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1 Alberto Montanari University of Bologna Advanced Hydrology and Water Resources Management.

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1 1 Alberto Montanari University of Bologna Advanced Hydrology and Water Resources Management

2 2 Learning Objectives Water Resources Management is about solving problems to secure water for people, based on a sound scientific understanding of hydrologic and hydraulic processes. This includes protection from excess water and from water shortage, as well as providing sufficient water for a sustainable environment. At the end of this class you will: be aware of water resources issues at local (state), national and global scale, be able to qualitatively and quantitatively describe the main processes in the hydrologic cycle, and be able to provide solutions for typical water resources problems found in practice.

3 3 Program Introduction: definitions, quantification of the water cycle, practical problems. Illustration of a case study: the Emilia-Romagna region, Italy. Assessment of water resources availability: rainfall-runoff modelling. Assessment of water resources availability: generation of synthetic hydrological variables. Water resources management: decision theory and decision under uncertainty. Water resources management: the impact of climate change.

4 4 Figure (p. 1) Ingredients of water resources management (from Mays, 1996). What is Water Resources Engr./Manag.?

5 5 What is Hydrology (1)? From Wikipedia: Hydrology is the study of the movement, distribution, and quality of water throughout the Earth, including the hydrologic cycle, water resources and environmental watershed sustainability. A practitioner of hydrology is a hydrologist, working within the fields of either earth or environmental science, physical geography, geology or civil and environmental engineering. Domains of hydrology include hydrometeorology, surface hydrology, hydrogeology, drainage basin management and water quality, where water plays the central role. Oceanography and meteorology are not included because water is only one of many important aspects. Hydrological research can inform environmental engineering, policy and planning. Water covers 70% of the Earth's surface (from Wikipedia)

6 6 What is Hydrology (2)? From Usgs.gov: Hydrology is the science that encompasses the occurrence, distribution, movement and properties of the waters of the earth and their relationship with the environment within each phase of the hydrologic cycle. The water cycle, or hydrologic cycle, is a continuous process by which water is purified by evaporation and transported from the earth's surface (including the oceans) to the atmosphere and back to the land and oceans. All of the physical, chemical and biological processes involving water as it travels its various paths in the atmosphere, over and beneath the earth's surface and through growing plants, are of interest to those who study the hydrologic cycle. There are many pathways the water may take in its continuous cycle of falling as rainfall or snowfall and returning to the atmosphere. It may be captured for millions of years in polar ice caps. It may flow to rivers and finally to the sea. It may soak into the soil to be evaporated directly from the soil surface as it dries or be transpired by growing plants. It may percolate through the soil to ground water reservoirs (aquifers) to be stored or it may flow to wells or springs or back to streams by seepage. The water cycle may be short, or it may take millions of years. People tap the water cycle for their own uses. Water is diverted temporarily from one part of the cycle by pumping it from the ground or drawing it from a river or lake. It is used for a variety of activities such as households, businesses and industries; for irrigation of farms and parklands; and for production of electric power. After use, water is returned to another part of the cycle: perhaps discharged downstream or allowed to soak into the ground. Used water normally is lower in quality, even after treatment, which often poses a problem for downstream users.

7 What hydrologists do? From Usgs.gov: The hydrologist studies the fundamental transport processes to be able to describe the quantity and quality of water as it moves through the cycle (evaporation, precipitation, streamflow, infiltration, ground water flow, and other components). The engineering hydrologist, or water resources engineer, is involved in the planning, analysis, design, construction and operation of projects for the control, utilization, and management of water resources. Water resources problems are also the concern of meteorologists, oceanographers, geologists, chemists, physicists, biologists, economists, political scientists, specialists in applied mathematics and computer science, and engineers in several fields. Hydrologists apply scientific knowledge and mathematical principles to solve water-related problems in society: problems of quantity, quality and availability. They may be concerned with finding water supplies for cities or irrigated farms, or controlling river flooding or soil erosion. Or, they may work in environmental protection: preventing or cleaning up pollution or locating sites for safe disposal of hazardous wastes. Persons trained in hydrology may have a wide variety of job titles. Scientists and engineers in hydrology may be involved in both field investigations and office work. In the field, they may collect basic data, oversee testing of water quality, direct field crews and work with equipment. Many jobs require travel, some abroad. A hydrologist may spend considerable time doing field work in remote and rugged terrain. In the office, hydrologists do many things such as interpreting hydrologic data and performing analyses for determining possible water supplies. The work of hydrologists is as varied as the uses of water and may range from planning multimillion dollar interstate water projects to advising homeowners on drainage problems.

