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Using Mobile Learning to Enhance Nursing Practice Education Richard Kenny & Caroline Park Athabasca University Jocelyne Van Neste-Kenny, Pam Burton, &

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Presentation on theme: "Using Mobile Learning to Enhance Nursing Practice Education Richard Kenny & Caroline Park Athabasca University Jocelyne Van Neste-Kenny, Pam Burton, &"— Presentation transcript:

1 Using Mobile Learning to Enhance Nursing Practice Education Richard Kenny & Caroline Park Athabasca University Jocelyne Van Neste-Kenny, Pam Burton, & Jan Meiers North Island College

2 The Promise of M-Learning Focus on knowledge that is location & situation dependent. Focus on knowledge that is location & situation dependent. Fits a learner-centric, Constructivist view of learning. Fits a learner-centric, Constructivist view of learning. Supports more situated, experiential learning, contextualized within specific domains. Supports more situated, experiential learning, contextualized within specific domains. Delivers discourse in real time to wherever participants are. Delivers discourse in real time to wherever participants are.

3 Purpose of This Paper Explore potential of m-learning for Nursing practice education. Explore potential of m-learning for Nursing practice education. Use Koole’s (2005) FRAME model to clarify health care / Nursing literature on m- learning. Use Koole’s (2005) FRAME model to clarify health care / Nursing literature on m- learning. Present initial findings from our 2007 research study. Present initial findings from our 2007 research study.

4 M-Learning in Health Care & Nursing: Review of Literature Use has “exploded”. (Cahoon, 2002) Use has “exploded”. (Cahoon, 2002) 1/3 of Canadian physicians using PDAs. (George,2005) 1/3 of Canadian physicians using PDAs. (George,2005) Medical use mainly relates to research on drugs, dosages & calculations. Medical use mainly relates to research on drugs, dosages & calculations. There are major issues of confidentiality. There are major issues of confidentiality.

5 M-Learning in Health Care & Nursing In hospital WAN use has been tried for access to records & recording data at bedside in Great Britain (Cacae, 2006). In hospital WAN use has been tried for access to records & recording data at bedside in Great Britain (Cacae, 2006). Reports on benefits & barriers. Reports on benefits & barriers. Reports on likes & dislikes. Reports on likes & dislikes. Reports on usage. Reports on usage.

6 Benefits Quick access to current drug databases. Quick access to current drug databases. The ability to manage patient & procedural information. The ability to manage patient & procedural information. Patient health management with team access to current information. Patient health management with team access to current information. Improved team communication. Improved team communication.

7 Barriers Risks of storing confidential information. Risks of storing confidential information. Cost & ease of loss or damage to PDA. Cost & ease of loss or damage to PDA. Not enough research on use in nursing. Not enough research on use in nursing. Difficult to read. Difficult to read. Difficult to understand. Difficult to understand. Slow data entry. Slow data entry.

8 Nurse Practitioner PDA Usage Stroud et.al. To do Memo pad To do Memo pad Calculator Calculator Expense tracker Expense tracker Calendar/date book Calendar/date book Patient manag’t tools Patient manag’t tools Clinical refer. materials Clinical refer. materials Address/phone book Address/phone book Info exchange - beaming Info exchange - beaming Games Games Recreational reading Recreational reading Internet access Internet access Park (64) Pharmacy & lab related Pharmacy & lab related Calculator Calculator Calendar Calendar Keeping up-to-date Keeping up-to-date Referring to texts & guidelines Referring to texts & guidelines Studying Studying

9 Reasons to Recommend (Park, 2006) Safety Safety Decrease in medication errors Decrease in medication errors Safer than memory Safer than memory security blanket security blanket Portability Portability Lighter to carry than textbooks Lighter to carry than textbooks Aids mobility Aids mobility Organization Organization Concise & easy to transport Concise & easy to transport Edit & highlight most important information Edit & highlight most important information Add personal notes Add personal notes

10 Reasons to Recommend (Park, 2006) Access to Resources Access to Resources Valuable with right software Valuable with right software Information available is immense & valuable Information available is immense & valuable Up-to-date information Up-to-date information Back-up quick reference Back-up quick reference Decision-making Decision-making Use to explore options with client Use to explore options with client Convenience Convenience Convenient useful tool Convenient useful tool Image Image Way of the future Way of the future Looks professional Looks professional

11 FRAME Model (Koole, 2005) (Reproduced with permission)

12 Research Study – Phase 1: m-technology in a community-based practice experience Koole’s FRAME Model for Nursing Practice Education (adapted with permission) Social Context of Practice (clients, clinicians, instructors, students, agencies, community) StudentDevice (PDA, software) Connectivity (device-to-device &internet) Learning activities (peer-to-peer, student/instructor interactions) Learning activities M-learning supported student practice at the point of care Practice Environment Community-based course

13 North Island College Courtenay, Vancouver Island Vancouver Island, British Columbia

14 Mobile Learning to Improve Clinical Nursing Education Two stage formative evaluation: one –on–one trial & field trial. Two stage formative evaluation: one –on–one trial & field trial. Stage 1: Three 4 th Year Nursing students & 2 Nursing instructors teaching Nursing 357 in Stage 2 field trial. Stage 1: Three 4 th Year Nursing students & 2 Nursing instructors teaching Nursing 357 in Stage 2 field trial. Stage 2: 3 rd Year spring NIC Nursing practice course, Nursing 357 – 5 weeks duration. Stage 2: 3 rd Year spring NIC Nursing practice course, Nursing 357 – 5 weeks duration. 2 groups: mobile learning (12) and comparison group (6). 2 groups: mobile learning (12) and comparison group (6).

