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Project management and Scientific writing Lars Peter Jensen 1.

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1 Project management and Scientific writing Lars Peter Jensen 1

2 Agenda Management of people –Code of conduct/team charter Management of time and ressources Exercise Advises for report writing Scientific writing Peer Review 2

3 Project Management Planning Goals objectives Organizing People resources Controlling monitor maintaining Change 3

4 Agree on the goal, otherwise you won’t reach it! -OR GET ON A DESERT WALK The goal statement should be action-oriented, short, simple, straightforward, understandable, and clear to all. 4

5 Objectives should be –Specific in targeting an objective –Measurable - Establish a measurable indicator(s) of progress –Assignable - Make the objective capable of being assigned to someone for completion –Realistic - State what can realistically be achieved within budgeted time and resources –Time-related - State when the objective can be achieved, that is, the duration. (George Doran 1981)

6 Project Management Management of people Management of time and other resources 6

7 Be aware of your differences YOU ARE STUPID ! WE DON’T KNOW 7

8 Organizing people How do you want to divide the work: First one first Engagement Divide and concur Optimizing learning potential How do you want to make use of your supervisor

9 Code of conduct – A tool for managing people Expectations and ambitions ? Meetings – How often ? – What if somebody is late ? Organizing meetings, chairman, referee, use of blackboard ? Division of labor ? What kind of response do you give within the group ? To what extent will we socialize together, and when ? 9

10 Code of conduct example 10

11 Time management

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15 Project planning – what is it? 50 % thinking ahead 25 % communication 25 % milestones

16 Planning at different levels Overview (long term) level: –Big tasks, few milestones Activity level: –Where you are right now –Detailed activity plan with many smaller tasks –Deadlines Daily level: –What are we going to do today 16

17 1 st Semester 2000 – P0 Project – Group 00792 – TETRaA System P1 Planning 17

18 Exercise: Make a time schedule Your group is giving a diner party for 8 people (including yourselves) on the coming Friday. You have decided to make a 3 course diner using the recipe’s below. Make a precise time schedule for shopping, preparing and cooking/baking the dishes, including who is to do what when. The guests are invited to arrive at 19.00 and the first course is expected to be served at 20.00 sharp.



21 Lessons learnt making a time schedule? 21

22 Lessons learnt making a time schedule? 22

23 Break for 15 minutes 23

24 Exercise 1 What characterizes a good written documentation of a project (the project report)? Discuss this together 2-3 Billede: 24

25 What characterizes a good written documentation of a project report? 25

26 Report structure Synopsis/Abstract Fore word Table of content Introduction 1. Part: problem analysis Problem formulation and delimitation 2. Part: problem solving Conclusion References Appendix © SLP-gruppen, Aalborg Universitet 26

27 A fast overview The report must have a logical flow => a good structure The report must contain all necessary information - and no more The report should not contain comments about the workflow/process The report must be consistent, both graphically and linguistically The reader should easily and quickly identify the report's relevance to their own qualifications / interests. Billede: Algreen-Ussing, 1990© SLP-gruppen, Aalborg Universitet Main Chapters 27

28 Step by step The reader should be able to read the report step by step: If the receiver is only interested in results, read the introduction and conclusion. These must therefore be able to stand alone (unless otherwise indicated). If the reader becomes curious, read the main sections which he / she finds interesting. Each section must be able to stand alone - otherwise, references to earlier chapters must be indicated. If the receiver is further interested, read the rest of the main sections. If the recipient needs all details, also read appendices and annexes. Algreen-Ussing, 1990 © SLP-gruppen, Aalborg UniversitetBillede: 28

29 Critical points in writing a project report A precise synopsis A telling table of content Help the reader so the coherence and relevance of contents is obvious Interplay and balance between text and illustrations Making the disseminating scientific © SLP-gruppen, Aalborg Universitet Billede: 29

30 Good advices for the synopsis It shall be short and concise The problem must be bent in neon The primary methods included The main conclusion included The logic shall be clear © SLP-gruppen, Aalborg Universitet 30

31 Good advices for the table of content Consider the number of chapters in relation to the project's total number of pages Consider the clarity in the TOC - have you divided the chapters into too many levels? Consider the information value – are the headlines understandable so that the reader can get an overview just by reading them? © SLP-gruppen, Aalborg UniversitetBillede: 31

32 Help the reader all the way Make a readers guide in the foreword that explains which chapters can be read separately In the introduction, each chapter can be introduced and the links between them made visible – e.g. by a diagram showing the structure of the report Although the structure of each chapter is logical the reader should be presented for the purpose, what the content is and how the text is structured © SLP-gruppen, Aalborg UniversitetBillede: 32

