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Copyright (c) E.Y.Li 12015/1/15 How to Publish in SSCI Journals Eldon Y. Li University Chair Professor Department of MIS National Chengchi University

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright (c) E.Y.Li 12015/1/15 How to Publish in SSCI Journals Eldon Y. Li University Chair Professor Department of MIS National Chengchi University"— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright (c) E.Y.Li 12015/1/15 How to Publish in SSCI Journals Eldon Y. Li University Chair Professor Department of MIS National Chengchi University http://www.calpoly.edu/~eli *** All right reserved. Video or audio recording is prohibited. Reference to this document should be made as follows: Li, E.Y. “How to publish in SSCI journals,” unpublished lecture, National Chengchi University, 2014. ***

2 Copyright (c) E.Y.Li 22015/1/15Agenda SSCI journals and impact factor SSCI journals and impact factor The types of research projects The types of research projects What makes a good paper? What makes a good paper? The structure of a good paper The structure of a good paper The workflow of publishing The workflow of publishing The common mistakes The common mistakes The recommendations The recommendations

3 Copyright (c) E.Y.Li 32015/1/15 SSCI and SCI Journals ISI (Institute for Scientific Information) ISI (Institute for Scientific Information) Thomson ’ s www.isinet.com Thomson ’ s www.isinet.comwww.isinet.com SSCI: SSCI: – Began in 1956 – includes 3016 journals (2013) SCI: SCI: – Began in 1945 – SCI includes 3748 journals (2013) – SCIE includes 8411 journals (2013) AHCI: AHCI: – Began in 1975 – includes 1727 journals (2013)

4 Copyright (c) E.Y.Li 42015/1/15 SSCI Journals and Impact Factor Impact Factor (e.g., MISQ) Impact Factor (e.g., MISQ) – Cites in 2007 to articles published in 2006 = 122 – Cites in 2007 to articles published in 2005 = 124 – Number of articles published in 2006 = 28 – Number of articles published in 2005 = 24 Cites to recent articles 246 I-Factor = = = 4.731 Number of recent articles 52

5 Copyright (c) E.Y.Li 52015/1/15 SSCI Journals and Impact Factor Immediacy Index (e.g., MISQ) – – Cites in 2007 to articles published in 2007 = 25 – – Number of articles published in 2007 = 41 Cites to current articles 25 I-Index = = = 0.610 Number of current articles 41

6 Copyright (c) E.Y.Li 62015/1/15 SSCI Journals and Impact Factor The cited half-life is a measure of the rate of decline of the citation curve. It is the number of years that the number of current citations takes to decline to 50% of its initial value (the cited half-life is 6 years in the example given in the Figure 1). It is a measure of how long articles in a journal continue to be cited after publication. MISQ Year20062005200420032002200120001999199819971996-all # Cites from 2006 25 122 124 317 120 206 227 223 162 141 1519 Cumulative % 0.78 4.61 8.51 18.46 22.22 28.69 35.81 42.81 47.90 52.32 100

7 Copyright (c) E.Y.Li 72015/1/15 SSCI Journals and Impact Factor Source: M. Amin & M. Mabe, “Impact Factors: Use and Abuse,” Perspectives in Publishing, No. 1, October 2000, pp. 1-6.

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13 Copyright (c) E.Y.Li 132015/1/15 http://portal.isiknowledge.com/portal.cgi/jcr/?Init=Yes&SID=2FGAlfGHkjhEiM8gmk4 Rank Abbreviated Journal Title (linked to journal information) ISSN Total Cites 2009 Impact Factor Immediacy Index Articles Cited Half-life 1 MIS QUART0276-778361864.4850.57938>10.0 2 J INFORMETR1751-15772533.3790.909332.1 3 ANNU REV INFORM SCI0066-42005632.9291.200106.9 4 J AM SOC INF SCI TEC1532-288251672.3000.3792038.0 5 INFORM MANAGE-AMSTER0378-720632762.2820.268566.6 6 J ASSOC INF SYST1536-93234302.2460.097314.4 7 SCIENTOMETRICS0138-913035082.1670.3281896.2 8 GOV INFORM Q0740-624X5982.0980.293584.5 9 J MANAGE INFORM SYST0742-122226502.0980.000388.7 10 J INF TECHNOL0268-39628792.0490.321286.9 11 INFORM SYST RES1047-704730371.7920.679289.5 12 INFORM PROCESS MANAG0306-457324121.7830.264538.5 13 J INF SCI0165-55159391.7060.149476.0 14 ONLINE INFORM REV1468-45273241.4230.094643.4 15 INFORM SYST J1350-19175981.4190.583247.2 16 INFORM TECHNOL MANAG1385-951X731.2220.00016 17 INFORM SOC0197-22436031.1110.125246.9 18 INT J INFORM MANAGE0268-40125750.7230.000436.8 19 J GLOB INF MANAG1062-73752270.7060.053195.3 20 INFORM RES1368-16135010.4900.121335.5

