology, University of Wollongong Contributors to the research reviewed in this presentation Jess Frearson Kate Williams Stephenie Veage Natalie Stefanic Peter Leeson Patrick Heaven

2 Core hypothesis 1 Human happiness and vitality will be determined by four components of valued living Importance—What people find to be important and unimportant Pressure from others –to what extent do people feel their principles are driven by what others want? Activation—How many principles do people put into play in life? Successfully engagement—Are people successfully living their principles?

3 The ImPActS intervention model ImportanceACT can be used to help people discover what principles are or are not important to them. PressureACT can be used to undermine the power of unhelpful, pliance-based principles ActivityACT can be used to increase the amount of principle-congruent activity and the likelihood of contacting reinforcers SuccessACT can be used to increase people’s success at living principles (e.g., via overcoming barriers and reinforcing commitment)

4 LabelDescriptionPossible Example Principles Values Done for their own sake Never permanently realized Cannot be evaluated; must be chosen Being a loving parent Being physically active Having a loving, authentic relationship Abstract Goals In the service of values Never permanently realized Often broadly applicable; does not refer to one specific type of behavior Being honest and loyal Acting with courage Concrete goals & actions Concrete behaviors in the service of a goal Play game with child after work today Get up at 7 am on Monday to go to the gym Express honest feelings to partner over dinner tonight

5 Measuring and using principles in therapy ACT interventionSurvey of Life Principles Card sorting task Life in general Work SLP guides clinical focus SLP as an outcome measure, focusing on valued activity instead of symptoms

6 Past research in principles Values work (Schwartz, et al., Rokeach et al.). –What is most important to you? –Are there Universal values? Personal strivings (Sheldon, Emmons, Deci). –What do you strive for –Why do you strive? Is it for authentic or controlled reasons? We will call both of these “guiding principles” for ease of reference

7 Recasting Self-Determination Theory in behavioural terms. Deci and Ryban, 2000, psychological science Pliance Tracking

8 Research on values

9 The structure of values (Schwarz)

10 Methods

11 SLP content The SLP seeks to capture all the dimensions in the Schwarz circumplex. It also sought to expand the range of items to include principles related to career, health, experiential control, sexuality, and other important domains. Items focus on what could personally be put into play –“Creating beauty” instead of “A world of beauty” Items have a verb focus, in keeping with the ACT notion that values are patterns of behavior that are never permanently realized.

12 SLP rating scales Go beyond importance scale used in values research Importance Pressure Activity Success

13 N 1 = 300 University sample N 2 = 240 adolescents in Grade 12

14 Top 10 most important values 1 Having genuine and close friends 2 Being loyal to friends, family, and/or my group 3 Maintaining the safety and security of my loved ones 4 Having relationships involving love and affection 5 Feeling good about myself (experiential control item) 6 Striving to be a better person 7 Experiencing positive mood states (experiential control item) 8 Being Honest 9 Having an enjoyable, leisurely life 10 Being safe from danger

15 Top 10 most pressured values 1 Meeting my obligations 2 Being ambitious and hardworking 3 Being physically fit 4 Showing respect to parents and elders 5 Eating healthy food 6 Being honest 7 Being self-sufficient 8 Striving to be a better person 9 Being competent and effective 10 Being safe from danger

16 Top 10 most successful values 1 Being loyal to friends, family, and/or my group 2 Enjoying food and drink 3 Being safe from danger 4 Having genuine and close friends 5 Being honest 6 Maintaining the safety and security of my loved ones 7 Making sure to repay favors and not be indebted to people 8 Showing respect to parents and elders 9 Having relationships involving love and affection 10 Enjoying music, art, and/or drama

17 Top 10 failures 1 Leading a stress free life (experiential control) 2 Having a sense of accomplishment and making a lasting contribution 3 Promoting justice and caring for the weak 4 Gaining wisdom and a mature understanding of life 5 Being wealthy 6 Being at one with god or the universe 7 Feeling good about myself (experiential control) 8 Striving to be a better person 9 Being physically fit 10 Having an enjoyable, leisurely life 13 Experiencing positive mood states (experiential control) Note: Failure index= Importance – success.

