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Chapter 1-2 Data – A Case Study in Discrimination – 5 W’s Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley

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What is Statistics? Statistics is the collection, organization, presentation, summarization, and interpretation of data. ▫We have two branches of Statistics Descriptive – the stuff you describe like mean, median, and mode…graphs too Inferential – the stuff you don’t know about yet…performing a test of a hypothesis Statistics is not all about calculation and formulas! You need to write about data… Slide 2- 3

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What Are Data? Data can be numbers, record names, or other labels. Not all data represented by numbers are numerical data (e.g., 1=male, 2=female). Data are useless without their context… Slide 2- 4

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The “W’s” To provide context we need the W’s ▫Who ▫What (and in what units) ▫When ▫Where ▫Why (if possible) ▫and How of the data. Note: the answers to “who” and “what” are essential. Slide 2- 5

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Data Tables The Westvaco data table clearly shows the context of the data presented: ▫Ordinal ▫Nominal ▫Interval ▫Rational Notice that this data table tells us the What (column) and Who (row) for these data. Slide 2- 6 RowJob TitlePayBirth MonthBirth Year Hire MonthHire YearRIFAgeJob Status 1Engineering ClerkH9667890250 2Engineering Tech IIH4538780380 3Engineering Tech IIH10357650560 4Secretary to Engin ManagH2439660480 5Engineering Tech IIH8389741531 6Engineering Tech IIH8363601551 7Engineering Tech IIH1322631591 8Parts Crib AttendantH116910891221 9Engineering Tech IIH5364772551 10Engineering Tech IIH82712512641 11Technical SecretaryH53611732551 12Engineering Tech IIH2364623551 13Engineering Tech IIH95811764331 14Engineering Tech IIH7565774351 15Customer Serv EngineerS4309660610 16Customer Serv Engr AssocS2625880290 17Design EngineerS12439670480 18Design EngineerS3376740540 19Design EngineerS3362780550 20Design EngineerS1313670600 21Engineering AssistantS6607860310 22Engineering AssociateS2574850340 23Engineering ManagerS23211630590 24Machine DesignerS9593900320 25Packaging EngineerS33811830530 26Prod Spec PrintingS124411740470 27Proj Eng ElecS9434710480 28Project EngineerS7499730420 29Project EngineerS8434640480 30Project EngineerS6348810570 31Supv Engineering ServS4546720370 32Supv Machine ShopS11373640540 33ChemistS8224541691 34Design EngineerS93812871531 35Engineering AssociateS2619851301 36Machine DesignerS2394851521 37Machine Parts Cont SupvS10288531631 38Prod SpecialistS92710431641 39Project EngineerS7259591661 40ChemistS123010522611 41Design EngineerS4605892311 42Electrical EngineerS11493862421 43Machine DesignerS33512682561 44Machine Parts Cont CoorS93710672541 45VH Prod SpecialistS5359552561 46Printing CoordinatorS2411623501 47Prod Dev EngineerS65911853321 48Prod SpecialistS7321554591 49VH Prod SpecialistS3424624491 50Engineering AssociateS8685895231

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Who The Who of the data tells us the individual cases for which (or whom) we have collected data. ▫Individuals who answer a survey are called respondents. ▫People on whom we experiment are called subjects or participants. ▫Animals, plants, and inanimate subjects are called experimental units. Slide 2- 7

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Who (cont.) Sometimes people just refer to data values as observations and are not clear about the Who. ▫But we need to know the Who of the data so we can learn what the data say. Slide 2- 8

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What and Why Variables are characteristics recorded about each individual. The variables should have a name that identify What has been measured. To understand variables, you must Think about what you want to know. Slide 2- 9

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What and Why (cont.) Some variables have units that tell how each value has been measured and tell the scale of the measurement. Others are presented with the data or in a key. Slide 2- 10 Pay: H = hourly, S = salaried. RIF (Reduction in Force): 0 = not chosen for layoff, 1 = chosen for layoff in Round 1, 2 = chosen for layoff in Round 2, and so on. Job Status: 0 = not chosen for layoff, 1 = laid off

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What and Why (cont.) A categorical (or qualitative) variable names categories and answers questions about how cases fall into those categories. ▫Categorical examples: sex, race, ethnicity A quantitative variable is a measured variable (with units) that answers questions about the quantity of what is being measured. ▫Quantitative examples: income ($), height (inches), weight (pounds) Slide 2- 11

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What and Why (cont.) The questions we ask a variable (the Why of our analysis) shape what we think about and how we treat the variable. Each variable has a level of measurement: ▫Nominal – name or label only ▫Ordinal – number or letter ranking in order ▫Interval – value that can be scaled (no true 0) ▫Rational – value that can be scaled without limit (true 0) Slide 2- 12

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What and Why (cont.) Example: In a student evaluation of instruction at a large university, one question asks students to evaluate the statement “The instructor was generally interested in teaching” on the following scale: 1 = Disagree Strongly; 2 = Disagree; 3 = Neutral; 4 = Agree; 5 = Agree Strongly. Question: Is interest in teaching categorical or quantitative? What is the level of measurement? Slide 2- 13

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What and Why (cont.) Question: Is interest in teaching categorical or quantitative? We sense an order to these ratings, but there are no natural units for the variable interest in teaching. Variables like interest in teaching are often called ordinal variables. ▫With an ordinal variable, look at the Why of the study to decide whether to treat it as categorical or quantitative. Slide 2- 14

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Counts Count When we count the cases in each category of a categorical variable, the counts are not the data, but something we summarize about the data. ▫The category labels are the What, and ▫the individuals counted are the Who. Slide 2- 15

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Counts Count (cont.) When we focus on the amount of something, we use counts differently. For example, Amazon might track the growth in the number of teenage customers each month to forecast song downloads (the Why). ▫The What is teens, the Who is months, and the units are number of teenage customers. Slide 2- 16

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Identifying Identifiers Identifier variables are categorical variables with exactly one individual in each category. ▫Examples: Social Security Number, ISBN, FedEx Tracking Number Don’t be tempted to analyze identifier variables. They are really nominal measurements. Be careful not to consider all variables with one case per category, like year, as identifier variables. ▫The Why will help you decide how to treat identifier variables. Slide 2- 17

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Where, When, and How We need the Who, What, and Why to analyze data. But, the more we know, the more we understand. When and Where give us some nice information about the context. ▫Example: Values recorded at a large public university may mean something different than similar values recorded at a small private college. Slide 2- 18

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Where, When, and How (cont.) How the data are collected can make the difference between insight and nonsense. ▫Example: results from Internet surveys are often useless as are results from a call in radio talk show…(why?) The first step of any data analysis should be to examine the W’s—this is a key part of the Think step of any analysis. And, make sure that you know the Why, Who, and What before you proceed with your analysis. Slide 2- 19

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Wait…What? Don’t label a variable as categorical or quantitative without thinking about the question you want it to answer. Just because your variable’s values are numbers, don’t assume that it’s quantitative. Always be skeptical—don’t take data for granted. Slide 2- 20

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You should know that… Data are information in a context. ▫The W’s help with context. ▫We must know the Who (cases), What (variables), and Why to be able to say anything useful about the data. Before you make any general statements about your data set, think about the context and use that in a statement of evidence. Slide 2- 21

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You should know that… We treat variables as categorical or quantitative. ▫Categorical variables identify a category for each case. ▫Quantitative variables record measurements or amounts of something and must have units. ▫Some variables can be treated as categorical or quantitative depending on what we want to learn from them. Slide 2- 22

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