14 Copyright (c) E.Y.Li 142015/1/15 http://portal.isiknowledge.com/portal.cgi/jcr/?Init=Yes&SID=2FGAlfGHkjhEiM8gmk4 Rank Abbreviated Journal Title (linked to journal information) ISSN Total Cites 2010 Impact Factor Immediacy Index Articles Cited Half-life 1MIS QUART0276-778374185.0410.737389.8 2INFORM SYST RES1047-704735173.3580.241549.5 3J AM MED INFORM ASSN1067-502736043.0780.5911155.8 4J INF TECHNOL0268-396210832.9070.786286.7 5J MANAGE INFORM SYST0742-122230792.6620.633309.0 6INFORM MANAGE-AMSTER0378-720632732.6270.238426.9 7J ASSOC INF SYST1536-93235792.2170.062324.2 8INFORM SYST J1350-19176952.1840.857216.5 9J AM SOC INF SCI TEC1532-288242002.1370.3541787.4 10DECIS SUPPORT SYST0167-923632252.1350.2521115.6 11ELECTRON COMMER R A1567-42234201.9460.244454.6 12SCIENTOMETRICS0138-913036021.9050.1732266.4 13GOV INFORM Q0740-624X6501.8780.312484.2 14EUR J INFORM SYST0960-085X10701.7670.326435.7 15INFORM PROCESS MANAG0306-457319341.6730.411567.2 16INFORM SYST FRONT1387-33264611.5960.130464.6 17INFORM SYST0306-43798651.5950.380506.6 18INT J INFORM MANAGE0268-40128591.5540.220596.7 19J INF SCI0165-55159211.4060.180506.2 20INFORM SOC0197-22436151.2400.000277.4 21SOC SCI COMPUT REV0894-43935500.9130.194317.3 22INFORM RES1368-16134290.8220.125565.2

15 Copyright (c) E.Y.Li 152015/1/15 http://portal.isiknowledge.com/portal.cgi/jcr/?Init=Yes&SID=2FGAlfGHkjhEiM8gmk4 Rank Abbreviated Journal Title (linked to journal information) ISSNTotal Cites 2011 Impact Factor 5-year Impact Factor Immediac y Index Articles Cited Half-life 1 MIS QUART 0276-778367614.4477.4970.750>10.0 2 J INFORMETR 1751-15777094.2293.9441.098612 3 J AM MED INFORM ASSN 1067-502740713.6094.3290.7061535.5 4 ANNU REV INFORM SCI 0066-42004622.9552.9841.182117.9 5 J INF TECHNOL 0268-39629672.32130.789197 6 INT J COMP-SUPP COLL 1556-16073022.24330.571283.8 7 INFORM MANAGE-AMSTER 0378-720632822.2143.7960.114447.5 8 INFORM SYST RES 1047-704732862.1464.1310.234479.9 9 J AM SOC INF SCI TEC 1532-288242952.0812.1130.4251866.9 10 INFORM SYST J 1350-19176942.0672.7751.143216.5 11 SCIENTOMETRICS 0138-913040481.9662.4430.3782175.9 12 MIS Q EXEC 1540-19602341.743 0.125164.5 13 J ASSOC INF SYST 1536-93236201.6672.6540.071284.8 14 INT J INFORM MANAGE 0268-40128621.5321.7640.21626.3 15 EUR J INFORM SYST 0960-085X9721.52.2180.093435.7 16 J STRATEGIC INF SYST 0963-86876521.45720.207299.1 17 GOV INFORM Q 0740-624X5851.4251.6620.327524.7 18 J MANAGE INFORM SYST 0742-122225301.4232.9450.05409.4 19 J INF SCI 0165-55158071.2991.6860.157515.9 20 J KNOWL MANAG 1367-327010721.248 0.158577.1 21 INFORM SOC 0197-22436231.2351.5760178 22 INFORM PROCESS MANAG 0306-457316471.1191.4430.25647.8 23 SOC SCI COMPUT REV 0894-43935601.0751.1660.257357.6

16 Copyright (c) E.Y.Li 162015/1/15 http://portal.isiknowledge.com/portal.cgi/jcr/?Init=Yes&SID=2FGAlfGHkjhEiM8gmk4 Rank Abbreviated Journal Title (linked to journal information) ISSN Total Cites 2012 Impact Factor 5-year Impact Factor Immediac y Index Articles Cited Half-life 1 MIS QUART0276-778372774.6597.4740.705619.9 2 J INFORMETR1751-15779434.1533.9870.771702.6 3 J AM MED INFORM ASSN1067-502750123.5713.9590.9251866.2 4 J INF TECHNOL0268-396211653.5323.8011.263196.5 5 INFORM TECHNOL MANAG1385-951X2473.0252.2610.226312.1 6 ANNU REV INFORM SCI0066-42003802.1742.590 8.0 7 SCIENTOMETRICS0138-913045552.1332.2070.4492546.5 8 INFORM SYST RES1047-704734432.0103.6380.44674>10.0 9 J AM SOC INF SCI TEC1532-288246132.0052.1590.3211846.8 10 GOV INFORM Q0740-624X8351.9102.2630.493714.5 11 INT J INFORM MANAGE0268-40129701.8431.8980.086586.0 12 INFORM MANAGE-AMSTER0378-720630911.6633.1780.083368.3 13 EUR J INFORM SYST0960-085X12681.5582.4220.421386.3 14 J STRATEGIC INF SYST0963-86877431.5002.4330.550208.9 15 J KNOWL MANAG1367-327013921.474 0.179567.3 16 INFORM SYST J1350-19176961.3812.3761.238217.2 17 J MANAGE INFORM SYST0742-122226451.2622.7800.033309.8 18 INFORM SOC0197-22435611.1141.3890.211198.5 19 J ASSOC INF SYST1536-93237511.0482.7660.292245.7 20 J GLOB INF TECH MAN1097-198X1170.917 0.000126.4 21 INFORM PROCESS MANAG0306-457316810.8171.3880.210818.1 22 INFORM RES1368-16134000.5200.677 6.1 23 J GLOB INF MANAG1062-73753350.4521.1790.071147.6