18 Does the SLP cover important domains? As expected, SLP importance scale correlates in expected ways to well- accepted Schwarz value measure (Williams and Ciarrochi, 2009). We will be assessing whether it correlates with key dimensions on a job interest survey

19 Does the SLP cover important domains? SLP and personality (Steph Veage thesis). If the SLP has comprehensive coverage, then it should be able to distinguish between types of personality Grade 12 high school students; n = 240

20 NeurExtroOpenConscienAgree Psycho (Unsoci- Impulsiv) Relationship principles Friendship.14*.34**-.22** Love.21**.39**-.14* Benevolence (loyalty and security of loved ones).30**.37**-.32** Power.27**.17*.14* Conscientious Achievement.21**.37**.17* Lasting achievement.22**.31**-.17* Stimulation.17*.15* Health-.16*.17*.22** Tradition Religious values.15*.25**.19**-.16* Showing respect for tradition -.14*.20**.29** -.19** Sex (being sexually desirable and sexually active).25**-.19**.31**

21 NeurExtroOpenConscienAgree Psycho (Unsocial Impulsiv) Hedonism.21**.24 ** Universalism and self- direction Artistic.47**.18** Connecting with nature.29** Promoting justice.24**.18**.31**-.27** Self-sufficient.20**.33**.17*.24** Wisdom.30**.24**.26**-.16* Conformity Being self-disciplined-.14*.15*.33**.29** Meeting my obligations.34**.28**-.28** Security Being safe from danger.18**.30**-.29** Reciprocation of favours, not being in debt.15*.23**.24**-.18** Experiential control.18**.31** Being Wealthy.17*

22 Other findings Neurotics tend to feel more external pressure to put their principles into play, and are less successful at their principles Neurotics feel they are much worse at experiential control Agreeable and C look similar in achievement motivation. However, C are more successful at achievement (both lasting and conscientious)

23 SLP relations to well-being 300 University Students –We focused on variables of interest to clinicians: e.g., measures of emotional well-being, psychological well- being, social support, and relationship satisfaction

24 We observed four patterns between principles and well-being 1) Happy people find the principle to be important and tend to be successful at it (relationship principles, stimulation principles, hedonism, health, achievement) 2) Happy people were indifferent to the principle or found it unappealing, but nevertheless were somewhat more successful at it (power) 3) Happy people do not find the principle to be particularly important but nevertheless succeed at it. (sex) 4) Happy people do not find the principle to be particularly important, nor do they succeed at it. (being wealthy, tradition principles, security principles, conformity principles)

25 Importance and success  well-being

26 Emotional Well-being Psychological Well- being Social well-being RelationshipPos emot HostilSadAutoRelatPurpSocial Amnt Social Sat Relat Sat Love.14*.16* Friends.26**.14*.18**.22** Benevol..14*-.12*.15*.23**.16**.21**.26** Last Achieve.14*.29** Con Achieve.34** Stimulation.30**.22**.15** Hedonism.26**.20** Health.26**-.13*.23**.27**.15* The Link between principle importance and three forms of well-being

27 Emotional Well-being Psychological Well- being Social well-being RelationshipPos emot HostilSadAutoRelatPurpSocial Amnt Social Sat Relat Sat Love.27**-.19**-.33**.17**.30**.21**.34**.49** Friends.25**-.17**-.19**.21**.62**.17**.26**.28**.25** Benevol..15*-.14*-.13*.19**.17**.13*.13**.30** Last Achieve.23**-.24**.19**.16**.42**.15* Con Achieve.24**-.25**-.22**.16**.19**.51**.24**.20** Stimulation.41**-.16**-.22*.37**.35**.23**.18*.27*.20* Hedonism.27**-.18**.13*.28**.13*.15* Health.20**-.12*.23*.18*.15*.14* The Link between principle success and three forms of well-being

28 Power principles People who valued power tended to be more hostile. If these people were in an intimate relationship, their partner tended to be less satisfied in the relationship

29 Sex principles Valuing sex was unrelated to well-being But getting sex was related to emotional, psychological, and social well-being

