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Unit of Marine Technology and Engineering Accident causation factors in the food industry in Portugal Working on Safety – WOS06 The Eemhof, 12-15 Sep 2006.

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Presentation on theme: "Unit of Marine Technology and Engineering Accident causation factors in the food industry in Portugal Working on Safety – WOS06 The Eemhof, 12-15 Sep 2006."— Presentation transcript:

1 Unit of Marine Technology and Engineering Accident causation factors in the food industry in Portugal Working on Safety – WOS06 The Eemhof, Sep 2006 Jacinto, C., Pereira, Z., Canoa, M., Fialho, T., Antão, P. and Guedes Soares, C. Jacinto, C., Pereira, Z., Canoa, M., Fialho, T., Antão, P. and Guedes Soares, C. Presenter: Celeste Jacinto

2 Unit of Marine Technology and Engineering  Objectives  Methodology  Brief characterization of the food sector  Main Results of the study  Conclusions – Proposal of a new variable for “causes” Overview of presentation

3 Unit of Marine Technology and Engineering O bjectives This study is part of a wider research project to identify the most relevant causation factors of accidents at work in Portugal. Aim: finding not only the immediate causes of accidents, but also the organisational and management factors contributing to them Food & Beverages Sector (in Portugal) C ontext and scope

4 Unit of Marine Technology and Engineering M ethodology “Broad picture” based on national statistics Insight into causes based on in-depth analysis: Case–study approach (30 accidents investigated in situ) Analytical framework: WAIT technique

5 Unit of Marine Technology and Engineering Analysis method: WAIT technique (standard output table) Active failures (accident events) Workplace factorsIndividual and Job factorsOrgani. & Manag. Conditions Event 1 Influence A Influence B Problem I (individual) Problem J (job / task) Problem J (also job) Condition X Condition W Condition Y Condition Z Condition W Event 2 ………………… …… Final event Contact or Mode of injury + Material Agent HUM, E&B, HAZ, LOR, NAT WPFO&M - 5 groups The consequences Accident at work? Fatal ? Serious /Reportable? Not reportable? Near miss? in-depth analysisbasic investigation Event …N (= Deviation) IND + JOB victim details type of injury part of body days lost harmonised EUROSTAT variables incorporated in WAIT

6 Unit of Marine Technology and Engineering Briefing on the Sector - 9% of national GNP - more than workers enterprises (~16% of total number of enterprises) - EU-15: ~13% of total number of enterprises Food Industry - Economic relevance (FIPA, 2006)

7 Unit of Marine Technology and Engineering Accident Statistics - National YearFatalNon-fatalTrend %Incidence Rate ( per ) ↑ 15%

8 Unit of Marine Technology and Engineering

9 In-depth analysis of 30 cases 9 enterprises of different sizes Activity: slaughter houses, manufacture of meat products; starch and faculae, bread production; pastry; dairy products; beverages and liquors Injured people (interviewed): from both sexes and their ages ranged from years old. Days lost: varied from no days lost to more than 6 months. Application of the WAIT Technique: –Active failures (the immediate causes) –Influencing factors – workplace factors (WPF) –The individual and job factors (IND & JOB) –Organizational and Management conditions (O&M)

10 Unit of Marine Technology and Engineering analysis of 30 cases – active failures (65%) Human failures (25%) Equip. & Buildings Of the human erroneous actions only 8 were violations (26%)

11 Unit of Marine Technology and Engineering analysis of 30 cases – “deviation” The Top 3: D40 – Loss of control: of machine, tool, means of transport or handling equipment, object, animal (39%) D50 – Slip, stumbling, fall of persons (17%) D70 – Body moment under or with physical stress (17%)

12 Unit of Marine Technology and Engineering analysis of 30 cases – “contact” The Top 3: C50 – Contact with sharp, pointed, rough Material Agent (27%) C30 – Horizontal or vertical impact with or against a stationary (26%) C70 – Physical or mental stress (17%)

13 Unit of Marine Technology and Engineering analysis of 30 cases – the injury Type of Injury (Top 3) ClassRelative Frequency(%) C010 – Wounds and superficial injuries54 C030 – Dislocations, sprains and strains23 C020 – Bone fractures13 Part of body injured (Top 3) ClassRelative Frequency(%) C50 – Upper Extremities47 C60 – Lower Extremities13 C30 – Back, including spine and vertebra in the back 13 Top 3(2002) C010 – 48% C050 – 12% C030 – 11% Top 3(2002) C50 – 40% C60 – 22% C10 – 11%

14 Unit of Marine Technology and Engineering In-depth analysis – Workplace Factors ( A ~ 15%) Work physical environment ( B ~ 48% ) Task/Job-related ( C ~ 36%) Information, Communication & Equipment Poor procedures Poor maintenance Plant Layout High workload Monotonous and repetitive work Inexperience

15 Unit of Marine Technology and Engineering In-depth analysis of 30 cases Hiring and placing; management of change Poor procedures & working practices Problems with maintenance; design of facilities Training (either insufficient or badly designed) Risk assessment & Risk communication

16 Unit of Marine Technology and Engineering Conclusions (1/3) Sample is not statistically representative, but overall, the results agree with national statistics (common variables) contact with sharp, pointed objects (27%) or falls (26%), caused by loss of control of something (39%) resulting in superficial injuries (54%) on upper and lower extremities (60%) poor layout, monotonous and repetitive work, inadequate procedures, high workload, “risk-taking” behaviours “typical” accident in the sector (Eurostat variables): The main pitfalls / workplace factors / physical environment:

17 Unit of Marine Technology and Engineering Conclusions (2/3) The main pitfalls / organisational and management level (O&M): hiring and placing; poor procedures & supervision problems with facilities (space & layout); training (either insufficient or badly designed); lack of, or superficial assessment of risks There are differences between SME and large enterprises on the extension of these problems

18 Unit of Marine Technology and Engineering Conclusions (3/3) Two specific problem-areas were identified in this Sector (with negative impact on H&S) High Seasonality hiring temporary workers without giving them training (or only very basic / insufficient training) Compliance with HACCP (food hygiene & safety) typically is “top” priority, relegating H&S to second place confusion between HACCP risks and occupational risks

19 Unit of Marine Technology and Engineering Proposal of a new variable for “causes” Why? better identification of underlying causes – at least at workplace level (WPF) A Physical working environment B Task, job-related C Information and Equipment - Noise or vibration - Illumination - Thermal discomfort (temperature extremes, too dry or too humid) - Poor housekeeping - Dangerous place (confined space) - Insufficient space, inadequate layout etc … - High task demand / multiple tasks, or insufficient time - Monotonous or repetitive work - Irregular working hours or not the usual ( “on call”). - Shift work / night work - Inexperience / not familiar with task or technology, etc … - Inadequate procedures - Mislabelling (not labelled, incorrect, ambiguous, difficult to read) - Ambiguous communications or signals between people - Tolerated “risk taking” behaviours; complacency etc …

20 Unit of Marine Technology and Engineering Research funded by Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia, Portugal – contract PIQS/SOC/50062/2003-FCT. A cknowledgements Accident causation factors in the food industry in Portugal Working on Safety – WOS06 The Eemhof, Sep 2006 Celeste Jacinto


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