17 Copyright (c) E.Y.Li 172015/1/15 The Types of Research Projects by Paradigm Positivist research ( 實證性研究 ) – Test theory to increase the predictive understanding of phenomena. (ref. Confirmatory research) Positivist research ( 實證性研究 ) – Test theory to increase the predictive understanding of phenomena. (ref. Confirmatory research) Interpretive research ( 詮釋性研究 ) – Understand phenomena through the meanings that people assign to them and does not predefine dependent and independent variables (ref. Exploratory research) Interpretive research ( 詮釋性研究 ) – Understand phenomena through the meanings that people assign to them and does not predefine dependent and independent variables (ref. Exploratory research) Critical research ( 批判性研究 ) – Focuses on the oppositions, conflicts and contradictions in contemporary society, and seeks to think outside the box. Critical research ( 批判性研究 ) – Focuses on the oppositions, conflicts and contradictions in contemporary society, and seeks to think outside the box. Source: http://www.qual.auckland.ac.nz/

18 Copyright (c) E.Y.Li 182015/1/15 The Types of Research Projects by Process Inductive research ( 歸納性研究 ) – derive from a posteriori specific facts or instances into general principles Inductive research ( 歸納性研究 ) – derive from a posteriori specific facts or instances into general principles Deductive research ( 演繹性研究 ) – reason from a priori general premises into specific facts or instances Deductive research ( 演繹性研究 ) – reason from a priori general premises into specific facts or instances

19 Copyright (c) E.Y.Li 192015/1/15 The Types of Research Projects by Output System research System research Design research Design research Theory (Concept) building research Theory (Concept) building research Model building research Model building research Methodological research Methodological research Informational (descriptive) research Informational (descriptive) research

20 Copyright (c) E.Y.Li 202015/1/15 Theory Building Models and Wheel of Science Theories Observations Hypotheses Empirical generalizations Functional theory building Deductive theory building Inductive theory building Model-based theory building Deductive logicDeductive logic Inductive logicInductive logic Theory basedTheory based Evidence basedEvidence based Source: Marx, Melvin H. “The General Nature of Theory Construction,” in Melvin H. Marx, Ed., Theories in Contemporary Psychology, New York: Macmillan, 1965, pp. 10-19. Concepts

21 Copyright (c) E.Y.Li 212015/1/15 The Types of Research Projects by Method – Literature reviews – Case studies – Action research method – Focus group – Delphi method – Ethnographic method – Grounded theory – Meta research – Interviews/Critical incident analysis/Content analysis – Empirical method – Experimental method – Analytical method Qualitative methods Qualitative methods Quantitative methods Quantitative methods Survey / Statistics Survey / Statistics Database (CRSP, COMPUSTAT) Database (CRSP, COMPUSTAT) Informetrics Informetrics Experiment Experiment Simulation / Prototype Simulation / Prototype Neural network Neural network Stochastic methods Stochastic methods Mathematical solution Mathematical solution Optimization Optimization Proof Proof

22 Copyright (c) E.Y.Li 222015/1/15 The Types of Research Projects by Output and Process System Research Observations Observations Problems Problems Propose systems Propose systems Construct systems Construct systems Validate systems Validate systems Evaluate systems Evaluate systems Conclusions Conclusions Design Research Design needs Design needs Propose designs Propose designs Build designs Build designs Validate designs Validate designs Evaluate designs Evaluate designs Conclusions Conclusions Theory Building Research Phenomena Phenomena Literature reviews Literature reviews Propose theory/concept Propose theory/concept Propose models Propose models Propose propositions Propose propositions Justify propositions Justify propositions Conclusions Conclusions Model Building Research Problems Problems Literature reviews Literature reviews Propose model Propose model Propose hypotheses Propose hypotheses Collect and validate data Collect and validate data Test hypotheses Test hypotheses Conclusions Conclusions Deduction Deduction InductionInduction Deduction Deduction InductionInduction

23 Copyright (c) E.Y.Li 232015/1/15 The Types of Research Projects by Scholarship Discovery research (exploratory) Discovery research (exploratory) Application research (confirmatory) Application research (confirmatory) Integration research Integration research Teaching research Teaching research Source: Boyer, Ernest L., Scholarship Reconsidered: Priorities of the Professoriate, by San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, Inc., 1990. (1981-1997 President of The Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching, 51 Vista Lane, Stanford, CA 94305, USA.

