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Project management and financing of research activities Wroclaw March 2014 SOLARNET, Spring School “Introduction to Solar Physics”

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Presentation on theme: "Project management and financing of research activities Wroclaw March 2014 SOLARNET, Spring School “Introduction to Solar Physics”"— Presentation transcript:

1 Project management and financing of research activities Wroclaw March 2014 SOLARNET, Spring School “Introduction to Solar Physics”

2 your project?

3 A project … SCOPE what? TIME when? COST how much?

4 What is a Project? A temporary endeavour … …to create a unique product, service or result. Projects have a beginning and end date. Projects have resources. The end is reached when: o the objectives have been achieved or, o the objectives will not or cannot be met, or o the need for the project no longer exists.

5 How many projects are successfully completed? Challenged: late, over budget and/or with less than the required features and functions

6 How many projects are successfully completed?

7 1.Very low participation of users 2.Incomplete specifications and requirements 3.Very frequent changes in requirements 4.Lack of executive support 5.Technological incompetence 6.Lack of resources 7.Unrealistic expectations 8.Unclear goals 9.Unrealistic schedules 10.New technologies Main reasons for failure

8  Temporary in nature o The project is completed when (1) goals have been achieved, (2) goals cannot be achieved, (3) no need to achieve goals. o project.vs. research activity / production / … Main characteristics

9  Unique o The result is not repeatable. o Serial production is not a project; neither the provision of a service o The environment, the technology, the client, …, can change. Never two identical situations. Main characteristics

10  Fragmented nature o Results are obtained gradually; in phases  Dynamism by large! o A lot of changes and stress.  Uncertainty o Time and cost, estimations at the beginning. o As the project is progressing,the uncertainty is reduced. Main characteristics

11  No way back o Knock down a building, an industrial port, build an artificial lake, a road, etc.  Risks. o Not only technical, but also economic, etc. o Economic loss, image, clients, etc. Main characteristics

12  Set up to achieve some specific goals, which are unique  Time to achieve them is limited from start to the end  Done for someone – client  Resources usually diverse o Resources in very specific quantities and very specific times. o Optimised used tends to be a critical aspect for the project and for the entity. In conclusion, a project …

13 3D in projects

14  Very dependent on the nature of the project o Building a house, a marketing campaign, pharmacy, build a telescope.  Pay attention exclusively to this technical aspect will cause failure. o Because resources, time and costs are limited. “Technical” dimension

15  Not always evident, but driving towards success or failure  Directors and governing body  Project manager and Principal investigator  Team project  Heads of Units.  Clients  Providers  Etc. “Human” dimension “Never send an elephant to a glassware”

16  It is the “catalyser” to put into operation all other components.  It is the less common ability (training welcome) o including cultural changes are needed!  It is not just to follow a calendar!  Methodologies and tips! “Management” dimension

17 Project success

18 Project Objectives SOLARNET, Spring School “Introduction to Solar Physics” Scope, Time and Cost

19 OBJECTIVES SMART FUNCIONAL REQUIREMENTS TECHNICAL REQUIREMENTS

20  Definition and concretion is not always obvious o Objectives are not needs or wishes o A proper objectives concretion, and agreement among parts involved, is a must! to be successful  There are projects doomed to failure before starting  Project objective is always TRIPLE o Many times this is ignored or forgotten during the execution of the project Project Objectives

21 Project objectives QUALITY what? TIME when? COST how much?

22  Technical objective or expected product/result o What we want to build, to develop, to produce o This objective usually is the origin and justification for the project  Cost objective o Which is the price we would agree to pay to obtain the product? o Product is not expected at whatever price o Pay attention!, costs are not always evident  Time objective o When do we need/want the product? o This is the objective failing first o Project management quality is usually evaluated based on the fulfilment of this objective TRIPLE objective

23  S.M.A.R.T. o Specific, Measurable, adaptable (Agreed upon), Realistic and Timely.  P.U.R.E. o Positively stated, Understood, Relevant, Ethical!  C.L.E.A.R. o Challenging, legal, Environmentally sound, Appropriate, Recorded. Project objectives VALIDATION criteria

24  The client will try to get as much as possible o Extra features  You will never know if you have done enough If the project is not clearly defined…

