Presentation on theme: "Lifestyle and Cancer:. Lifestyle and Cancer: Chris Lewis, M.D. Lela Lewis, M.D., M.P.H. Lifestyle and Cancer: Chris Lewis, M.D. Lela Lewis, M.D., M.P.H."— Presentation transcript:
4Lifestyle and Cancer: What can be done? Chris Lewis, M.D.Lela Lewis, M.D., M.P.H.
5NOTE:CAUTION: These talks are for your information only and do not serve to create a doctor-patient relationship, if you are ill or on medication and wish to significantly change your lifestyle you should do so under the direction of your regular physician.
6OUTLINE Briefly review pathogenetic factors in oncogenesis. Describe the influence of lifestyle on cancer incidence.Explore lifestyle's impact on cancer survival.
7Statistics 476,009 cancer deaths 450,637 deaths from heart disease As of January 2005, cancer deaths outnumbered deaths from heart diseaseIn individuals less than 85yo476,009 cancer deaths450,637 deaths from heart diseaseAmerican Cancer Society. Cancer Statistics Available at: Accessed January 2005.
8StatisticsEstimated 1,372,910 new diagnoses of cancer last year, and 570,260 deaths from cancer.American Cancer Society. Cancer Statistics Available at: Accessed January 2005.
9Cancer DeathsWomenMenLungBreastColon and RectumProstatePancreas
102006 Estimated US Cancer Deaths* Men 291,270Women 273,560Lung & bronchus 31%Colon & rectum 10%Prostate 9%Pancreas 6%Leukemia 4%Liver & intrahepatic 4% bile ductEsophagus 4%Non-Hodgkin % lymphomaUrinary bladder 3%Kidney %All other sites %26% Lung & bronchus15% Breast10% Colon & rectum6% Pancreas6% Ovary4% Leukemia3% Non-Hodgkin lymphoma3% Uterine corpus2% Multiple myeloma2% Brain/ONS23% All other sitesLung cancer is, by far, the most common fatal cancer in men (31%), followed by colon & rectum (10%), and prostate (9%). In women, lung (26%), breast (15%), and colon & rectum (10%) are the leading sites of cancer death.ONS=Other nervous system.Source: American Cancer Society, 2006.
11Common Cancers Lung cancer #1 killer: 163,500 estimated deaths for 2005.Prostate Cancer most common cancer in men:>232,000 men are expected to be diagnosed with prostate cancerBreast cancer most common cancer in women:>211,000 women are expected to be diagnosed with breast cancer this year.American Cancer Society. Cancer Statistics Available at: Accessed January 2005.
12Cancer TrendsProstate and female breast cancer rates have continued to rise.Lung cancer incidence in men continues to decrease in men.In women, lung cancer rates have been increasing for past years but are finally leveling off.Jemal A, et al. CA Cancer J Clin 2005;55: Cancer Statistics.
13Cancer Incidence Rates* for Men, 1975-2002 Rate Per 100,000ProstateLungBetween 1988 and 1992, prostate cancer incidence rates increased dramatically due to earlier diagnosis with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) blood testing, after increasing steadily from 1975 to Incidence rates for both lung and colorectal cancers in men have declined in recent years.Colon and rectumUrinary bladderNon-Hodgkin lymphomaMelanoma of the skin*Age-adjusted to the 2000 US standard population.Source: Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program, , Division of Cancer Control andPopulation Sciences, National Cancer Institute, 2005.
14Cancer Incidence Rates* for Women, 1975-2002 Rate Per 100,000BreastIn women, breast cancer incidence rates increased rapidly in the 1980s due to increased use of mammography and have increased gradually since that time. During the most recent time period ( ), incidence rates of lung cancer have leveled off, while rates of colorectal cancer have decreased.Colon and rectumLungUterine CorpusOvaryNon-Hodgkin lymphoma*Age-adjusted to the 2000 US standard population.Source: Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program, , Division of Cancer Control andPopulation Sciences, National Cancer Institute, 2005.
15Causes 1/3 of all cancers are related to smoking 1/3 of cancers related to poor diet, lack of exercise, and obesity.American Cancer Society. Cancer Statistics Available at: Accessed January 2005.
