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AN OVERVIEW OF GLYCEMIC TREATMENT FOR DIABETES Mayer B. Davidson, MD Professor of Medicine Charles R. Drew University & David Geffen School of Medicine.

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Presentation on theme: "AN OVERVIEW OF GLYCEMIC TREATMENT FOR DIABETES Mayer B. Davidson, MD Professor of Medicine Charles R. Drew University & David Geffen School of Medicine."— Presentation transcript:

1 AN OVERVIEW OF GLYCEMIC TREATMENT FOR DIABETES Mayer B. Davidson, MD Professor of Medicine Charles R. Drew University & David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA

2 I have no conflicts of interest for this presentation

3 TOPICS 1. PATHOPHYSIOLOGY OF TYPE 2 DIABETES 2. TREATMENT TARGETS 3. MEDICATIONS 4. DESCRIPTION OF PROTOCOLS 5. WHEN AND HOW TO USE INSULIN 6. OUTCOMES OF USING PROTOCOLS TOPICS

4 4 Development and Progression of Type 2 Diabetes (Conceptual Representation) Metabolic Activity Glucose Regulation Years From Diabetes Diagnosis –10– –10– NGT=normal glucose tolerance; IGT=impaired glucose tolerance; IFG=impaired fasting glucose. Kendall DM, Bergenstal RM. ©2005 International Diabetes Center, Minneapolis, MN. All rights reserved. Adapted from Ferrannini E. Presentation at 65th ADA in Washington, DC, NGT  Insulin  IGT/ IFG  Type 2 Diabetes Resistance Postprandial glucose Fasting glucose Insulin resistance— hepatic and peripheral Insulin level Beta-cell function

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11 Raz I. et al. Diabetes Care 2013;36:

12 12 TWELVE CLASSES OF DRUGS TO TREAT TYPE 2 DIABETES MetforminDPP-4 Inhibitors Sulfonylureas*GLP-1 Agonists GlinidesPramlintide α-Glucosidase Inhibitors Dopaminergic Agent** ThiazolidinedionesSGLT***-2 Inhibitors Colesvelam (WelChol) Insulin *Glucagon-Like Peptide **Cycloset ***Sodium-Glucose Transporter

13 13 Characteristics of Oral Antidiabetes Agents Metformin (glucophage) AdvantagesDisadvantages No hypoglycemiaAdverse GI effects No weight gainSlow dose titration Favorable lipid effectsCI: renal/hepatic dysfxn Generic available alcoholism, >80 yr Potential for lactic acidosis? BID/TID dosing

14 14 Characteristics of Oral Antidiabetes Agents Sulfonylureas AdvantagesDisadvantages Rapid onset of action Hypoglycemia Few adverse effects Weight gain Dosing often qd Generic formulations available

15 15 Characteristics of Oral Antidiabetes Agents Glinides (repaglinide, nateglinide) AdvantagesDisadvantages Rapid onset of actionHypoglycemia Short time to peakWeight gain Short half lifeFrequent admin Enhances insulin response to meals

16 16 Characteristics of Oral Antidiabetes Agents α-Glucosidase Inhibitors (acarbose, miglitol) AdvantagesDisadvantages No hypoglycemia*Flatulence common No weight gainVery slow dose titration Dosing three times a day Contraindications (creatinine >2 mg/dl; intestinal disorders) *If hypoglycemia occurs due to SU’s, glinides or insulin, it must be treated with glucose tablets or milk (drugs do not block enzyme that breaks down lactose in milk to glucose)

17 17 Characteristics of Oral Antidiabetes Agents Thiazolidinediones (TZD’s) (Glitazones) (Rosiglitazone, Pioglitazone) AdvantagesDisadvantages No hypoglycemiaSlow onset of action Dosing once dailyWeight gain (increased fat) Renal insufficiencyEdema (fluid retention) not a contraindicationHeart failure Decreased bone mineral density Increased fractures Expensive (now generic) ?Increased bladder cancer

18 18 Characteristics of Oral Antidiabetes Agents Colesvelam (WelChol ® )* AdvantagesDisadvantages Lowers LDL cholesterolRaises triglycerides Less GI side effects thanSome GI side effects other bile acid resins *Other bile acid resins do not claim to lower glycemia