24 Copyright (c) E.Y.Li 242015/1/15 The Types of Research Projects by Analysis Independent analysis Independent analysis Comparative analysis Comparative analysis Longitudinal analysis Longitudinal analysis Meta analysis Meta analysis

25 Copyright (c) E.Y.Li 252015/1/15 Independent CMM Practice Assessment

26 Copyright (c) E.Y.Li 262015/1/15 Comparative CMM Practice Assessment

27 Copyright (c) E.Y.Li 272015/1/15 Longitudinal CMM Practice Assessment

28 Copyright (c) E.Y.Li 282015/1/15 Meta-Analysis of Recall Rate, 1957 Source: Underwood, B.J. “Interference and Forgetting,” Psychological Review, 64, 1957, pp. 49-60. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 024681012141618 20 22 Weiss-Margolius 1954 Williams 1950 Johnson 1939 Underwood 1953 Lester 1932 Krueger 1929 Cheng 1929Hovland 1940 Luh 1922 Williams 1950 Belmon-Birch 1951 Underwood-Richarson 1955 Gibson 1942 Youtz 1941 Number of Previous Lists Percent of Recall

29 Copyright (c) E.Y.Li 292015/1/15 Meta-Analysis of Average Importance Ratings IS Personnel's Avg. Importance Ratings User Personnel's Avg. Importance Ratings Pooled Average Importance Ratingsa Ite m StaffMgr.StaffMgr.IS Per. User Per. No.Description of Item(N=3 7) (N=109)(N=4 0) (N=29)(N=1 46) (N=69) 1Top management involvement2.351.962.501.382.062.03 2Competition between CBIS and non-CBIS units =0.29 =0.310.290.31 3Allocation priorities for CBIS resources0.971.551.501.591.401.54 4Chargeback method of payment for services =-0.46 =0.14-0.460.14 a The ratings are from the IS staff in Montazemi's [13, p. 248] study using 35 ISS items. b The ratings are from the IS managers in this study using 39 of the 46 ISS items. c The ratings of are from the user staff in Montazemi's [13, p. 248] study using 35 ISS items. d The ratings are from the middle managers of IS users in Pearson's [16, p. 174] study using 39 ISS items.

30 Novel problem Novel problem Innovative model Innovative model Disciplined methods Disciplined methods Rich and beautiful data Rich and beautiful data What Makes a Good Paper?

31 Copyright (c) E.Y.Li 312015/1/15 How to write a good paper? Problems and contexts - write what the readers see Problems and contexts - write what the readers see Research contributions - write what the journal likes Research contributions - write what the journal likes Research contributions Research contributions Writing style - write in the journal style Writing style - write in the journal style Validity - write to justify Validity - write to justify Rigor - write to show your effort and know how Rigor - write to show your effort and know how Generalizability - write for the real world Generalizability - write for the real world

32 Copyright (c) E.Y.Li 322015/1/15

33 Copyright (c) E.Y.Li 332015/1/15 Writing a good paper Management Field (25)* Abstract (1) Abstract (1) Abstract Introduction and research questions (3) Introduction and research questions (3) Introduction and research questions Introduction and research questions Research purpose (1) Research purpose (1) Research purpose Research purpose Research model (2) Research model (2) Research model Research model Literature reviews (4) Literature reviews (4) Literature reviews Literature reviews Methodology (2) Methodology (2) Methodology Analysis and results (3) Analysis and results (3) Analysis and results Analysis and results Discussion and implications (4) Discussion and implications (4) Discussion and implications Discussion and implications Conclusions and recommendations (3) Conclusions and recommendations (3) Conclusions and recommendations Conclusions and recommendations Limitations and future research (2) Limitations and future research (2) Limitations and future research Limitations and future research Science & Engineering Introduction Introduction Research purpose Research purpose Research model and method Research model and method Analysis and results Analysis and results Conclusions Conclusions * Excluding figures and tables.

34 Copyright (c) E.Y.Li 342015/1/15 The Workflow of Publishing The research project process The research project process The publication process The publication process

35 Copyright (c) E.Y.Li 352015/1/15 The research project process Observation Observation Identify weakness Identify weakness Innovation/Idea Innovation/Idea Dormancy Dormancy Evaluation Evaluation Execution Execution Composition Composition Revisions Revisions Publishing Publishing Intelligence Intelligence Design Design Choice Choice Implementation Implementation Reviews Reviews Feedback Feedback