18Inherited Mutations P53 tumor suppressor Li-Fraumeni Syndrome cell cycle regulation, apoptosisbrain tumors, sarcomas, leukemia, breast cancerAPC tumor suppressorFamilial Adenomatous Polyposissignaling through adhesion molecules to nucleuscolon cancerBRCA1 tumor suppressorFamilial Breast Cancerrepair of double strand breaks by association with Rad51 proteinbreast and ovarian cancerMSH2 and MLH1 tumor suppressorsHereditary Nonpolyposis Colorectal Cancer type 1 (HNPCC1)DNA mismatch repaircolorectal cancerRET proto-oncogeneMultiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 2transmembrane receptor tyrosine kinase for glial-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF)medullary thyroid cancer, type 2A pheochromocytoma, mucosal hartoma
19Inherited mutationsThe mutation can be passed from generation to generation.This type of mutation is a major factor for only 5% to 10% of cancers.
20Acquired mutations 90-95% of cancers are caused by acquired mutations. These types of mutations, unless they occur in germ cells, cannot be passed on to one’s children.
21The Guard P53 tumor suppressor gene The p53 protein senses DNA damage and can halt progression of the cell cycle in G1.The p53 protein is also a key player in apoptosis.Kimball, JW. Acquired February, 2005.
22The GuardBoth copies of the p53 gene must be mutated for this to fail so mutations in p53 are recessive.Cells which contain only mutant versions of the protein can live on — potentially developing into a cancer.More than half of all human cancers have p53 mutations and have no functioning p53 protein.Kimball, JW. Acquired February, 2005.Science 266: , Cell Cycle Control and Cancer
23DNA DamageMutations occur when genes encoding cell cycle controlling proteins are damaged.
25Inflammation Leads to DNA Mutation Inflammatory cells produce reactive oxygen and nitrogen species.Oxidative and nitrative DNA damage from inflammatory processes lead to carcinogenesis.Kawanishi S, et al. Biol Chem Apr;387(4): Oxidative and nitrative DNA damage in animals and patients with inflammatory diseases in relation to inflammation-related carcinogenesis.Ness RB, et al. J Natl Cancer Inst Sep 1;91(17): Possible role of ovarian epithelial inflammation in ovarian cancer.
26Colon Cancer and Inflammation 90% of Colon cancer is due to inflammation from:Oxidizing free radicals in the diet (e.g. heated oil)Reactive oxygen and nitrogen molecules (Nitric oxide) from immune cellsAnything which slows passage of digested food through the colon (low-fiber diet)These cause DNA mutations in genes such as p53 and other DNA repair genes resulting ultimately in Cancer.Itzkowitz SH and Yio X. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol Jul;287(1):G7-17. Inflammation and cancer IV. Colorectal cancer in inflammatory bowel disease: the role of inflammation.
27Autoimmune Disease and Cancer Autoimmune Inflammatory Bowel Disease (Crohn’s and Ulcerative Colitis) is accociated with increased rates of colon cancer.Itzkowitz SH and Yio X. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol Jul;287(1):G7-17. Inflammation and cancer IV. Colorectal cancer in inflammatory bowel disease: the role of inflammation.
28Inflammation and Gastric Cancer Stomach inflammation caused by:Salted foods (>3 gm Na/day)Pickled foodsSmoked foodsA high-fat, low-fiber dietAll of these are associated with increased incidence of stomach cancerNaylor GM, et al. Gut Apr 7. Why does Japan have a high incidence of gastric cancer? A comparison of gastritis between UK and Japanese patients.Ernst P. Aliment Pharmacol Ther Mar;13 Suppl 1:13-8. Review article: the role of inflammation in the pathogenesis of gastric cancer.
29Prostate Inflammation and Cancer Prostate inflammation/prostatitis is now known to be linked to prostate tumorigenesis.Nelson WG, et al. J Urol Nov;172(5 Pt 2):S6-11; discussion S11-2. The role of inflammation in the pathogenesis of prostate cancer.Sugar LM. Can J Urol Feb;13 Suppl. Inflammation and prostate cancer.
30Inflammation and Ovarian Cancer Epidemiologic data relates pelvic inflammatory disease with ovarian cancer.Ness RB, et al. J Natl Cancer Inst Sep 1;91(17): Possible role of ovarian epithelial inflammation in ovarian cancer.Ness RB, et al. Epidemiology Mar;11(2): Factors related to inflammation of the ovarian epithelium and risk of ovarian cancer.