33 Readers Guide This report is made by first semester students at AAU and touches many subjects, some of which are only briefly discussed, but the most of them are explained in full. We dive into the gaming technology over the last years and try to give a basic understanding of how the development has shaped the technologies of today. The possibilities of these technologies are discussed later in the report and we try to make a connection between the state of the art and the commonly available ones. Some psychology is discussed in this report but it is self explanatory and requires little to no prior knowledge of this subject. We have done this because we thought that the reader should have a basis of knowledge concerning the target group of our product and the possible uses of this. Our report should give an overview of the gaming industry and the use of edutainment, and how these could be combined for the use in schools. 33

34 Diagram of the structure of a project report 34

35 The interaction between text and illustrations Remember Captions and No. Remember a reference to the figure A figure must be explained if it is not self-explanatory There must be the same logic in words as in the picture © SLP-gruppen, Aalborg Universitet Billede: 35

36 Credibility THAT IS: personal ideas / observations must be stated assessments should be presented with the assessment criteria and the basis for assessing project boundaries must be stated clearly project's methods must be transparent conditions for the conclusions must be stated be sure that possible. political, religious or moral standards appears as such © SLP-gruppen, Aalborg Universitet Algreen-Ussing, 1990 Billede: 36

37 Appropriate Language Simple Precise Concrete Neutral Sensible Logical Understandable 37

38 Avoid speech language Restrict foreign words 38

39 39 How to write Before writing (the group): Preparation: receiver, message, outline Brainstorm: e.g.. Post-it Writing (individually): Go for it : write without criticism – one headline at a time (in arbitrary order) Structure – structure the writing, creating overview and consistency Edit – make the writing easy to read After writing (the group or others)  Review

40 Exercise 2 What characterizes scientific communication/dissemination? Discuss this together 2-3 Billede: 40

41 What characterizes scientific communication/dissemination? 41

42 Scientific writing Refer to sources in accordance with recognized standards Remember to consider the source credibility Remember to seek evidence for claims Remember to argue for your choice Remember to explain the methods used Remember to reflect on applied theory and methodology Remember that we do not see / look at - but examine, treat e.g. Remember that we do not think and believe, we assume (if necessary) without scientific evidence and concludes when we have sufficient evidence © SLP-gruppen, Aalborg UniversitetBillede: 42

43 Scientific Integrity © SLP-gruppen, Aalborg Universitet  The quotations comes from lawfully published texts  The quotation is in accordance with "good practice“  It is quoted "to the extent determined by the purpose“  The author of the text is credited and acknowledged A quote is legal under copyright law, if: (Ministry of Culture, 2006) Billede og dowloadmulighed: 43

44 Remember references : The Chicago method (Jensen, 2001a:21) Literature is the listed alphabetic: Jensen, Hans (1999a): ” Elektroniske System, AAU Forlaget, Aalborg By numbers [2] Literature is the listed by numbers: [4] Hans Jensen, Elektroniske System, AAU Forlaget, Aalborg 1999a © SLP-gruppen, Aalborg Universitet Billede: We have to know all possible information's to be able to find the quoted source: Books: Author(s), year, title, publisher, ISBN or ISSN no. Journals: As above + name of journal, number and date Internet: URL and date for downloading Persons: Name, title, company 44

45 Zotero as reference manager 45

46 Plagiarism and fraud quotation © SLP-gruppen, Aalborg Universitet  Missing source (plagiarism)  This quote is too long  This quote is wrong credited  The quotation is corrupted (quote fraud) Conditions that can make the quote illegally: (Ministry of Culture, 2006) Billede: 46

47 Plagiarism is illegal… © SLP-gruppen, Aalborg Universitet "Plagiarism is totally unacceptable and will result in rejection of the report and exclusion of students from Aalborg University, if discovered in a report handed in " From the study regulations for all educations at Aalborg University: Billede: 47

48 Why is Peer review a good idea? 48

49 Peer review Why ? To evaluate the work To find mistakes and to identify if something is missing To check whether it is understandable 49

50 How to perform Peer review? 50

51 Peer review How and When ? Written or oral At a group meeting After everybody have read the writing and have prepared individual comments to it 51

52 Peer review Valuable criticism Be kind – be motivating for the group member, avoiding offending Be concrete – providing alternatives and suggestions Be constructive – aiming at improvement Be critical – professionally but not personally 52

53 Peer review Elements: Misspelling, misprint and other corrections in the proofs. (might be noted directly in the document) Logical errors, misunderstandings, poor formulations, technical mistakes etc. that makes the understanding difficult or impossible for the reader. Good points, well structured, clear overview, interesting angle, well documented, clear illustrations etc. 53

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