36 Copyright (c) E.Y.Li 362015/1/15 The publication process Identify reviewers (0-1 mo) Identify reviewers (0-1 mo) Submit paper for reviews (3-12 mo) Submit paper for reviews (3-12 mo) Respond to reviewers ’ comments (1-6 mo) Respond to reviewers ’ comments (1-6 mo) Revise the paper (1-3 mo) Revise the paper (1-3 mo) Resubmit the paper for reviews (1-3 mo) Resubmit the paper for reviews (1-3 mo) Format the paper (0-1 mo) Format the paper (0-1 mo) Typeset the paper (1-3 mo) Typeset the paper (1-3 mo) Proofread the galley pages (0-1 mo) Proofread the galley pages (0-1 mo) See the paper in print (6-18 mo) See the paper in print (6-18 mo) 1-3+ years

37 Copyright (c) E.Y.Li 372015/1/15 The Common Mistakes Title – catchy and capturing essence Title – catchy and capturing essence Abstract – persuasive and concise Abstract – persuasive and concise Paper body – size, structure, and flow Paper body – size, structure, and flow Paper body – size, structure, and flow Paper body – size, structure, and flow Copycat or problem is too trivial Copycat or problem is too trivial Citations look like a laundry list, e.g., [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9] Citations look like a laundry list, e.g., [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9] No theoretical or conceptual foundation No theoretical or conceptual foundation Analysis – no data validation, wrong methods Analysis – no data validation, wrong methods Managerial implications – practitioner sense, not academics Managerial implications – practitioner sense, not academics Grammatical and spelling errors – use a technical editor to edit your paper Grammatical and spelling errors – use a technical editor to edit your paper Procrastinate revisions – lost the timeliness Procrastinate revisions – lost the timeliness Small sample size – impossible to revise Small sample size – impossible to revise Responses to reviewers ’ comments – respect the reviewers Responses to reviewers ’ comments – respect the reviewers Responses to reviewers ’ comments – respect the reviewers Responses to reviewers ’ comments – respect the reviewers

38 2015/1/15 Copyright (c) E.Y.Li 38 Dimensions of Contribution 1. Problem 2. Context 3. Unit 4. Paradigm / Theory / Concept 5. Model ConstructConstruct OntologyOntology 6. Method 7. Data (number / text) 8. Time

39 Copyright (c) E.Y.Li 392015/1/15Abstract What is the problem? What is the problem? Why it is important? Why it is important? How did you solve it? How did you solve it? What have you found? What have you found? What do you recommend? What do you recommend?

40 Copyright (c) E.Y.Li 402015/1/15Introduction What is the current “ worldwide ” condition related to your topic? What is the current “ worldwide ” condition related to your topic? What are the problems/research gaps? What are the problems/research gaps? Why it is important to overcome the problems/research gaps? Why it is important to overcome the problems/research gaps? What do you plan to do? What do you plan to do? What is the organization of your paper? What is the organization of your paper?

41 Research Purposes Define the scope of your paper Define the scope of your paper E.g., This paper attempts to investigate ….E.g., This paper attempts to investigate …. Itemize the purposes of your research. Itemize the purposes of your research. E.g., The purposes of this paper are to: (1) survey …., (2) report …., (3) compare ….E.g., The purposes of this paper are to: (1) survey …., (2) report …., (3) compare ….

42 Copyright (c) E.Y.Li 422015/1/15 Research Model Source: Voss, G.B. Formulating interesting research questions. Academy of Marketing Science. Journal, 31(3), Summer 2003, pp. 356-359. Linkage Between Constructs (Ontology) Core Concepts (Constructs) Reinforced Changed Same Incremental Innovation Replicate results for the focal relationship(s) in a new context Replicate results for the focal relationship(s) in a new context Extend by adding peripheral construct(s) Extend by adding peripheral construct(s) Modular Innovation Define, measure, or analyze one or more core constructs in a new way Different Architectural Innovation Examine a new situation or context in which the nature of the focal relationship(s) may be different Examine a new situation or context in which the nature of the focal relationship(s) may be different Examine the role of a new construct that may moderate the nature of the focal relationship(s) Examine the role of a new construct that may moderate the nature of the focal relationship(s) Radical Innovation Introduce a new conceptualization that replaces and changes how we think of the old construct(s) and relationship(s)

43 Architectural Innovation Source: http://www.people.umass.edu/aizen/tpb.htmlhttp://www.people.umass.edu/aizen/tpb.html Behavioral beliefs Attitude toward the behavior IntentionBehaviorNormative beliefs Subjective norm Control beliefs Perceived behavioral control Actual behavioral control

44 Copyright (c) E.Y.Li 442015/1/15 Radical Innovation Information synergy Innovativeness IT capability IT knowledge IT operations IT objects Information dissemination Information responsiveness Shared interpretation ProductProcessPersonnelService H1 H2 H3

45 Copyright (c) E.Y.Li 452015/1/15 Literature Reviews Construct A Construct B Construct C Construct D Research Purpose Topjournalarticles

46 Copyright (c) E.Y.Li 462015/1/15 Literature Reviews Describe Describe –Which citation? What method? What data? What major findings? –Example –IS success:  Li (1997) surveyed 400 IS managers and collected 123 usable samples. He revealed that ……, and that …….  DeLone and McLean (2003) ……………… –Behavioral intention:  Davis (1989) ………………………  Ajzen (1991) …………….