25 Project Objectives example SOLARNET, Spring School “Introduction to Solar Physics” The importance of the triple objective

26 New product for coming Christmas A videogame about the new Disney movie. 100,000 units on sale. The product at all stores for Christmas Budget: 2 M€ (20 € price per unit put on sale) Sales forecast: HChristmas: 30,000 units. HNext year: 60,000 units. HNext Christmas : 10,000 units. HPrice: 60€/unit

27 New product for coming Christmas A videogame about the new Disney movie. 100,000 units on sale. The product at all stores for Christmas Budget: 2 M€ (20 € price per unit put on sale) Sales forecast: HChristmas: 30,000 units. HNext year: 60,000 units. HNext Christmas : 10,000 units. HPrice: 60€/unit We need 2 M€ more to be on time! Not having the videogame for Xmas means 20% down of sales forecast

28 A new variety of wine The company would like to produce a new variety of wine for exclusive sale, replacing existing products. Three years, so not to affect or reduce the current production of wine The expected benefits for the next two years

29 A project has been managed successfully once these three objectives are successfully achieved: finish the work according to specifications, at expected costs, in time

30 A project has not been managed successfully if one or several of these three objectives were not successfully achieved: finish the work according to specifications, at expected costs, in time

31 A project has not been managed successfully if one or several of these three objectives were not successfully achieved: finish the work according to specifications, at expected costs, in time

32  Expectations fulfilled?  Success in market?  Is it used?  Etc. o TITANIC movie  Much more later than expected.  Final cost 82% above budget (200 M€).  It was the first movie obtaining more than 1,000 M€ billing Can be considered a failure? Other measures of success or failure

33 Project Objectives example SOLARNET, Spring School “Introduction to Solar Physics” Importance of the triple objective

34 o To design and build a world-class multi- sporting venue with capacity for a large number of spectators for the London 2012 Olympic Games in Stratford (East London), to be completed between 2007 and 2011, with an estimated budget of £496 million. Building the Olympic Stadium London Olympic Games

35 o To design and build a world-class multi- sporting venue with capacity for 80,000 spectators for the London 2012 Olympic Games in Stratford (East London), to be completed between 2007 and 2011, with an estimated budget of £496 million. Building the Olympic Stadium London Olympic Games

36 Project management SOLARNET, Spring School “Introduction to Solar Physics”

37 A management discipline oriented towards the planification, organisation and optimisation of resources … … to successfully achieve the triple project objective. What does project management mean?

38 Project management objectives SOLARNET, Spring School “Introduction to Solar Physics”

39 1. Put focus on project tasks  Very challenging, large-scale activity and very relevant for the entity o Pay special attention! - intensity and continuity.  Having responsibilities on projects and day-to-day activities: be careful ! o Time is limited and capacity too.  Very common: day-to-day activities going first than really urgent ones  TRY TO AVOID THIS PLANNING AND ORGANISING YOUR WORK  And be strict with yourself.

40 2. Keeping normal activities o Nobody is waiting at the entity for something to do!  We cannot forget about normal activities o They usually constitute the main goal of our entity and incomes.  Projects and normal activities should run in paralell o Project management cannot deteriorate the main company activity.

41 To achieve these objectices  Project manager or leader o Possibly the most important aspect to be successful in my opinion  Project team o Diverse, adequate in number and professional skills, and properly assigned and coordinated with other responsibilities  Techniques and methodologies o Techniques, tools, training and experience.

42 To DO NOT achieve objectives  PM without time, not trained, capacity or authority  A committee instead of a project team  To create a permanent department o e.g. New recipients’ department.  A simple agenda or post-it to manage the project  To manage the project as we manage the rest of activities or our own life  To try to reduce planning to standards or complex procedures

43 PMBOK ® The Project Management Body of Knowledge SOLARNET, Spring School “Introduction to Solar Physics”

44 The Body of Knowledge  A set of competences grouped into different “body of knowledge” for project management  Characteristics and advantages: o Knowledge and methodologies well proof by experts o A common lexicon o Continuous updating  Different institutions work on their BOK:  International Project Management Association - IPMA  Project Management Institute - PMI

45 PMBOK  Project Integration Management  Project Scope Management  Project Time Management  Project Cost Management  Project Quality Management  Project Human Resources Management  Project Communications Management  Project Risk Management  Project Procurement Management

46 Planning Wroclaw March 2014 SOLARNET, Spring School “Introduction to Solar Physics”

47 Main aspects  Main objectives  Scope  Tasks and work packages  Resources  Costs  Risks, procurements, … o Deliverables o Milestones

48 Objectives  Defined and measurable (triple)  Functionality and specifications  Cost  Schedule o High-level requirements:  Commercial requirements  The expectations from our clients.  Etc.

