THE TOPIC OF YOUR ASSIGNMENT Topic analysis concepts, search line Quick and dirty searchsearch terms, wikipedia, dictionariesadapted search line Multidisciplinary database search: Scopus or Web of Science Following a thread adapted search line Subject specific database search:e.g. CAB Abstracts Evaluation of search process Reference listEndNote, styles
TOPIC ANALYSIS, 1 Coping with natural disasters in farming practice Climatic and other environmental catastrophes may result in high losses in agriculture. For instance, droughts, floods, landslides, earthquakes or volcanic eruptions may seriously affect the natural resources that are needed to ensure yields. To adjust for or prevent further disturbing pressure on crops and livestock, farmers apply different coping strategies. In this assignment you have to search for publications on risk reducing steps that farmers apply to deal with the natural hazards that may threaten their yields.
TOPIC ANALYSIS, 2 Coping with natural disasters in farming practice Climatic and other environmental catastrophes may result in high losses in agriculture. For instance, droughts, floods, landslides, earthquakes or volcanic eruptions may seriously affect the natural resources that are needed to ensure yields. To adjust for or prevent further disturbing pressure on crops and livestock, farmers apply different coping strategies. In this assignment you have to search for publications on risk reducing steps that farmers apply to deal with the natural hazards that may threaten their yields.
CONCEPTS Relevant concepts Natural disasters Farming practices Coping with No concepts usedConcept(s) missing, or too many concept(s) All relevant concepts used
SEARCH TERMS Natural disasters, natural hazards, drought, floods, landslides, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, fire, ……. Farming, farmers, agriculture, cultivation Coping, risk reduction, risk reducing, risk management No synonyms are searched where relevant; irrelevant or unnecessary search terms are used Some important synonyms are missing; some irrelevant or unnecessary search terms are used Many relevant synonyms are used; no use of irrelevant or unnecessary terms
THE USE OF A THESAURUS Available in e.g. CAB Abstracts Include narrower terms with explode; especially useful for geographic locations Searching for Europe or EXP Europe: 379 extra hits
WILDCARDS, 1 SymbolsSymbols: check help or search tips for each database Examples: *=0 or more characters ?=1 character (Scopus, WoS, EBSCO); 0 or 1 (OVID-SP) #=0 or 1 character (EBSCO); 1 character (OVID-SP) $=0 or 1 character (WoS); 0 or more (OVID-SP) No or incorrect use of wildcards where appropriate Some small faults in the use of wildcards Correct use of wildcards Example from WoS
WILDCARDS, 2 Tips:think about variations, check the results and use help/ search tips right:farm*; crop*; strateg*, manag*, adapt*, flood*; agricultur*; cultivat*; wrong: cop* useful?:copi*; disaster* (some databases find plurals) Example from Scopus:
PARENTHESES Always use them around concepts Scopus Web of Science
OPERATORS Boolean: AND/ OR/ (AND) NOT Proximity operators examplesW/xScopus ADJxOVID NEAR/xWeb of Science Scopus Parentheses lacking; operators not correctly used Parentheses and Boolean operators correctly used
PHRASE SEARCHING Right: Better two concepts: Not necessary: “farm*” Use the right quotes: No use of quotation marks when necessary Unnecessary use of quotation marks Use of quotation marks when necessary Scopus: do not copy and paste from Word!
EVALUATION OF FOUND RECORDS Is the content of this document appropriate for my research topic? Is it worth the effort of getting the full text and reading it? Criteria: ● type of document ● subject and scope – abstract information ● primary or secondary research ● audience ● date of publication ● author details
PRIMARY VS. SECONDARY RESEARCH Primary research presents original research methods or findings for the first time. Examples include: ● A journal article or research report that presents new findings and new theories ● A poster presented at a conference Secondary research provides a compilation or evaluation of previously presented material. Examples include: ● A review article summarizing research or data ● A textbook
JOURNAL ARTICLES Scientific journals Research Peer reviewed Professional journals Practical Non-peer reviewed
YOUR SEARCH RESULTS ScopusWeb of ScienceSubject specific- database Retrieved% Rel.Retrieved% Rel.Retrieved% Rel. 2230CAB: CAB: AGRIS: 9 and none CAB: not given 60 Not given Disaster studies: 8 50 Science Direct: 98 Not given
MY COMMENTS ON YOUR ASSIGNMENT, 1 All 6 used a correct multidisciplinary bibliography 5/6 used a correct subject specific database: ● CAB Abstracts is nr. 1: the most comprehensive database for bibliographic information on agriculture and applied life sciences worldwide, contains over 7 million records ● Agris: made by the FAO, brings together world literature dealing with all aspects of agriculture; with its own thesaurus: Agrovoc ● Disaster Studies: made by Wageningen UR, contains approx records 3/6 did not follow a thread ScienceDirect is not a bibliography
MY COMMENTS ON YOUR ASSIGNMENT, 2 Search strategies differ, but remember: there is no one single PERFECT search A relevance of 23% is not good enough You all know how to use Boolean operators, truncation signs, parenthesis, a thesaurus, etc. Some of you clearly stated the modification of the search, based on the results 3/6 did not mention the style they used for the final list of references Styles were not always consequent
MY COMMENTS ON YOUR ASSIGNMENT, 3 Together you delivered a list of 79 references, of which 77 were unique!! How come? One reference was found by two groups, but the journal name differed (Mortimore et al 2001) Generally, the relevant terms are present in the title, e.g.: ● 5 times: “climate change” AND agriculture ● 4 times: drought AND agriculture ● 3 times: drought AND coping ● 3 times: adaptation AND farmer* ● 3 times: adaptation AND “climate change”
MY COMMENTS ON YOUR ASSIGNMENT, 4 Would you consider the following titles relevant? ● Understanding the economic and financial impacts of natural disasters. ● Grass pea (Lathyrus sativus): is there a case for further crop improvement? ● Towards an integrated approach of disaster and environment management ● Land use conflict in Kajiado district, Kenya. ● Drought and household coping strategies.