47 Copyright (c) E.Y.Li 472015/1/15 Literature Reviews Summarize Summarize – citations, purpose, subjects, constructs, findings CitationSampleOCB dimensionsEffectiveness operationalizedFindings (direction of significant correlation) a Dunlop & Lee [19] 36 fast food restaurants in Australia OCB directed toward organization (OCBO) Supervisor rating of business unit performance (BP) Counter service time (CT) Drive through service time (DT) Unexplained food figures (UF) OCBO  BP (+) OCBO  CT (ns) OCBO  DT (ns) OCBO  UF (ns) Ehrhart, Bliese, & Thomas [20] 2403 soldiers in 31 military units Helping behavior at unit-level Combat readiness (CR) Physical fitness (PF) Award rate (AR) M16 range scores (MR) Helping  CR (ns) Helping  PF (+) Helping  AR (+) Helping  MR (+) Koys [35]28 stores in regional restaurant chain Aggregated OCBCustomer satisfaction (CS) Profitability after controllable expenses (PF) OCB  CS (+) OCB  PF (+) Podsakoff & MacKenzie [55] 116 insurance agency units Helping Civic virtue (CV) Sportsmanship (Sport) A: Index of sales performance (SP) Helping  SP (-) CV  SP (+) Sport  SP (+)

48 Copyright (c) E.Y.Li 482015/1/15 Literature Reviews Synthesize - Constructs Synthesize - Constructs Research variable No. of items Sources IT competency** IT knowledge IT operations IT objects 15 Tippins and Sohi, 2003 [62] Information synergy* Information dissemination 3 Tippins and Sohi, 2003 [62]; Information responsiveness 4 Gefen and Ridings, 2002 [25] Ridings, 2002 [45] Shared interpretation 2 Tippins and Sohi, 2003 [62] Innovativeness*Product3 Garcia and Calantone, 2002[24] Subramanian and Nilakanta, 1996[57] Totterdell, et al., 2002[63] Process5 Garcia and Calantone, 2002[24] Subramanian and Nilakanta, 1996[57] Personnel5 Totterdell, et al., 2002[63] Service3 Garcia and Calantone, 2002[24] *Components are newly constructed and questionnaire items are adapted from different sources. **Questionnaire items are mainly adopted from Tippins and Sohi [42]

49 Copyright (c) E.Y.Li 492015/1/15 Literature Reviews Synthesize - Linkages Synthesize - Linkages Source: DeLone, W.H. and McLean, E. R. “The DeLone and McLean Model of Information Systems Success: A Ten-Year Update,” Journal of Management Information Systems, Spring 2003, Vol. 19, No. 4, pp. 9–30..

50 Copyright (c) E.Y.Li 502015/1/15Methodology Subjects Subjects –What are your sample subjects? Why do you choose these subjects? How did you collect the data? Why do you choose the way you do it? What is the profile of your population and samples? Measurement/questionnaire Measurement/questionnaire –What is your measurement instrument? How did you design it? What are the sources of your measurement? Pilot study Pilot study –How do you conduct pilot test? How do you modify your instrument? How do you know it is reliable and valid. Procedure Procedure –How will you analyze the data? Why did you choose these methods? What is the sequence of analyses?

51 Copyright (c) E.Y.Li 512015/1/15 Quantitative Analysis (1) Data representativeness Data representativeness –Survey data Removal of outliers Removal of outliers Handling missing values Handling missing values Population representation Population representation Non-response bias Non-response bias Common method bias Common method bias Reliability Reliability Validities Validities –Simulation data Steady state Steady state Randomness Randomness Probability distributions Probability distributions Program/model correctness Program/model correctness

52 Copyright (c) E.Y.Li 522015/1/15 Quantitative Analysis (2) Popular Statistical methods Popular Statistical methods – Parametric methods Correlation analysis; Regression analysis Correlation analysis; Regression analysis Independent t-tests Independent t-tests Paired t-tests Paired t-tests ANOVA ANOVA MANOVA MANOVA Exploratory and confirmatory Factor analyses Exploratory and confirmatory Factor analyses Cluster analysis Cluster analysis Structural equation model (SEM) Structural equation model (SEM) Hierarchical linear model (HLM) Hierarchical linear model (HLM) – Non-parametric methods (N<30) Spearman Rho; Kendall Tau; Chi-square test Spearman Rho; Kendall Tau; Chi-square test Man-Whitney test; Wilcoxon ’ s rank sum test Man-Whitney test; Wilcoxon ’ s rank sum test Wilcoxon ’ s sign rank test; McNemar's Chi-square test Wilcoxon ’ s sign rank test; McNemar's Chi-square test Kruskal-Wallis analysis of ranks; Median test Kruskal-Wallis analysis of ranks; Median test Friedman's two-way analysis of variance Friedman's two-way analysis of variance Partial least square (PLS) Partial least square (PLS)

