Presentation on theme: "Performance-based measures of physical function Kristine Phillips, MD, PhD Disclosures: None."— Presentation transcript:
Performance-based measures of physical function Kristine Phillips, MD, PhD Disclosures: None
What are performance-based tests? In performance-based tests, an individual has to execute one or more specific activities that are evaluated in a standardized manner Usually measured as time to complete the activity or observer report of completion of task
Why measure performance? Self-report may be subject to under or over estimation in musculoskeletal disease Only moderate relations between both measures, particularly in the elderly Time-based performance and self-reported (PRO) measures likely assess different aspects of the physical function domain J Clin Epidemiol 1998, 51:1243–1252 J Am Geriatric Society 1992, 40:457–462 J Clin Epidemiol 1996, 49:1103–1110
Why measure performance? Evidence for discrepancies between perceptions of the individual assessed using a self-reported measure and their true ability (underestimation or overestimation, personality traits, language, depression) Discordance between observed and perceived physical function measured with a self-reported questionnaires has been reported in patients with ankylosing spondylitis, rheumatoid arthritis and fibromyalgia Br J Rheumatol 1995, 34:951–955 J Rheumatol 1994, 21:818–823
Goals To describe performance-based physical function assessment as outcome measures for chronic musculoskeletal pain RCTs Overview Global or localized / segmental Complexities Measurement properties
Functional Limitations Activity restrictions Disability Musculoskeletal pain Difficulty with personal care, social participation, work... Difficulty standing, walking, bending, or with grip… Conceptual framework for impact of chronic musculoskeletal pain Core Areas of Measurement
Developing a Core Outcome Measurement Set Core Domains Applicability: Truthful Discriminative Feasible Preliminary Core Outcome Measurement Set Literature Review Each Domain with at least one instrument? 1. Develop new instruments 2. Validation studies No Yes
Why evaluate rheumatologic studies? Peformance-based physical function outcome measures form a core set of endpoints for clinical trails in: Osteoarthritis Rheumatoid arthritis Ankylosing spondylitis Fibromyalgia Low back pain Joint specific musculoskeletal pain
Example: OA systematic review Measurement properties of performance- based measures to assess physical function in hip and knee osteoarthritis: a systematic review. Dobson F1, Hinman RS, Hall M, Terwee CB, Roos EM, Bennell KL.
Example: OA Literature Review Methods Keywords used Exclusion criteria Online databases used – CINAHL, etc – Cochrane – Embase – Medline / PubMed – PsychINFO – References of all articles OMERACT-OARSI initiative
Fig. 1 Flowchart of the selection and inclusion of studies. F. Dobson, R.S. Hinman, M. Hall, C.B. Terwee, E.M. Roos, K.L. Bennell Measurement properties of performance-based measures to assess physical function in hip and knee osteoarthritis: a systematic review Osteoarthritis and Cartilage, Volume 20, Issue 12, 2012, 1548 - 1562
Quality criteria for rating the results of the measurement properties Reliability Internal consistency Measurement error Responsiveness Validity – Content – Structural – Construct (Hypothesis testing) – Cross-cultural – Criterion Terwee et al J Clin Epidemiol 2007;60(1):34-42
Levels of evidence for the quality of the measurement property LevelRating ∗ Criteria Strong+++ or −−−Consistent findings in multiple studies of good methodological quality OR in one study of excellent methodological quality Moderate++ or −−Consistent findings in multiple studies of fair methodological quality OR in one study of good methodological quality Limited+ or −One study of fair methodological quality Conflicting±Conflicting findings Unknown?Only studies of poor methodological quality Adapted from Terwee et al. J Clin Epidemiol 2007;60(1):34–42.
Example study Internal consistency N/A Reliability 0 Measurement error ? Validity 0 Responsiveness 0 Interpretability 0 Intra + Inter + Retest 0 50ft fast-pace
Are there performance-based physical function measures that are used across multiple musculoskeletal diseases? How do they compare?
Timed Up and Go (TUG) Test Incorporates walking 3 m, turning and returning to sit down Assessment of both walking and turning Another variation: Get up and go test, which incorporates walking 20 m with no return
Timed Up and Go (TUG) Test Scanaill et al, Ageing International, 36:2, 2011
OA Systematic Review Results Six different sit to stand tests with variations in (1) method of measurement (count over 30 s, time for five repetitions, total time and quality grading) and (2) height of chair (standard and high) and (3) incorporated walking and/or turning components Sit to stand tests were included in three multi- activity measures
TUG test: Rheumatoid Arthritis RA patients randomized to 4 weeks of rehabilitation in Norway or in a Mediterranean climate Comparable improvements in TUG tests. No differences seen in TUG test between groups. ACR20: (20% improvement in tender and swollen joint counts and 20% improvement in 3 of the 5 ACR-core set measures: patient and physician global assessments, pain, disability, and an acutephase reactant) 25% achieved ACR20 in the Mediterranean climate and 15% achieved ACR20 in the Norwegian climate Scand J Rheumatol. 2009 Jan- Feb;38(1):28-37
One of the potential pitfalls of performance measures: not always associated with disease activity (RA, AS)
Six minute walk test
Considerable normative data from the cardiology and pulmonary literature. Guidelines on administration from American Thoracic Society Documentation should include the speed tested if fastest speed is not used (preferred vs. fast) Assistive devices can be used but kept consistent from test to test Length of track taken into consideration (40 feet versus 50 feet)
OA Systematic Review Results Two main types of walk tests: short distances ( 100 m) 9 different short-distance walk tests with variations in (1) set pace (self-paced, fast-paced); (2) distance walked (range 2.4–80 m); (3) functional measure (time, speed, distance, quality grading); and (4) incorporated turns (range 0–7) Short-distance walk tests were included in six multi- activity measures The 6-min walk test was the only long-distance walk test and was investigated in four studies and included in two multi-activity measures.