19 THE INCRETIN AXIS

20 Deficient Insulin: Hypersecreted Glucagon TYPE 2 DIABETES Defects in diabetes: Deficient insulin release Glucagon not suppressed (postprandially) Hyperglycemia Meal Insulin (µU/mL) Time (min) Glucagon (pg/mL) Glucose (mg/dL) Without Diabetes (n=14) Type 2 Diabetes (n=12) Data from Muller WA, et al. N Engl J Med 1970; 283:

21 Postprandial Glucagon is Excessive and Not Corrected by Exogenous Insulin “One wonders if the development of a pharmacological means of suppressing glucagon to appropriate levels would not increase the effectiveness of available insulin, markedly reduce insulin requirements, and perhaps improve control of the diabetic state.” — R.H. Unger Data from Unger RH, et al. N Engl J Med 1971; 285: CHO Meal  U/mL ng/mL Time (min) Glucagon Insulin Values Before Insulin Infusion Values After Insulin Infusion Insulin Subjects with diabetes

22 Incretin Effect * * * * * * *

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24 GLP-1 and GIP Are Degraded by the DPP-4 Enzyme Meal Intestinal GIP and GLP-1 release GIP and GLP-1 Actions DPP-4 Enzyme GIP-(1–42) GLP-1(7–36) Intact GIP-(3–42) GLP-1(9–36) Metabolites Rapid Inactivation Half-life* GLP-1 ~ 2 minutes GIP ~ 5 minutes Deacon CF et al. Diabetes. 1995;44:1126–1131. *Meier JJ et al. Diabetes. 2004;53:654–662.

25 DIPEPTIDYL PEPTIDASE (DPP)-4 INHIBITORS

26 Characteristics of Oral Antidiabetes Agents DPP-4 Inhibitors (Sitagliptin) AdvantagesDisadvantages No hypoglycemiaWeight neutral* Oral administration*Expensive *Compared to injectable GLP-1 agonist

27 EXENATIDE THE FIRST INCRETIN AGONIST

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29  Long

30 30 Characteristics of Injectable Antidiabetes Drugs Glucagon-Like Peptide (GLP) – 1 Agonists Exenatide (Byetta), Liraglutide (Victoza) - Daily Bydureon, Dulaglutide, Albiglutide - Weekly AdvantagesDisadvantages Weight lossInitial nausea commonExpensive No hypoglycemia ?Pancreatitis

31 31 Characteristics of Another Injectable Antidiabetes Drug Pramlinitide (Symlin) AdvantagesDisadvantages glucagonNausea/vomiting gastric emptyingInjectable Increases satietyInsulin dose needs adjusting

32 32 SODIUM GLUCOSE TRANSPORTER -2 INHIBITORS

33 33 SODIUM GLUCOSE TRANSPORTER-2 INHIBITORS Advantages Disadvantages Does not require Urinary Frequency/Dehydration insulin secretion UTIs (7.5% vs 5.7%) Weight loss (~2 kg) Mycotic infections (6.6% vs 1.7%) BP lowering (~4/2) Vulvovaginitis (females) Balanitis (males ) eGFR affects dose

34 34 DAPAGLIFLOXIN (FARXIGA) CANAGLIFLOXIN (INVOKANNA) EMPAGLIFLOXIN (JARDIANCE) Free for at least one year (to some) Can be monotherapy or added to metformin, SUs, DPP-4 inhibitors, TZDs or even insulin

35 35 Characteristics of Another Injectable Antidiabetes Drug Insulin AdvantagesDisadvantages Most effectiveSMBG required drugHypoglycemia Weight gain Consistency of life style required

36 36 CRITERIA FOR SELECTING A CLASS OF DRUGS OR ONE DRUG WITHIN A CLASS OF DRUGS (IN DECREASING ORDER OF IMPORTANCE) 1.Effectiveness 2.Adverse effects 3.Ease of adherence 4.Cost

37 37 COST OF DIABETES DRUGS Cost of drugs for diabetes between 2001 and 2007 almost doubled from approximately $7 billion to $13 billion, largely due to new, more expensive ones ( Ann Intern Med 154:131, 2011) Each year from 2007 through 2010, diabetes drugs topped the list contributing to overall growth in drug spending (2011 Medco Drug Trend Report)

38 38 META-ANALYSIS* OF NON- INSULIN DRUGS VS PLACEBO Number of randomized clinical trials – 61 Number of type 2 diabetic patients – 26,361 Drugs–TZDs, SUs, glinides, metformin, α-glucosidase inhibitors, DPP-4 inhibitors Conclusion – all drugs associated with similar Hb A1c reductions *Sherifali et al: Diabetes Care 33:1859, 2010