31Metabolic Syndrome and Cancer Study of 1,800 women57% of total calories from carbohydrates linked to a 220% increased risk of breast cancerLink discovered between refined carbohydrates and breast cancerSecondary to rapid rise in insulin.High levels of insulin support rapid growth of tumors.J of Cancer Epidemiology, 2005
33Antioxidants Antioxidants protect DNA by neutralizing free radicals. Vitamins C, E and beta-carotene are antioxidants naturally found in fruits, grains, nuts and vegetables.The minerals selenium and zinc:Improve immune functionProtect against oxidation and DNA damage
34A Last Line of Defense:Natural killer and other immune cells fight cancer by targeting and destroying cells that have undergone malignant degeneration.
35What Can We do?In addition to early cancer detection and prompt treatment, what else can be done to help prevent and fight cancer?
36If you are tired of worrying about cancer You want rest . . .
49Dehydration and Cancer Dehydration increases the risk for cancers of the breast, colon, and urinary tract.Decrease risk of cancer by drinking 8 glasses of water each day.Kleiner SM. J Am Diet Assoc 1999 Apr; 99(4):411. Water: an essential but overlooked nutrient.Manz F, and Wentz A Nutr Rev Jun;63(6 Pt 2):S2-5. The importance of good hydration for the prevention of chronic diseases.
51Air Pollution and Breast Cancer Women born in areas of New York with high concentrations of air pollution are 2.4 times as likely to develop breast cancer.Bonner MR, et al. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev Jan;14(1): Breast cancer risk and exposure in early life to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons using total suspended particulates as a proxy measure.
52Air Pollution and Throat Cancer Ozone, a common air pollutant, significantly increases laryngeal cancer.Pereira FA, et al. J Air Waste Manag Assoc Jan;55(1):83-7. Influence of air pollution on the incidence of respiratory tract neoplasm.
53Air Pollution and Cancer Diesel exhaust stimulates increased concentrations of cytokines.Results in inflammationUltimately results in DNA damage and lung cancer.Mutat Res Aug 8;562(1-2): Inflammatory and genotoxic effects of diesel particles in vitro and in vivo.
54Fetal Exposure to Diesel Exhaust Causes Cancer Crosses the placentaCauses DNA deletions in mice fetusesFetal cells divide rapidlyRESULT: Increases risk of cancerTAKE HOME POINT: Diesel exhaust in utero puts the fetus at risk.Reliene, R, et al. Mutat Res Mar 1;570(2): Diesel exhaust particles cause increased levels of DNA deletions after transplacental exposure in mice.
55Radon Deaths in USAU.S. Environgmental Protection Agency. Obtained 21 March, 2005.* Radon is estimated to cause about 21,000 lung cancer deaths per year, according to EPA's 2003 Assessment of Risks from Radon in Homes (EPA 402-R ). The numbers of deaths from other causes are taken from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Center for Injury Prevention and Control Report and 2002 National Safety Council Reports.
56Fresh Air in Every Room... To Avoid Radon Studies show that residential radon is the second leading cause of lung cancer death.Radon enters the home from the groundThe principal source of exposure to ionizing radiation in most countries.Pershagen G N Engl J Med Jan 20;330(3): Residential radon exposure and lung cancer in Sweden.Lubin JH, et al. Int J Cancer Mar;109(1): Risk of lung cancer and residential radon in China: pooled results of two studies.Krewski D, et al. Epidemiology Mar;16(2): Residential Radon and Risk of Lung Cancer: A Combined Analysis of 7 North American Case-Control Studies.