30 Emotional control principle Most likely to be underachieved Valuing emotional control linked slightly to higher well-being Succeeding at emotional control tended to have the strongest correlate of all aspects of well-being

31 Correlation, causality, and a core ACT hypothesis When experiential control principles are inconsistent with important behavior- focused principles, you get the following:

32

33 Can the SLP substitute for well-being measures? Positive affect = 41% variance explained by SLP Hostility = 18% Sadness = 28% Autonomy = 30% Positive relations with others = 43% Purpose = 37% Amount of social support = 9% Satisfaction with social support = 18% Relationship satisfaction = 8%

34 Using the SLP in ACT interventions

35 Importance ratings 1.What do clients value most? What is likely to be the focus of therapy 2.Principle themes. Social. Power. Art? Achievment 3.Look out for low importance ratings involving relationships, stimulation, hedonism, health, and achievement Likely intervention: Values clarification (see card sorting task)

36 Low principle Activity Clients may endorse several principles as important, but state that they have not tried to put them into play. What are the barriers to putting the principles into play? Likely interventions: acceptance, defusion, or overcoming practical barriers?

37 Dominance of experiential control items High importance on experiential control dimension Nothing inherently wrong with experiential control, unless in conflicts with other important principles Likely interventions: Creative hopelessness, acceptance

38 Presence of strong compliance pressure Research suggests that pressured principles tend not to lead to vital living or well-being (Sheldon & Kasser, 1995) and tend to be associated with hostility and sadness (Ciarrochi, 2008). Danger of contercompliance: In reaction to pressure, the client refuses to act according to the principle, or acts contrary to the principle

39 Presence of strong pressure: Interventions Therapist behaviours: acting with humility in session, undermining your own authority, encouraging clients to not believe anything you say Remove source of pressure. E.g., imagine nobody knew you were living the principle. Would you still live it? Seek to identify past experience that was vital. E.g., sweet spot exercise. Connect their valued statements to this vital past

40 References Bardi, A., & Schwarz, S. Values and Behavior: Strength and Structure of Relations. Personality and Social Psychology Bulleting, 29, Block, J. A., & Wulfert, E.. (2000). Acceptance or change: Treating socially anxious college students with ACT or CBGT. The Behavior Analyst Today, 1, Braithwaite, V. A., & Law, H. G. (1985). Structure of human values: Testing the adequacy of the Rokeach value survey. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 49, Chambless, D. L., Sanderson, W. C., Shoham, V., Bennett Johnson, S., Pope, K. S., Crits-Christoph, P., Baker, M., Johnson, B., Woody, S. R., Sue, S., Beutler, L., Williams, D. A., & McCurry, S. (1996). An update on empirically validated therapies. Clinical Psychologist, 49, UOW Library Clinical Psychologist, 49, Ciarrochi, J., & Bailey, A. (In press). A CBT-Practicioner's Guide to ACT: How to Bridge the Gap Between Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and Acceptance and Commitment Therapy. Oakland, CA: New Harbinger Publications, Inc. Cohen, G. L. G., Julio; Apfel, Nancy; Master, Allison. (2006). Reducing the Racial Achievement Gap: A Social-Psychological Intervention. Science, 313, Creswell, J. D. W., William T; Taylor, Shelley E; Sherman, David K; Gruenewald, Tara L; Mann, Traci. (2005). Affirmation of Personal Values Buffers Neuroendocrine and Psychological Stress Responses. Psychological Science(16), Dalrymple, K. L., & Herbert, J. D.. (2007). Acceptance and Commitment Therapy for Generalized Social Anxiety Disorder: A pilot study. Behavior Modification, 31, Dimidjian, S., Dobson, K., Kohlenberg, R., Gallop, R., Markley, D., Atkins, D., et al. (2006). Randomized Trial of Behavioural Activation, Cognitive Therapy, and Antidepressant Medication in the Acute Treatement of Adults with Major Depression. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 74,

