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BY: CARLOS QUIROZ & ALI MEHDAWI INSTRUCTOR: ELIZABETH PILON – SMITHS NOVEMBER, 2010 Leachate’s Phytoremediation at the Fort Collins Landfill Photographic.

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Presentation on theme: "BY: CARLOS QUIROZ & ALI MEHDAWI INSTRUCTOR: ELIZABETH PILON – SMITHS NOVEMBER, 2010 Leachate’s Phytoremediation at the Fort Collins Landfill Photographic."— Presentation transcript:

1 BY: CARLOS QUIROZ & ALI MEHDAWI INSTRUCTOR: ELIZABETH PILON – SMITHS NOVEMBER, 2010 Leachate’s Phytoremediation at the Fort Collins Landfill Photographic credit: Quiroz, 2010

2 Background Photographic credit: Quiroz, 2010

3 Background  Basic concepts Landfill Leachate

4 Background  Fort Collins Landfill Background Operation Leachate Management Photographic credit: Quiroz, 2010

5 Background  Fort Collins Landfill Background Operation Recycling Hazardous management Leachate Management Photographic credit: Quiroz, 2010

6 Background  Fort Collins Landfill Background Operation Recycling Hazardous management Leachate Management Photographic credit: Quiroz, 2010

7 Background  Fort Collins Landfill Background Operation Recycling Hazardous management Leachate Management Photographic credit: Quiroz, 2010

8 Background  Fort Collins Landfill Background Operation Recycling Hazardous management Leachate Management Photographic credit: Quiroz, 2010

9 Background  Fort Collins Landfill Background Operation Recycling Hazardous management Leachate Management Photographic credit: Quiroz, 2010

10 Background Using Popular Trees to Remove Contaminants  Scientific facts Che et al, (2006) Danha et al, (2006) El Gendy, (2008) Nagendran et al, (2008) Jones et al, (2005) Justin et al, (2010) Kang et al, (2008) Zalesny et al, (2006) Zalesny et al, (2007)

11  Scientific facts Using Popular Trees Using Popular Trees to Remove Contaminants Background

12  Scientific facts (PRS) Passive Remediation Systems. (PRS) Background

13 Scientific facts PRS irrigates hybrid poplar with the landfill leachate

14 Background Scientific facts Increasing of poplar trees biomass.

15 Objectives  Evaluate the current risk in the landfill.  Evaluate the current phytoremediation on the landfill.  Recommend suitable options to enhance the current situation.

16 Method  Topography, hydrogeology and heavy metals in ground water.  Heavy metals in plant tissues.  Proposals to situation.

17 Method  Topography, hydrogeology and Heavy Metals in ground water. Source: Larimer County Landfill.

18 Results Geology & hydrogeology Source: Larimer County Landfill.

19 Results Geology & hydrogeology Source: Larimer County Landfill.

20 Results Geology & hydrogeology Source: Larimer County Landfill.

21 Native Plants (North) Method  Heavy metals in plant tissues. Control Samples (South) Photographic credit: Quiroz, 2010

22 Method  Heavy metals in plant tissues. Sunflower Smooth brome Cottonwood Photographic credit: Quiroz, 2010

23 Method  Heavy metals in plant tissues. Photographic credit: Quiroz, 2010

24 Method  Proposals to situation - Buffer strip. - Remediation of ground- water through the irrigation of plants. Licht & Isebrands (2005).