49 Work Breakdown Structure in project management SOLARNET, Spring School “Introduction to Solar Physics”

50  Hierarchical decomposition of the work to be done.  It is a simple and organised representation of the work to be done.  It defines the work to be done and the work NOT TO BE done.  It is the project “To Do” list.  To what level of detail?  It depends. Work breakdown structure

51 o Task tree: Each descending level represents a more detailed description of the work to be done. Project WP 1WP 2WP3 WP 1.1 WP 1... WP 1.2 WP 3.1 WP 3... WP 3.2 WP... WP WP WP Main goals Scientific requirements, dome, optics, etc. Primary mirror, secondary mirror, AO, Actuators, polishing, etc.

52 Work breakdown structure  Coding: o Decimal system o Easy reference o Once it is established:  Do not modify the order  Do not reuse codes  The same coding for the whole team. Avoid personal coding.

53 Some tools o MS Projectwww.microsoft.com/ o Primaverawww.primavera.com/ o Planviewwww.planview.com/ o Open Plan Professionalwww.welcom.com/ o Project Schedulerwww.scitor.com/ o iTeamWork o Cost Xpert (Estimación de costes)www.costxpert.com/ o Winsight (Earned Value) o Simulación (Arena) o CA-SuperProjectwww.ca.com/ o Artemis o ProChain (cadena crítica) o Concerto (cadena crítica) o Sciforma (cadena crítica) o Project Plan Pro (cadena crítica)www.advanced- projects.com/ o CC-MPulse (cadena crítica)

54 GANTTPROJECT J. Burgos

55 Some references on project management SOLARNET, Spring School “Introduction to Solar Physics”

56 A couple of references in English “A guide to the Project Management body of knowledge” Project Management Institute, (aut.) Project Management Institute ISBN: ISBN-13: “Project Management for Dummies” Stanley E. Portny HUNGRY MINDS ISBN:

57 Associations, etc.  Project Management Institute   International Project Management Association   Am. Association for the Advance of PM   UK - Association for Project Management   Australian Institute for Project Manag.   Instituto Goldratt 

58 Some methodologies  Cadena crítica   Earned Value PM, Uso y Beneficios   Function Point (Software)   Prince 2 (software)   Rational Unified Process (software)  www-306.ibm.com/software/sw-bycategory/

59 Some methodologies  Dynamic System Development Method  (software principalmente)  Structured Project Management (10 pasos. Silver Bullet)   Extreme Programming XP.org XP.com (software)   Scrum (software) 

60 Financing research activities Wroclaw March 2014 SOLARNET, Spring School “Introduction to Solar Physics”

61  The best instrument fitting to your needs (never 100%)  The best possible consortium  The more you work on “defining” the project, the easier will be to complete the details.  Put first others to work, before you start Financing RTD activities

62  Try to harmonize inputs before they are provided o Templates  Complete the proposal working on all sections simultaneously  Time to deadline will force you to adopt not the best solution, but the best for the situation  Use some tools to manage all inputs. Financing RTD activities

63  Think as a consortium, decide as a leader.  The train never stops, never wait. Build on available information.  Do not spend too much time on the proposal you could draft with time, but on the one you are drafting.  Take decisions! o Fair decisions for the consortium should be fair for each partner involved; the contrary does not work. Financing RTD activities

64  Feasible and innovative enough when drafting the scope, but economic and very realistic when drafting the budget and the consortium Financing RTD activities

65  Come to you advisor to know better about the project in which you are involved  Try to draft a proposal  Present your project to non-specialised people under the triple objective  There is always an associated cost  And learning form the past. Final remarks


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