57Take-home Points: RID YOUR HOUSE OF RADON and Air Pollution As far as possible get fresh airEvery room in the house should have fresh air.Open your windowsWalk in open, fresh air
60Western Diet increases Breast Cancer Asian countries, such as Japan, have low rates of breast cancer, while Western countries have breast cancer rates that are many times higher.When Japanese girls are raised on westernized diets, their rate of breast cancer increases dramatically.Armstrong B, Doll R. Int J Cancer 1975;15: Environmental factors and cancer incidence and mortality in different countries, with special reference to dietary practices.Hirayama T. Prev Med 1978;7: Epidemiology of breast cancer with special reference to the role of diet.McCann SE, et al. Int J Cancer Sep 1;111(3): Dietary lignan intakes and risk of pre- and postmenopausal breast cancer.Freudenheim JL, et al. J Natl Cancer Inst Mar 20;88(6): Premenopausal breast cancer risk and intake of vegetables, fruits, and related nutrients.Creton S, et al. Toxicol Sci Jan 5. A mechanistic basis for the role of cycle arrest in the genetic toxicology of the dietary carcinogen 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIPWeisburger JH. J Am Diet Assoc Jul;97(7 Suppl):S Dietary fat and risk of chronic disease: mechanistic insights from experimental studies.
61High Fat Diet Increases Risk for Most Common Cancers High dietary fat increases the risk of prostate cancerDiets high in animal fat significantly increases the risk for breast cancer.Fleshner, N., et.al. Dietary Fat and Prostate Cancer. Journal of Urology. 6/11/2004Armstrong B, and Doll R. Int J Cancer 1975;15: Environmental factors and cancer incidence and mortality in different countries, with special reference to dietary practices.Dietary fat and mammary carcinogenesis. Rose DP, et al. International comparisons of mortality rates for cancer of the breast, ovary, prostate, and colon, and per capita food consumption. Cancer 1986;58:
62Help your body fight cancer with a Low Saturated Fat Diet In post-menopausal women, the higher the saturated fat in the diet:The shorter the breast cancer survivalThe higher the rate of metastasisTake Home Point: Improve Cancer Survival by decreasing dietary fat.Verreault R, Brisson J, Deschenes L, Naud F, Meyer F, Belanger L. Dietary fat in relation to prognostic indicators in breast cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst 1988;80:Jaiswal McEligot A, et al. Nutr Cancer. 2006;55(2): Dietary fat, fiber, vegetable, and micronutrients are associated with overall survival in postmenopausal women diagnosed with breast cancer.
63Help your body fight cancer with a High-fiber, Vegetable-rich Diet In post-menopausal women, the higher the fiber and vegetable content:The longer the breast cancer survivalTake Home Point: Improve Cancer Survival by increasing dietary vegies.Jaiswal McEligot A, et al. Nutr Cancer. 2006;55(2): Dietary fat, fiber, vegetable, and micronutrients are associated with overall survival in postmenopausal women diagnosed with breast cancer.
64Help your body fight cancer by Losing weight while eating a low-fat diet Women in the highest tertile of BMI had a 1.9-fold higher risk of dying from their breast cancer compared with those at the lowest tertile.2.0-fold higher risk for the highest tertiles of total fat, saturated fat, and monounsaturated fat intake.Zhang S, et al. Cancer 1995 Jul 15;76(2): Better breast cancer survival for postmenopausal women who are less overweight and eat less fat. The Iowa Women's Health Study.
65Good Fats Lower Risk of Cancer Omega 3-oils prevent cancer.Best source of omega 3 oils:Flax seed, walnuts, olive oil
66Cooking Meat and Cancer Cooking meat produces the dietary carcinogen 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP).RESULT: Mutates DNA until p53 overwhelmed.FINAL RESULT: Prostate, Colon and Breast cancer.Creton S, et al. Toxicol Sci Jan 5. A mechanistic basis for the role of cycle arrest in the genetic toxicology of the dietary carcinogen 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP).
67Plant Food versus MeatCancers of the colon and prostate are nearly 2x as common in non-vegetarians vs. vegetarians.Frequent beef consumers also have higher risk of bladder cancer.Fraser GE. Am J Clin Nutr Sep;70(3 Suppl):532S-538S. Associations between diet and cancer, ischemic heart disease, and all-cause mortality in non-Hispanic white California Seventh-day Adventists.
68Meat Increases risk of Colon Cancer A diet rich in meat increases growth of clostridium bacteria.Convert primary bile acids to carcinogenic secondary bile acidsRESULT: Higher rates of Colon CancerPai R, et al. Mol Biol Cell May;15(5): Epub 2004 Mar 5. Deoxycholic acid activates beta-catenin signaling pathway and increases colon cell cancer growth and invasiveness.Kitahara M, et al. Microbiol Immunol. 2001;45(3): PCR detection method of Clostridium scindens and C. hiranonis in human fecal samples.Rastall RA. J Nutr Aug;134(8 Suppl):2022S-2026S. Bacteria in the gut: friends and foes and how to alter the balance.