39 39 META-ANALYSIS* OF NON- INSULIN DRUGS ADDED TO METFORMIN Number of randomized clinical trials – 27 Number of type 2 diabetic patients - 11,198 Drugs–TZDs, SUs, glinides, GLP-1 agonists, α-glucosidase inhibitors, DPP-4 inhibitors Conclusion – all drugs associated with similar Hb A1c reductions *Phung et al: JAMA 303:1410, 2010

40 40 META-ANALYSIS* OF NON-INSULIN DRUGS ADDED TO METFORMIN PLUS A SULFONYLUREA Number of randomized clinical trials – 18 Number of type 2 diabetic patients – 4,535 Drugs–TZDs, GLP-1 agonists, α-glucosidase inhibitors, DPP-4 inhibitors Conclusion – all drugs associated with similar Hb A1c reductions *Gross et al: Ann Intern Med 154:672, 2011

41 41 HEAD TO HEAD COMPARISONS* OF NON-INSULIN DRUGS Number of randomized clinical trials – 57 Number of type 2 diabetic patients – 22,443 Drugs–metformin vs SU, TZD & DPP-4 inhibitors; SU vs glinides & TZD; Conclusion – all drugs equally efficacious (except metformin more so than DPP-4 Inhibitors) *Bennett et al: Ann Intern Med 154:602, 2011

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46 L.A. COUNTY REQUIREMENTS FOR EXENATIDE TREATMENT Restricted to Endocrinology Type 2 diabetes Failure of metformin + SU + Pio A1C % BMI ≥30 Add exenatide (Byetta) A1C after 6 months >8.0%, D/C

47 Using Exenatide Start with 5 mcq b.i.d. for one month Month 1- increase to 10 mcg b.i.d. Month 3 - measure A1C If A1C is >8.0% and has not decreased by at least 0.5%, D/C and start bedtime insulin; otherwise, continue exenatide Month 6 – measure A1C If A1C <8.0%, continue exenatide If A1C >=8.0%, D/C and start bedtime insulin

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51 51 Bedtime Insulin Starting Dose Obese – 16 units (NPH, glargine, detemir) Lean – 10 units (NPH, glargine, detemir) Incremental Doses Obese – 4 units or 10% of current dose, whichever is greater Lean - 2 units or 10% of current dose, whichever is greater

52 52 INITIAL SELF TITRATION Each morning that the FPG (measured at home) is >130 mg/dl (7.2 mmol/L), that evening’s insulin dose is increased by 1 unit in lean patients and 2 units in overweight/obese patients. If a morning FPG value is <70 mg/dl (3.9 mmol/L), that evening’s insulin dose is decreased by 1 unit in lean patients and 2 units in overweight/obese patients. If there have been no changes in the insulin dose for one week, self titration ceases and changes are made by the physician on an ongoing pattern basis.

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54 INTENSIVE INSULIN REGIMENS

55 55 INTENSIFICATION FROM BEDTIME (BASAL) INSULIN Basal/Bolus Insulin Regimen Stop all oral drugs except metformin in overweight/obese patients to mitigate weight gain Maintain bedtime (basal) dose Add 2-4 units (lean) or 4-6 units (overweight/obese) of short- or rapid-acting insulin before meals

56 56 INTENSIFICATION FROM BEDTIME (BASAL) INSULIN Self-Mixed/Split Insulin Regimen Stop all oral drugs except metformin in overweight/obese patients to mitigate weight gain Take 80% of bedtime (basal) dose and give 2/3rds before bkft and 1/3 rd before supper as NPH insulin In about 1 month, add 2-4 units (lean) or 4-6 units (overweight/obese) of short- or rapid-acting insulin before bkft and supper Maximum NPH insulin dose is 40 units before bkft and 20 units before supper

57 57 Relationship Between Insulin Injection and Time of Testing. InsulinTime Injected Test Reflecting Insulin Action NPHBefore breakfast Before supper/ After lunch NPHBefore supper or Before breakfast bedtime GlargineBefore breakfast or Before breakfast Detemirbefore bedtime or half of dose at each time

58 58 Relationship Between Insulin Injection and Time of Testing. Insulin Time Injected Test Reflecting Insulin Action Regular Before a meal Both following meal before which Lispro “ insulin is injected and before next meal Aspart“ or bedtime snack (if insulin taken before supper) Glulisine“