53 Copyright (c) E.Y.Li 532015/1/15 Quantitative Analysis (3) Commonly Used Statistical Tests Normal-distribution-based test Corresponding nonparametric test Purpose of test t test for independent samples Mann-Whitney U test; Wilcoxon rank-sum test Compares two independent samples Paired t test Wilcoxon matched pairs signed-rank test Examines a set of differences Pearson correlation coefficient Spearman rank correlation coefficient; Kendall Tau; Chi- square test Assesses the linear association between two variables. One way analysis of variance (F test) Kruskal-Wallis analysis of variance by ranks; Median test Compares three or more groups Two way analysis of variance Friedman Two Way analysis of variance Compares groups classified by two different factors Source: Adapted from Dallal, G.E. (2000) “ Nonparametric Statistics, ” http://www.jerrydallal.com/LHSP/npar.htm

54 Copyright (c) E.Y.Li 542015/1/15 Presenting Results Summarize your results in a table. Summarize your results in a table. Do not put too much data in a diagram; put them in a table. Do not put too much data in a diagram; put them in a table. Let the table or figure worth a thousand words. Let the table or figure worth a thousand words. Be brilliant in creating a table or figure. Be brilliant in creating a table or figure.

55 Copyright (c) E.Y.Li 552015/1/15 Discussion and Implications Discuss each finding, be it positive or negative. Discuss each finding, be it positive or negative. Compare it to the existing literature. Compare it to the existing literature. What does the finding imply? What does the finding imply? Explain the finding as a phenomenon in our life. Explain the finding as a phenomenon in our life.

56 Copyright (c) E.Y.Li 562015/1/15 Conclusions & Recommendations Re-iterate the importance of your study. Re-iterate the importance of your study. Synthesize your findings. Synthesize your findings. Based on your findings and implications, what would you recommend for both researchers and practitioners to do in the future? Based on your findings and implications, what would you recommend for both researchers and practitioners to do in the future? If possible, describe a “ best practice scenario ”. If possible, describe a “ best practice scenario ”.

57 Copyright (c) E.Y.Li 572015/1/15 Limitations & Future Research Sample bias. Sample bias. Self-reporting bias. Self-reporting bias. Common method bias. Common method bias. Cultural differences. Cultural differences. Gender and age differences. Gender and age differences. Time dependency. Time dependency. Not included variables. Not included variables. Not answered research questions. Not answered research questions.

58 Copyright (c) E.Y.Li 582015/1/15 Paper Body Avoid piecemealed sections Avoid piecemealed sections Adhere to the size (word count) limit Adhere to the size (word count) limit Delete unimportant sections Delete unimportant sections Eliminate repeated sentences Eliminate repeated sentences Always include “ Recommendations for Practice ” or “ Implications for Management ” section Always include “ Recommendations for Practice ” or “ Implications for Management ” section

59 Copyright (c) E.Y.Li 592015/1/15 Responses to reviewers ’ comments Avoid descriptive “ All in One ” response. Avoid descriptive “ All in One ” response. Use the following format: Use the following format: –Reviewer #1 –Comment #1: (Repeat first comment) –Response: (State how you take it) –Action: (State how you deal with it)

60 Copyright (c) E.Y.Li 602015/1/15 Reviewer #2: Comment #1: “ The case itself reads rather like a Masters project. There is little in it ……. ” RESPONSE:This case is not a Master thesis, it is a consulting project. We have never seen a planning framework like ours in the literature. We believe that with your constructive comments and our revisions, it has significant contribution to the existing literature. ACTION:None.

61 Copyright (c) E.Y.Li 612015/1/15 Comment #2: "....There is no evidence that the strategic plan provided value. No alternatives appear to have been considered. “ RESPONSE: The value of a strategic plan in itself is intangible and cannot be quantified. However, if some of the recommended application systems in the planning document are implemented and continuously used by the users, we would know that it provided value to the ABC bank. As indicated in the original paper (see "Step 6: Conclude the Project"), three of our recommended application systems were subsequently put in place three months after we concluded the planning project. Furthermore, I spoke informally with the bank's CEO recently and he told me the users have been “ very happy ” about the implemented systems. As for providing alternative plan, it is not a normal practice at the strategic level of IS plan, especially in a limited project time. We agree that if we were designing a system, we would need to provide alternatives because there are more than one way to implement a system. Furthermore, a strategic IS plan must link with the business plan. During the strategic planning process, we have constant input from the bank through its representatives in the planning team on the "no-technical" matters. This ensure the planning outputs closely adhere to the business plan. Since there was only one business plan at the ABC bank and one set of planning output requested by the CEO, we provided only one strategic IS plan. In fact, the content of our planning outputs does not dictate the way ABC bank implement the plan. It is very flexible and ABC can formulate various implementation plans according to our planning output. ACTION: A paragraph has been added in the “ Conclusion and Recommendation ” section indicating that the users are satisfied with the implemented systems. The paragraph states: "The users, both managers and staff, have been very satisfied with the implemented systems. These systems have improved not only the processes of top management's decision making and resource allocation but also the quality of customer service. All these help attract more customers to use the bank's services."