69FIBER FUN: Fiber speeds the passage of food through the colon. Fiber promotes growth of healthy gut bacteriaReduces production of carcinogenic bile acids.World Cancer Research Fund. American Institute of Cancer Research. Washington, DC: Food, Nutrition, and the Prevention of Cancer: A Global Perspective.
70Milk Increases Prostrate Cancer Risk Numerous studies show that:Milk consumption significantly increases the risk of prostate cancerQin, Li-Qiang, et.al., Milk Consumption Is a Risk Factor for Prostate Cancer: Meta-Analysis of Case-Control Studies. 5/07/04. Journal: Nutrition and Cancer. 48 (1):
71Soy Milk an Alternative to COWS MILK Lowers RISK OF PROSTATE CANCER!!! Soy Isoflavanoids are antioxidantsSoy lowers the risk of prostate cancerShown to slow cancer progression
73Legumes and Fruit Protective Legumes (peas, lentils, garbanzos (chick peas), kidney beans…) decrease risk of colon and pancreatic cancer.Fresh and dried fruit lower risk of Lung, Prostate, and Pancreatic cancers.Fraser GE. Am J Clin Nutr Sep;70(3 Suppl):532S-538S. Associations between diet and cancer, ischemic heart disease, and all-cause mortality in non-Hispanic white California Seventh-day Adventists.
74Fruits and Vegetables and Pancreatic Cancer Prevention Prospective cohort of 36,616 women and 45,306 men.Subjects with the highest amount of dietary folate intake were 75% less likely to develop pancreatic cancer.NO benefit from folate suplement or folate-fortified foods!Journal of the National Cancer Institute 2006;(98):
75Black Beans Help Fight Cancer Chemicals known as tannins found in black-bean inhibit colon, breast and prostate cell proliferation.TAKE HOME POINT: Eat your black beans and FIGHT CANCER GROWTH.Cancer Lett Feb 10;218(2): Inhibition of Caco-2 colon, MCF-7 and Hs578T breast, and DU 145 prostatic cancer cell proliferation by water-soluble black bean condensed tannins.
76Foods that Fight the Growth of Prostate Cancer AvocadoInhibits prostate cancer cell growthPomegranatesSuppress prostate cell growth proliferationQing-Yi, Lu, et.al. Inhibition of prostate cancer cell growth by an avocado extract: role of lipid-soluble bioactivity. Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry. 16(1). 1/29/05.Pomegranate Extracts Potently Suppress Proliferation, Xenograft Growth… Journal of Medicinal food. 4/12/2004, 7(3);
77Antioxidants Lower Risk of Breast Cancer Antioxidants stabilize DNA.5 Servings of Fruits and Vegetables per day lower the risk of Breast Cancer.Best results with fruits and vegetables high in Vitamin A and vitamin C.Zhang S, et al. J Natl Cancer Inst Mar 17; 91(6): Dietary carotenoids and vitamins A, C, and E and risk of breast cancer.
78Raw versus CookedRaw vegetables high in antioxidants vitamin C, folate, β-carotene, and zinc decrease risk of breast cancer.However: Cooked vegetables do not protect DNA Breast CancerTake Home Point: As far as possible eat raw vegetables and fruits and LOWER risk of CANCER.Adzersen KH, et al. Nutr Cancer. 2003;46(2): Raw and cooked vegetables, fruits, selected micronutrients, and breast cancer risk: a case-control study in Germany.
79Do Antioxidant Supplements lower the risk of Breast Cancer? NO!Vitamin A, C, E supplements do NOT prevent breast cancer.Take Home Point: Help your body prevent cancer by using whole fruits and vegetables.Freudenheim JL, et al. J Natl Cancer Inst Mar 20;88(6): Premenopausal breast cancer risk and intake of vegetables, fruits, and related nutrients.