59 59 Adjust each dose component of the insulin regimen until ≥50% of appropriate pre-prandial SMBG values are within target range, mg/dl ( mmol/L).* Adjust each dose component of the insulin regimen until ≥50% of appropriate pre-prandial SMBG values are within target range, mg/dl ( mmol/L).* *ADA recommended target Two or More Injections of Insulin

60 60 Split/Mixed Insulin Regimen Starting Doses Before Bkft Before Supper Obese 20N/4-6R*10N/4-6R* Lean 10N/2-4R* 6N/2-4R* Incremental Doses Obese – 4 units or 10% of current dose, whichever is greater Lean - 2 units or 10% of current dose, whichever is greater *Analogue rapid-acting insulins can be used Most glucose levels before breakfast and supper should be <200 mg/dl (11.1 mmol/L) before increasing short-or rapid-acting insulin doses.

61 61 Basal/Bolus Insulin Regimen Starting dose Bkft Lunch Supper Bedtime Obese 6-8R* 6-8R* 6-8R* 16** Lean 4R* 4R* 4R* 10** Incremental Doses Obese –4 units or 10% of current dose whichever is greater Lean - 2 units or 10% of current dose whichever is greater *Analogue rapid-acting insulins can be used **NPH, glargine or detemir insulin

62 62 CORRECTION DOSES OF INSULIN* Glucose Lean Overweight/Obese (mg/dl)(units) (units) < > *short- or rapid-acting; subsequent goal is mg/dl

63 63 PRE-MIXED (70/30, 75/25, 50/50) INSULIN NOT RECOMMENDED because cannot adjust each component separately; therefore, meeting targets more difficult. Example – common pattern is high before bedtime (snack) glucose levels and target FPG values – increasing evening dose problematic because of potential for overnight hypoglycemia. Example – another common pattern is high before lunch glucose levels and target before supper values – increasing morning dose problematic because of potential for afternoon hypoglycemia. Almost all patients can be taught to mix insulin if enough time and effort devoted to it.

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65 65 IDENTIFICATION OF TYPE 2 DIABETES All three components must be present: Minority status Obesity At least one first degree relative, i.e.,parent, sibling or child, must have type 2 diabetes* *Very important criterion

66 66 TREATMENT OF NEWLY DIAGNOSED, MARKEDLY SYMPTOMATIC TYPE 2 DIABETIC PATIENTS

67 67 WHAT’S IMPORTANT IN ACHIEVING ADA’S GLYCEMIC GOALS AND WHAT’S NOT? Not Important – which drug(s) are being used Important – Intensifying therapy when the present regimen is ineffective with timely, appropriate treatment decisions

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69 69 Hb A1c Outcomes of Nurse Following Treatment Algorithms for One Year in a Minority Population* (~75% Latinos, 25% African-Americans) Study #1 (N = 367 randomized patients) Hb A1c levels fell from 8.9% to 7.0% (25% ended up on insulin – mostly bedtime alone) Study #2 (N = 178 referred patients) Hb A1c levels fell from 11.1% to 7.2% (83% ended up on insulin – mostly ≥2 injections) * Davidson et al: Am J Manag Care16: , 2010

70 PERCENT ACHIEVING A1C (<7.0%), LDL CHOL (<100 MG/DL) AND BP (<130/80 MM HG) GOALS Year (Ref) N Setting Percent 2002 (1) 1,372 Two Urban Medical Centers (2) 1,218 NHANES III (2) 404 NHANES (3) 1,765 Academic Medical Centers (4) 439 Population Survey - Australia (5) 7,120 Academic Hospitals (6) 395 Endocrine Practices (7) 3,131; 3,971* Primary Care Practices 8.5; 12.6* 2009 (8) 1,694 NHANES (9) 511 Primary Care Practices (10) 178 Community Clinic – Minorities (11) 1,343 NHANES * Chronic Care Model: 1 Diabetes Care (DC) 25:718; 2 JAMA 291:335; 3 DC 28:337; 4 DC 28:1490; 5 DC 30:1442; 6 Diab Res Clin Pract 80:89; 7 DC 31:2238; 8 Am J Med 122:443; 9 CMAJ 181:37; 10 Am J Manag Care 16:652; 11 DC 36:2271

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73 THANK YOU Link to CDU website for copy of slides


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