41 References Elliot, A. J., & Sheldon, K. M. (1998). Avoidance personal goals and the personality-illness relationship. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 75(5), Elliot, A. J., Sheldon, K. M., & Church, M. A. (1997). Avoidance personal goals and subjective well-being. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin Vol 23(9) Sep 1997, Forman, E. M., Herbert, J. D., Moitra, E., Yeomans, P. D., & Geller, P. A.. (2007). A randomized controlled effectiveness trial of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy and Cognitive Therapy for anxiety and depression. Behavior Modification, 31, Frearson, J., & Ciarrochi, J. (2008). Linking Life Principles to Romantic Relationships and Social Support.Unpublished manuscript, University of Wollongong. Hopko, D., Robertson, S., & Lejuez, C. (2006). Behavioural Activation for Anxiety Disorders. The Behaviorist Analyst Today, 7, Jacobson, N. S., Dobson, K. S., Truax, P., Addis, M. E., Koerner, K., Gollen, J., et al. (1996). A component analysis of cognitive- behavioral treatment for depression. Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology, 64(2), Jacobson, N. S., Martell, C. R., & Dimidjian, S. (2001). Behavioral activation treatment for depression: Returning to contextual roots. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 8, Jakupak, M., Roberts, L., Martell, L., Mulick, P., Michael, S., Reed, R., et al. (2006). A Pilot Study of Behavioural Activation for Veterans with Postraumatic Stress Disorder. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 19, Martell, C. R., Addis, M., & Jacobson, N. (2001). Depression in Context: Strategies for Guided Action. New York: WW Norton & Co. McLean, P. D., & Hakstian, A. R. (1979). Clinical depression: Comparative efficacy of outpatient treatements. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 47, O'Brian, P. (1991). H.M.S. Surprise. New York: W. W. Norton & Company. Oishi, S., Diener, E., Suh, E., & Lucas, R. (1999). Value as a moderator in Subjective Well-Being. Journal of Personality 67,

42 References Paez-Blarrina, M. L., Carmen; Gutierrez-Martinez, Olga; Valdivia, Sonsoles; Ortega, Jose; Rodriguez-Valverde, Miguel. (2008). The role of values with personal examples in altering the functions of pain: Comparison between acceptance-based and cognitive-control-based. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 46, Paez-Blarrina, M. L., Carmen; Gutierrez-Martinez, Olga; Valdivia, Sonsoles; Rodriguez-Valverde, Miguel; Ortega, Jose. (2008). Coping with pain in the motivational context of values: Comparison between an acceptance-based and a cognitive control--based protocol. Behavior Modification, 32, Power, M., Sigmarsson, S., & Emelkamp, P. (2008). A Meta-Analytic Review of Psychological Treatments for Social Anxiety Disorder. International Journal of Cognitive Therapy, 1, Rokeach, M. (1973). The nature of human values. New York: Free Press. Sagiv, L., & Schwartz, S. H. (2000). Value priorities and subjective well-being: direct relations and congruity effects. European Journal of Social Psychology, 30, Schwartz, S. H., & Bilsky, W. (1987). Toward a Universal Psychological Structure of Human Values. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 53, Schwartz, S. H., & Bilsky, W. (1990). Toward a theory of the universal content and structure of values:extensions and cross-cultural replications. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 58, Schwartz, S. H., & Boehnke, K. (2004). Evaluating the structure of human values with confirmatory factor analysis. Journal of Research in Personality, 38, Sheldon, K. M., & Elliot, A. J. (1999). Goal striving, need satisfaction, and longitudinal well-being: The self-concordance model. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 76(3), Sheldon, K. M., Elliot, A. J., Ryan, R. M., Chirkov, V., Kim, Y., Wu, C., et al. (2004). Self-concordance and subjective well-being in four cultures. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 35(2), Sheldon, K. M., & Kasser, T. (1998). Pursuing personal goals: Skills enable progress, but not all progress is beneficial. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 24(12), Wilson, K., Sandoz, E., Kitchens, J., & Roberts, M. (2008). The Valued Living Questionnaire: Defining and Measuring Valued Action within a Behavioral Framework.Unpublished manuscript, University of Mississippi. Zettle, R. D. (2003). Acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) vs. systematic desensitization in treatment of mathematics anxiety. Psychological Record, 53(2),


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