80Plant Based Diet Lignans are found in plant products. Elevated dietary amounts associated with lowered risk of breast cancer.Lignans lower estrogen.Take Home Point: Elevated lignans prevent breast cancer.McCann SE, et al. Int J Cancer Sep 1;111(3): Dietary lignan intakes and risk of pre- and postmenopausal breast cancer.
81Pickling and Spices Increase the Risk of Stomach Cancer Pickling with vinegarSalt in high quantities > 3g/day increase the risk of stomach and intestinal cancerErnst P. Aliment Pharmacol Ther Mar;13 Suppl 1:13-8. Review article: the role of inflammation in the pathogenesis of gastric cancer.
82Take-home Message:The more closely your diet resembles the original diet in Eden, of fresh fruits, grains, nuts, and vegetables, the lower your risk of cancer.(Genesis 1:29)
84Alcohol is Damaging Alcohol increases DNA mutations: RESULT: Increased risk of cancer of the lip, mouth, throat, larynx and esophagus.More than additive risk when combined with tobacco.National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) (2001). Australian Alcohol Guidelines: Health Risks and Benefits. NHMRC, Canberra.
85Alcohol increases Liver Cancer Alcohol and other causes of hepatitis increase the risk of liver cancer.O'shea RS, McCullough AJ. Clin Liver Dis Feb;9(1): Treatment of alcoholic hepatitis.
86Alcohol Raises Stomach Cancer Risk Alcoholic gastritis increases stomach cancer risk.Xiang Z, Si JM, Huang HD. World J Gastroenterol Nov 1;10(21): Chronic gastritis rat model and role of inducing factors.
87Alcohol Causes Pancreatitis Alcohol is the #1 cause of pancreatitis, a precursor to pancreatic cancer.Smoking, alcohol, daily baby aspirin, and a low folate diet are the only known risk factors for pancreatic cancer.Suspected causes include physical inactivity, pesticide exposure, and refined carbohydrate.Jura N, et al. Cell Res Jan;15(1):72-7. Chronic pancreatitis, pancreatic adenocarcinoma and the black box in-between.Michaud DS. Minerva Chir Apr;59(2): Epidemiology of pancreatic cancer.Schuermhamer, E. A prospective study of ASA use and the risk of pancreatic Cancer in women. National Cancer institute ; 96;22-28.Journal of the National Cancer Institute 2006;(98):
88Women are more sensitive to alcohol and tobacco Low-to-moderate use of alcohol increases risk of female breast cancer.TAKE HOME POINT: A glass of wine a day increases breast cancer risk.National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) (2001). Australian Alcohol Guidelines: Health Risks and Benefits. NHMRC, Canberra.Alcohol in Australia: Issues and Strategies. (2001) Commonwealth Department of Health and Aged Care, Canberra.Laslett A, Donath S, and Dietze P (2002). Long term consequences of alcohol consumption. In: National Alcohol Research Agenda. Commonwealth Department of Health and Ageing, Canberra.Single E, Ashley M, Bondy S, Rankin J and Rehm J (1999). Evidence Regarding the Level of Alcohol Consumption Considered to by Low-Risk for Men and Women. Commonwealth Department of Health and Aged Care, Canberra.
89Alcohol and Breast Cancer Women who consume more than 1 drink per day had 20% higher circulating estrogen levels compared with non-drinkers, which means higher risk of breast cancer.consumption of fruits, vegetables, and whole grains showed inverse associations with androstenedione levels.Maskarinec G, et al. Public Health Nutr Oct;9(7): Alcohol and dietary fibre intakes affect circulating sex hormones among premenopausal women.Kaaks R, et al. J Natl Cancer Inst May 18;97(10): Serum sex steroids in premenopausal women and breast cancer risk within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC).
90Tobacco Increases the Risk of the Following Cancers: LungOral CavityNasal CavitiesLarynxPharynxEsophagusStomachLiverPancreasKidneyBladderUterineCervixColonMyeloid LeukemiaUniversity of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center. acquired 3/05/05.
91Short Tobacco Smoke Exposure Tobacco smoke causes DNA deletionsResult: CANCERONLY 4 hours of intra-uteri cigarette smoke increases DNA deletions and cancer IN FETUSSecond-hand tobacco smoke causes the same cancers as first-hand smoke.TAKE HOME POINT: Completely avoid tobacco exposure, especially if pregnant.Jalili T, et al. Cancer Res Jun 15;58(12): Cigarette smoke induces DNA deletions in the mouse embryo.Husgafvel-Pursiainen K. Mutat Res Nov;567(2-3): Genotoxicity of environmental tobacco smoke: a review.