15 Research Questions Implement & sustain in independent learning setting? Implement & sustain in independent learning setting? Useful in practice setting? Useful in practice setting? Appeal to / comfort for target audience in real life instructional settings? Appeal to / comfort for target audience in real life instructional settings? Mobile learning strategies enhance reflective practice, facilitate communication, & support theory / evidence-based practice? Mobile learning strategies enhance reflective practice, facilitate communication, & support theory / evidence-based practice?

16 Research Methods – Stage 1 One-on-one trial One-on-one trial N=5 (2 instructors / 3 4 th Year students) N=5 (2 instructors / 3 4 th Year students) Pre-study demographics survey Pre-study demographics survey Semi-structured interviews. Semi-structured interviews. Reflective logs kept by faculty. Reflective logs kept by faculty.

17 Research Methods – Stage 2 Field trial in actual class - Nursing 357. Field trial in actual class - Nursing 357. N=17 (12 mobile / 5 comparison) N=17 (12 mobile / 5 comparison) Instructors’ observations (Reflective journal / log ). Instructors’ observations (Reflective journal / log ). Pre-study demographics survey. Pre-study demographics survey. Post survey of student use. Post survey of student use. 4 – 6 Semi-structured interviews (mobile group). 4 – 6 Semi-structured interviews (mobile group). Student practice narratives / notes about their practice experiences kept on mobile devices. Student practice narratives / notes about their practice experiences kept on mobile devices. Cell phone & data download statistics on device usage. Cell phone & data download statistics on device usage.

18 Demographic Survey Results Age Range Stage 1 (N=5) Stage 2 (N=17)

19 Demographic Survey Results Own mobile device Stage 1 (N=5) Stage 2 (N=17) Cell Phone 413 PDA26 None13

20 Demographic Survey Results Comfort with Mobile Devices Stage 1 (N=5) Stage 2 (N=15) Very uncomfortable 00 Somewhat uncomfortable 03 Somewhat comfortable 010 Very comfortable 52

21 Demographic Survey Results Expertise - Mobile None S1 S2 Beginner Comp. Experience Telephone Photography Internet Text Msg

22 Demographic Survey Results Expertise - Mobile None S1 S2 Beginner Comp. Experience Audio Msg Word Proc Spreadsheet Database Nursing

23 Prior Knowledge of Mobile Devices Ample cell phone experience Ample cell phone experience Novices – no direct PDA use experience Novices – no direct PDA use experience 1 st experience with mini computer - PDA 1 st experience with mini computer - PDA Used Windows / MSOffice / Hotmail / Skype on PC Used Windows / MSOffice / Hotmail / Skype on PC Aware of PDA Nursing software Aware of PDA Nursing software

24 Features Needed to Learn Use of touch & thumbing keyboards Use of touch & thumbing keyboards Use of cursive to text transcription Use of cursive to text transcription To enable wireless connectivity for & Internet To enable wireless connectivity for & Internet Use of Nursing drug & lab values software Use of Nursing drug & lab values software Use of text & audio messaging (Skype) Use of text & audio messaging (Skype)

25 Ease of Use 1 -3 hours learning after 2 hour orientation 1 -3 hours learning after 2 hour orientation Easy to master overall Easy to master overall Cell phone & camera easy to use Cell phone & camera easy to use Pocket Word much like MSWord Pocket Word much like MSWord Nursing software user friendly & most used feature in trial Nursing software user friendly & most used feature in trial

26 Barriers to Use Lack of WIFI connectivity in hospital & community Lack of WIFI connectivity in hospital & community Problems obtaining GPRS connection Problems obtaining GPRS connection Lack of GPRS wireless coverage in rural communities Lack of GPRS wireless coverage in rural communities Inability to access WebCT course website Inability to access WebCT course website

27 Portability Suitable to carry in purse or pocket Suitable to carry in purse or pocket 2 carried iPAQ in uniform pants (leg) pocket in hospital 2 carried iPAQ in uniform pants (leg) pocket in hospital Convenient to have handy for immediate reference Convenient to have handy for immediate reference Easy to access when needed Easy to access when needed

28 Visibility Clear to read re. colour & type size Clear to read re. colour & type size Brightness adjustable Brightness adjustable Screen size correct (bigger means heavier) Screen size correct (bigger means heavier) Requires websites that can be formatted for up – down scrolling (e.g., by Google) Requires websites that can be formatted for up – down scrolling (e.g., by Google)

29 Usefulness in Nursing Practice Education Option to reference Nursing software at bedside Option to reference Nursing software at bedside Ability to remain current via software updates Ability to remain current via software updates Aids in patient teaching by using “layman’s” language. Aids in patient teaching by using “layman’s” language. Option of use of phone or to contact instructors Option of use of phone or to contact instructors

30 Usefulness in Nursing Practice Education Potential to allow private communications via mobility Potential to allow private communications via mobility Disadvantage of being constantly accessible Disadvantage of being constantly accessible Useful for document storage and access Useful for document storage and access Permits students to participate in technology-driven society Permits students to participate in technology-driven society

31 We welcome your questions, ideas, comments

32 Demographic Survey Results Time owned mobile device Stage 1 (N=5) Stage 2 (N=17) Never03 1 year or less years 15 4 – 5 years 13 6 – 10 years years + 10


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