25 Results

26  Metals in plant tissues. North Samples Metal Cotton Wood SmoothbromeSunflower PPM Stand. Desv % Dry MassPPM Stand. Desv % Dry MassPPM Stand. Desv % Dry Mass Arsenic Cadmium Chromium Copper Iron Lead Magnesium Manganese Mercury Molybdenium Nickel Sulfur Selenium Tellurium Vanadium Tungsten E Zinc

27 Results  Metals in plant tissues. South Samples (Control) Metal Cotton WoodSmoothbromeSunflower PPM Stand. Desv % Dry Mass PPM Stand. Desv % Dry Mass PPM Stand. Desv % Dry Mass Arsenic Cadmium Chromium Copper Iron Lead Magnesium Manganese Mercury Molybdenium Nickel Sulfur Selenium Tellurium Vanadium Tungsten Zinc

28 Results  Current Remediation of Groundwater by Native Plants Metal Guideline Value PPM* GroundwaterPlant Tissue Plant with Highest Concentration of Metal PPM**Stand. Desv.PPM***Stand. Desv. Antimony NE Arsenic Barium NE Beryllium NE Cadmium Cottonwood Calcium NE Chromium Sunflower Cobalt NE Copper Sunflower Iron Sunflower Lead Sunflower Magnesium Cottonwood Manganese0.40NE Cottonwood Mercury Cottonwood Molybdenium0.07NE Smoothbrome / Sunflower Nickel Cottonwood Potassium NE Selenium Sunflower Silver NE Sodium NE Sulfur NE Cottonwood Tellurium NE Sunflower Thallium NE Tin 0.1 NE Vanadium Smoothbrome Tungsten NE Sunflower Zinc Cottonwood

29 Results  Proposals to situation Option 1 Solution: Buffer strip. Plants: Cottonwood, sunflower, smoothbrome & vetiver. Perimeter: 2.35 miles Plantation density: 10,000 plants / ha. (Sebastian et al. 2004) Buffer strip Area

30 Results  Proposals to situation Option 2 Solution: Buffer strip plus irrigation system to remediate polluted groundwater. Plants: Cottonwood, sunflower, smoothbrome, vetiver. Perimeter: 2.35 miles Plantation density: 10,000 plants / ha. (Sebastian et al. 2004) Irrigation: Wells located on the landfill. Buffer strip Area

31 Conclusions

32  Current Risk: Antimony, Arsenic, Barium, Lead, Nickel, and Selenium are still over the guideline value.  Current Phytoremediation: Cadmium and Mercury by Cottonwood. Chromium by Sunflower Acres on the north side (0.09% of area) 0.57 Acres on the south side (0.32% of area)  Suitable Options: Buffer strip around the landfill perimeter to prevent pollution of water resources. Determine the groundwater flow to evaluate the feasibility of plant’s irrigation with leachate.

33 Conclusions  None of the plants evaluated showed absortion of As. Thus, Vetiver could be applied. L.T. Danh et Al (2009)  More researches are needed to remediate antimony and barium on leachate.  The buffer strip around the landfill could reduce the concentration of lead, nickel and selenium.

34 Acknowledgments  Steve Harem, Environmental Specialist of Larimer County Landfill.  Colin Quinn, Post-Doc, Biology Department  Elizabeth Pilon – Smiths, Professor, Biology Department.

35 References Barazani, O., Sathiyamoorthy, P., Manandhar, U., Vulkan, R. & Golan-Goldhirsh, A., Heavy metal accumulation by nicotiana glauca graham in a solid waste disposal site. Chemosphere, 54 (7), Che, D., Meagher, R.B., Heaton, A.C.P., Lima, A., Rugh, C.L. & Merkle, S.A., Blackwell publishing ltd. Expression of mercuric ion reductase in eastern cottonwood (populus deltoides) confers mercuric ion reduction and resistance. Plant Biotechnology Journal, 1, Danh, L.T., Truong, P., Mammucari, R., Tran, T. & Foster, N., Vetiver grass, vetiveria zizanioides: A choice plant for phytoremediation of heavy metals and organic wastes. International Journal of Phytoremediation, 11 (8), Dimitriou, I., Aronsson, P. & Weih, M., Stress tolerance of five willow clones after irrigation with different amounts of landfill leachate. Bioresource Technology, 97 (1), Eberts, S.M. & Shalk, C.W., Hydrologic effects of cottonwood trees on a shallow aquifer containing trichloroethene. U.S. Geological Survey. El-Gendy, A., Modeling of heavy metals removal from municipal landfill leachate using living biomass of water hyacinth. International Journal of Phytoremediation, 10 (1), Jones, D., Williamson, K. & Owen, A., Phytoremediation of landfill leachate. Waste Management, 26 (8), Justin, M.Z., Pajk, N., Zupanc, V. & Zupančič, M., Phytoremediation of landfill leachate and compost wastewater by irrigation of populus and salix: Biomass and growth response. Waste Management, 30 (6), Justin, M.Z. & Zupančič, M., Combined purification and reuse of landfill leachate by constructed wetland and irrigation of grass and willows. Desalination, 246 (1-3), Kang, D.-H., Tsao, D., Wang-Cahill, F., Rock, S., Schwab, A.P. & Banks, M.K., Assessment of landfill leachate volume and concentrations of cyanide and fluoride during phytoremediation. Bioremediation Journal, 12 (1),