62 Copyright (c) E.Y.Li 622015/1/15 Recommendations Record and review your ideas Record and review your ideas Fill up your pipeline Fill up your pipeline Know what the journal wants (criteria, style) Know what the journal wants (criteria, style) Know what the journal wants Know what the journal wants Start with lower-tier SCI journal Start with lower-tier SCI journal Track the submission progress Track the submission progress Turn conference papers into journal papers Turn conference papers into journal papers Need to train yourself (single author) Need to train yourself (single author) Work together, not alone Work together, not alone Consult with top researcher Consult with top researcher Learn how to write Learn how to write Know the editors Know the editors Know the acceptance rate of the journal Know the acceptance rate of the journal Find the journals that need papers Find the journals that need papers Try to cite the target journal in your paper Try to cite the target journal in your paper Never send the same paper to two or more journals at the same time (code of ethics) Never send the same paper to two or more journals at the same time (code of ethics) Where there is a will, there is a way Where there is a will, there is a way Where there is a will, there is a way Where there is a will, there is a way

63 Copyright (c) E.Y.Li 632015/1/15 CACM Review Criteria General interest articles (3,000 words maximum) cover material of substance and emphasize concepts and principles. An article sets the background, defines fundamental concepts, compares alternate approaches, and explains the significance or application of a particular technology or result by means of well- reasoned text and pertinent graphical material (3 figures and 3 tables maximum). Reference lists (12 references maximum) should indicate the most significant items supporting and substantiating the article; all listed references must be cited within the text of the article. Submissions in this category are reviewed for 1) technical accuracy, 2) importance to the field, 3) appropriateness to the audience, and 4) effectiveness of style and presentation.

64 Copyright (c) E.Y.Li 642015/1/15 TQMJ/IJEB Review Criteria 1. This paper is based on rigorous academic standards. 2. This paper is presented in a format which is accessible by practitioners. It focuses on justification, results and implementation; has readable style; technical material is in appendix. 3. The paper has clarity of presentation. It is well organised, clearly written. 4. The paper makes a significant contribution to the body of knowledge related to this Journal. It is highly significant, breaks new ground, and provides a foundation for future research. 5. The topic of this paper is relevant, timely, and of interest to the audience of this journal. 6. The rationale for the paper is well grounded. It is based on a known theory or on an interesting issue. 7. The research methodology for the study is appropriate and applied properly. 8. The material of this paper is technically accurate and sound. 9. If this paper is a survey, it provides strong evidence of reliability and validity of the constructs. 10. Discussion of the results is based on analysis of data; results aren't overstated or overgeneralized 11. Implications and recommendations for management are relevant and useful.

65 Copyright (c) E.Y.Li 652015/1/15 1. 1993.09.16 Annals of Operations Research ( “ Follow-up evaluation of the performance of Taiwan forests after reorganization ” ) ( “ Follow-up evaluation of the performance of Taiwan forests after reorganization ” ) 1994.05.27 Rejection 1994.05.27 Rejection 2. 1994.10.11 J. Operational Research Society 11.11 Recommend sending to OR Insight 11.11 Recommend sending to OR Insight 3. 1994.11.23 European J. Operational Research ( “ Evaluation of efficiency changes: a case of Taiwan forests ” ) ( “ Evaluation of efficiency changes: a case of Taiwan forests ” ) 1996.01.24 Revision (give up) 1996.01.24 Revision (give up) Prof. Dr. Gao ’ s Submission Log

66 Copyright (c) E.Y.Li 662015/1/15 4. 1996.02.12 J. Environmental Management ( “ Follow-up evaluation of the performance of Taiwan forests after reorganization ” ) ( “ Follow-up evaluation of the performance of Taiwan forests after reorganization ” ) 09.23 Rejection 09.23 Rejection 5. 1996.11.04 Omega, Int. J. Management Science ( “ Data envelopment analysis for measuring efficiency changes: a case of Taiwan forests ” ) ( “ Data envelopment analysis for measuring efficiency changes: a case of Taiwan forests ” ) 1997.03.06 Revision (1st) 1997.03.06 Revision (1st) 06.16 Revision (2nd) 06.16 Revision (2nd) 06.30 Revision (3rd) 06.30 Revision (3rd) 08.16 Revision (4th) 08.16 Revision (4th) 10.04 Revision (5th) 10.04 Revision (5th) 11.04 Revision (6th) 11.04 Revision (6th) 11.25 Rejection 11.25 Rejection

67 Copyright (c) E.Y.Li 672015/1/15 6. 1999.07.20 Forest Science ( “ Measuring the performance improvement of Taiwan forests after reorganization ” ) ( “ Measuring the performance improvement of Taiwan forests after reorganization ” ) 11.16 Revision 11.16 Revision 2000.05.01 Acceptance 2000.05.01 Acceptance Where there is a good paper, there is a journal (to publish) !

68 Potential Journal Targets International Journal of Electronic Business (IJEB) - EI International Journal of Internet and Enterprise Management (IJIEM) - EI International Journal of Internet Marketing and Advertising (IJIMA) - EI International Journal of Information and Computer Security (IJICS) - EI MIS Review (MISR) Journal of Information Management (JIM) - TSSCI

69 Copyright (c) E.Y.Li 692015/1/15


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