Six minute walk: Fibromyalgia Lean patients with fibromyalgia walked shorter distances during a six minute walk test compared with healthy controls Arch Phys Med Rehabil 87: 259–264 Arthritis Care Res 12: 193–199
OA Systematic Review Results Seven different stair negotiation tests with variations in (1) number of stairs (range 4–12); (2) ascend only, descend only or both; (3) hand-rail support and (4) leading limb step pattern Stair negotiation tests were included in five/six multi-activity measures
Other Physical Function Measures Balance One leg hop Standing stork Chair stand test X 5 30 second
Fullerton Advanced Balance (FAB) Scale 1. Stand with feet together and eyes closed ( ) 0 Unable to obtain the correct standing position independently ( ) 1 Able to obtain the correct standing position independently but unable to maintain the position or keep the eyes closed for more than 10 seconds ( ) 2 Able to maintain the correct standing position with eyes closed for more than 10 seconds but less than 30 seconds ( ) 3 Able to maintain the correct standing position with eyes closed for 30 seconds but requires close supervision ( ) 4 Able to maintain the correct standing position safely with eyes closed for 30 seconds 10 measures total
Site specific physical function Loaded forward-reach test (LBP) Shoulder Range of motion Knee range of motion Knee quadriceps strength Hand grip strength test Single leg hop test
Multi activity tests of physical function Continuous Scale – Physical Function Performance Test (CS-PFP) Physical performance battery, based on three timed tests: 4-m walking speed test, the balance test and the chair stand test Physical Performance Test (PPT) Physical Activity Restrictions (PAR) Aggregated Locomotor Function (ALF) Functional Assessment System (FAS) Lin battery Steultjens battery Stratford battery
Comparison of specific functions Performance-based tests and BASFI-questionnaire measure different aspects of physical function in ankylosing spondylitis Tests: 1) climbing stairs, 2) bending, 3) reaching up, 4) putting on socks, 5) reclining and declining from a chair, 6) getting up from the floor, 7) looking over the shoulder, 8) physically demanding activity. BASFI, Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index Moderate association: R-square of 0.31 and Beta of 0.56 (p < 0.05) Salima et al Arth Res Ther 2012
Adaptation in physical function: Creating a new normal Performance is better but capability is still limited (Dr. Beaton’s patient with ankle pain)
Adaptation: Creating a new normal Patients may underestimate levels of physical function due to disease duration Patients with longer disease duration may tolerate greater limitations in function Each year is a little worse in overall function and the decline is faster than expected/perceived Sowers et al Am J Epidemiology 2006
Other considerations Objectivity: Are performance based physical function measures truly more ‘objective’ than other (PRO) physical function measures?
Time versus observer report SwimmingIce Dancing
Other considerations of physical function tests: sensitivity to activity (SPA) Recent findings suggest that certain individuals with musculoskeletal pain conditions have increased sensitivity to physical activity (SPA) and respond to activities of stable intensity with increasingly severe pain.
Other considerations of physical function tests: sensitivity to activity (SPA) Importance of activity-related pain among individuals with musculoskeletal conditions such as OA, low back pain, and fibromyalgia In OA patients, SPA was significantly correlated to 6MWT performance such that higher levels of SPA were associated with reduced distance traveled
Fig. 1 Six-minute walk discomfort ratings. Timothy H. Wideman, Patrick H. Finan, Robert R. Edwards, Phillip J. Quartana, Luis F. Buenaver, Jennifer A. H... Increased sensitivity to physical activity among individuals with knee osteoarthritis: Relation to pain outcomes, psychological factors, and responses to quantitative sensory testing PAIN®, Volume 155, Issue 4, 2014, 703 - 711 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pain.2013.12.028
What would an ideal physical function performance measure look like? – Related to patient symptoms – Measures only one domain – Sensitive to change – Accurate (free from error) – Easy to perform
Impressions Performance items may not all belong to the same domain, especially with multi-activity measures Limited reliability and validity data: few widely used tests Future studies should include measurement properties for performance tests Can we develop performance tests that can discriminate between therapeutic and nontherapeutic effects on physical function in patients with chronic pain?
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