36 References Kim, K.-R. & Owens, G., Potential for enhanced phytoremediation of landfills using biosolids – a review. Journal of Environmental Management, 91 (4), Lee, R.W., Jones, S.A., Kuniansky, E.L., Harvey, G., Lollar, B.S. & Slater, G.F., Phreatophyte influence on reductive dechlorination in a shallow aquifer contaminated with trichloroethene (tce). International Journal of Phytoremediation, 2 (3), Nagendran, R., Selvam, A., Joseph, K. & Chiemchaisri, C., Phytoremediation and rehabilitation of municipal solid waste landfills and dumpsites: A brief review. Waste Management, 26 (12), Sang, N., Han, M., Li, G. & Huang, M., Landfill leachate affects metabolic responses of zea mays l. Seedlings. Waste Management, 30 (5), Sebastiani, L., Heavy metal accumulation and growth responses in poplar clones eridano (populus deltoides $times; maximowiczii) and i-214 (p. $times; euramericana) exposed to industrial waste. Environmental and Experimental Botany, 52 (1), Shen, C., Tang, X., Cheema, S.A., Zhang, C., Khan, M.I., Liang, F., Chen, X., Zhu, Y., Lin, Q. & Chen, Y., Enhanced phytoremediation potential of polychlorinated biphenyl contaminated soil from e-waste recycling area in the presence of randomly methylated-β-cyclodextrins. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 172 (2-3), Zalesny, J., Zalesny, R., Wiese, A. & Hall, R., Choosing tree genotypes for phytoremediation of landfill leachate using phyto-recurrent selection. International Journal of Phytoremediation, 9 (6), Zalesny, R. & Bauer, E., Selecting and utilizing populus and salix for landfill covers: Implications for leachate irrigation. International Journal of Phytoremediation, 9 (6), Zalesny, R.S. & Bauer, E.O., Evaluation of populus and salix continuously irrigated with landfill leachate i. Genotype-specific elemental phytoremediation. International Journal of Phytoremediation, 9 (4), Zalesny, R.S. & Bauer, E.O., Evaluation of populus and salix continuously irrigated with landfill leachate ii. Soils and early tree development. International Journal of Phytoremediation, 9 (4), Zalesnyjr, R., Wiese, A., Bauer, E. & Riemenschneider, D., Sapflow of hybrid poplar (populus nigra l.×p. Maximowiczii a. Henry ‘nm6’) during phytoremediation of landfill leachate. Biomass and Bioenergy, 30 (8-9), Zalesnyjr, R., Wiese, A., Bauer, E. & Riemenschneider, D., Ex situ growth and biomass of populus bioenergy crops irrigated and fertilized with landfill leachate. Biomass and Bioenergy, 33 (1),

37 QUESTIONS? Leachate’s Phytoremediation at the Fort Collins Landfill Photographic credit: Quiroz, 2010


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