IMPROVING YOUR SEARCH To narrow: more specific terms, less truncation, more concepts, add limits like year, field searching..... To broaden: more (general) terms, more truncation, less concepts ………… Build on what you have found: ● More or better terms (thesaurus!) ● Key authors/ groups ● References (following a thread) Low percentage of relevant hits; refinement necessary Moderate percentage of relevant hits; refinement still possible High percentage of relevant hits; refinement not necessary
CHOICE OF SUBJECT SPECIFIC DATABASE Database chosen is not a bibliographic database, or does not cover the topic Database chosen is a bibliographic database and covers the topic, but is not the most appropriate one Most appropriate bibliographic database is chosen
OVERLAP AND UNIQUE RECORDS Web of ScienceScopusCAB AbstractsSciFinder After deduplication Sensitivity of models on leaching of pesticides to groundwater
SEARCH PLATFORMS Search platform is the search interface for searching a bibliographic database Some bibliographies have their own search interface (e.g. Web of Science, Scopus, PubMed). In Wageningen, a large number of bibliographies can be searched simultaneously on one of the search platforms EBSCOhost (use for Social Sciences) or OvidSP (use for natural sciences) but there are more platforms. Each search platform offers specific operators, wildcards, indexing and other search tools: see HELP or Search tips
PUBLISHING Publishing: why ● contribution to the record of science ● part of research process (requirement) ● reflection ● evaluation (publish or perish) Publishing: where ● Type of document ● Journal selection, impact factors ● Open access journals: e.g. BioMed Central, PLoS BiologyBiology
PLAGIARISM, EXERCISE 1A Original text “This study has shown that golf courses can enhance the diversity of three indicator groups (birds, ground beetles and bumblebees), relative to adjacent pasture farmland.” Text from Mr. Smith The study of Tanner and Gange (2005) has shown that golf courses can enhance the diversity of three indicator groups (birds, ground beetles and bumblebees), relative to adjacent pasture farmland. Tanner R. A. and A. C. Gange, Effects of golf courses on local biodiversity. Landscape and urban planning, Vol. 71, 2-4,
PLAGIARISM, EXERCISE 1B Original text “This study has shown that golf courses can enhance the diversity of three indicator groups (birds, ground beetles and bumblebees), relative to adjacent pasture farmland. “ Text from Mr. Baker The study of Tanner and Gange (2005) has shown that “golf courses can enhance the diversity of three indicator groups (birds, ground beetles and bumblebees), relative to adjacent pasture farmland.” (p.....) Direct quotations must be quoted!!
PLAGIARISM, EXERCISE 2 Original text “This study has shown that golf courses can enhance the diversity of three indicator groups (birds, ground beetles and bumblebees), relative to adjacent pasture farmland. “ Text from Mrs. Brown According to Tanner and Gange (2005) the diversity of birds and some insect groups can be higher on golf courses than on adjacent farmland. Tanner R. A. and A. C. Gange, Effects of golf courses on local biodiversity. Landscape and urban planning, Vol. 71, 2-4,
PLAGIARIMS, EXERCISE 3: USING A SECONDARY SOURCE Is it okay when you cite Mr. Smith for this information originating from Tanner and Gange? Preferable not. But in case you cannot get the original publication, it is allowed. You have to indicate that this is a secondary source, e.g. (Tanner and Gange, 2005, as cited in Smith, 2010). In your reference list you should provide the details of the secondary source (the source you read). Whether you have to give the details of the primary source or not, depends on the citation style.
REFERRING, CITING, QUOTING To allow readers to find and check your information sources To give authors of these sources credit for their work Methods ● In-text citations and quotes ● Reference lists ● Many different styles ● Bibliographic details differ per document type
EXAMPLE OF STYLES Kotir, J. H. (2011). "Climate change and variability in Sub-Saharan Africa: A review of current and future trends and impacts on agriculture and food security." Environment, Development and Sustainability 13(3): Kotir, J.H., Climate change and variability in Sub-Saharan Africa: A review of current and future trends and impacts on agriculture and food security. Environment, Development and Sustainability, (3): p
CHOICE OF STYLE Ask your supervisor Citation guides: Guide to referencing and citations Citation guides Journal style: About this journal, Author guidelines ● Journal of Hydrology Journal of Hydrology
REFERENCE LIST, 1 Completeness of references Consistency of style Format of style Essential elements missing like year, source, pages All essential elements are included Style apparently inconsistent Some inconsistencies in the style Style consistent Used style not indicated; format rules not followed Style indicated; some minor format mistakes Style indicated; no mistakes in the format
REFERENCE LIST, 2 Content Less than 50% of the selected records relevant, current and representative Not all of the selected records relevant, current and representative, but more than 50% All selected records relevant, current and representative
IN SUMMARY Assignment ● Assignment had to be submitted in order to get a grade for this course Exam ● PC exam on 20 December 2012 (PC 713/717) from till hrs (the original time) ● Re-exam on 14 August 2013 (PC 612 / PC 616) or at the end of the next period ● Final grade is based upon this exam (minimum 5.5) ● Note: the time for the exam is 90 minutes ● Example exam: see Extra Materials in Blackboard Contact:
LEARNING OUTCOMES After this course you will be able to: Identify and understand various information sources Construct strategies for locating information and data Locate and access the information and data you need Review the research process and compare and evaluate information and data Organise and use information professionally and ethically Select appropriate publication and dissemination outlets.