8 8 Ancient Hydrologic History Nile River The longest river in the world (6650 km) Loucks and van Beek, 2006 Hydrology has been a subject of investigation and engineering for millennia. For example, about 4000 B.C. the Nile was dammed to improve agricultural productivity of previously barren lands. Mesopotamian towns were protected from flooding with high earthen walls. Aqueducts were built by the Greeks and Ancient Romans, while the History of China shows they built irrigation and flood control works. The ancient Sinhalese used hydrology to build complex irrigation Works in Sri Lanka, also known for invention of the Valve Pit which allowed construction of large reservoirs, anicuts and canals which still function.

9 9 Ancient Hydrologic History There were many Nilometers in Egypt, but the most important ones were at Elephantine Island. The Nilometer was important as it measured the rise of the floodwaters of the Nile. If the Nile did not rise enough, the land would experience famine conditions. If the Nile rose too high, it would flood and destroy the villages. Every temple in Egypt had a Nilometer because it was a symbol of life.

10 [After Eagleson et al., 1991, p.20] Ancient Hydrologic History WATER SECURITY Abundance Security Happiness Suffering Hunger Disaster NILOMETER READING IN ELLS 1 ELL = 1.1m But hydrology is a young science….

11 11 Major Reservoirs of Water [does not add to 100% due to rounding, numbers differ slightly depending on study used]

12 12 Water Cycle

13 13 Water Cycle From Chow et al., Applied Hydrology, page 6

14 14 Oki, T. and Kanae, S Global hydrological cycles and world water resources. Science, 313,

15 15 Floods Floods cause extensive damage: “during , flood related damage totaled more than US$200 billion (not inflation adjusted) globally, representing close to 40% of all economic damage attributed to natural disasters in the period -- (Pielke Jr. and Downton, 2000, citing IFRCRCS, 1997). In the United States, annual flood damage runs in the billions of dollars (Pielke Jr. and Downton, 2000). Improved prediction of floods could reduce these costs substantially, in addition to reducing flood-induced loss of life. Damage survey in St. Genevieve, Missouri, during the 1993 Midwest floods [courtesy of FEMA].

16 16 Droughts

17 17 Water Availability is Decreasing Water availability is decreasing for: Climate change (need to be very careful); Overexploitation; Pollution

18 18 Water Availability is Decreasing

19 19 Water Availability is Decreasing

20 20 The Future? By the year 2025 nearly 2 billion people will live in regions or countries with absolute water scarcity, even allowing for high levels of irrigation efficiency. Year World Population (billions)

21 21 Water Scarcity Index Rws Oki, T. and Kanae, S Global hydrological cycles and world water resources. Science, 313, (Rws > 0.4) = Water Stress Rws Total Water Withdrawal – Desalinated Water Renewable Freshwater Resources Rws =

22 22 Typical Domestic Water Use L/person/day (high-income countries) L/person/day (low-income) 10-40L/person/day (water scarce) Differences in domestic freshwater use: –Piped distribution or carried number/type of appliances and sanitation

23 23 Human Usage

24 24 Water Stress Based on human consumption and linked to population growth Domestic requirement: –100L/person/day = 40m 3 /person/year –600L/person/day = 240m 3 /person/year Associated agricultural, industrial & energy need: –20 x 40m 3 /person/year = 800m 3 /person/year Total need: –840m 3 /person/year –1040m 3 /person/year

25 25 Water Stress [m3/person/year] Water scarcity: <1000 m 3 /person/year –chronic and widespread freshwater problems Water stress: <1700 m 3 /person/year –intermittent, localised shortages of freshwater Relative sufficiency: >1700 m 3 /person/year

26 26 The Lake Aral disaster

27 27 The Lake Aral disaster Aug 2014

28 28 The Lake Aral disaster

29 29 The Dublin Principles of 1992 as Guiding Principles for Water Management: In commending this Dublin Statement to the world leaders assembled at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) in Rio de Janeiro in June 1992, the Conference participants urge all governments to study carefully the specific activities and means of implementation recommended in the Conference Report, and to translate those recommendations into urgent action programmes for water and sustainable development.

30 30 Gender Issues: E.g. Ethiopia

31 31 What is the role of hydrology for water resources management? Estimation of water resources availability Estimation and reduction of hydrological risks Development of hydrological scenarios Ensure proper information to decision makers


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