92Caffeine may increase risk of carcinogenesis Caffeine appears to deregulate cell cycle progression allowing cells with mutations to progress in the cell cycle.Qin J, et al. Anticancer Res Sep-Oct;24(5A): Down-regulation of cyclin E expression by caffeine promotes cancer cell entry into the S-phase of the cell cycle.
93BMI and Cancer RiskHigh Body Mass Index (BMI) raises risk of breast cancer.Central obesity increases pancreatic cancer.Patel AV, et al. Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers Prev Feb;14(2): Obesity, recreational physical activity, and risk of pancreatic cancer in a large u.s. Cohort.Shu XO, et al. Int J Cancer Nov 1;94(3): Association of body size and fat distribution with risk of breast cancer among Chinese women.
94Take-home Message: Practice Temperance: Avoid entirely substances harmful to the body and use judiciously those things which are beneficial.RESULT: Improved health and cancer prevention.
96Regular Sleep Decreases Cancer Regular sleep at night decreases risk of breast and colon cancer.Regular sleep increases melatonin, which is anti-estrogenicLeads to a normal cortisol cycleThis helps regulate cancer-fighting natural killer cells.Take Home Point: Improve sleep habits and lower cancer risk.Stanford University Medical Center. 2003 October 1: LINK BETWEEN SLEEP, CANCER PROGRESSION EXPLORED BY STANFORD RESEARCHER
97Get Dark SleepBeing totally blind = 36% lower risk of breast cancer in women.Early blindness in women is especially protective against breast cancer (49% lower risk than sighted women).Nighttime exposure to light interrupts melatonin secretion.British Journal of Cancer March 2001;84: Sleep In TOTAL Darkness to Decrease Cancer Risk
98Sleep in Total Darkness and Male Cancer Blind men had a lower incidence of prostate, stomach, colon, rectum, skin and lung cancers.Take Home Point: Sleep in total darkness and decrease cancer riskScience News October 17, :
99Night Shift Workers Nurses Health Study: Irregular hours of sleep in rotating shift workers were found to have increased risk of breast and colorectal cancer.TAKE HOME POINT: As far as possible get regular hours of sleep.Schernhammer ES, et al. J Natl Cancer Inst Oct 17;93(20): Rotating night shifts and risk of breast cancer in women participating in the nurses' health study. Comment in:J Natl Cancer Inst Oct 17;93(20):J Natl Cancer Inst Apr 3;94(7):530; author replyJ Natl Cancer Inst Apr 3;94(7):531-2; author replySchernhammer ES, et al. J Natl Cancer Inst Jun 4;95(11): Night-shift work and risk of colorectal cancer in the nurses' health study.
100Take-home Message:GET Regular Sleep at night, without light, and decrease the risk of multiple types of cancer.
102Exercise Lowers Risk of Breast Cancer STUDY: 72,608 women followed for five years; results showed that those women who were most physically active had 29% lower incidence of breast cancer.Patel AV, et al. Cancer Causes Control Aug;14(6): Recreational physical activity and risk of postmenopausal breast cancer in a large cohort of US women.
103Exercise Lowers Colon Cancer Risk Increasing hours of exercise directly lowered colon cancer risk.Exercise decreases inflammation by lowering prostaglandin E2 levels in colorectal mucosa.Chao A, et al. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev Dec;13(12): Amount, type, and timing of recreational physical activity in relation to colon and rectal cancer in older adults: the Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort.Martinez ME, et al. J Natl Cancer Inst Jun 2;91(11): Physical activity, body mass index, and prostaglandin E2 levels in rectal mucosa.
104Non-strenuous Exercise is Best Exercise need not be strenuous in order to see the anti-cancer benefit.McTiernan A, et al. JAMA Sep 10;290(10): Recreational physical activity and the risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal women: the Women's Health Initiative Cohort Study.Knight JA , et al. Am J Epidemiol Dec 1;162(11): Epub 2005 Oct 5. Light and exercise and melatonin production in women.
105Take-home Point:Exercise prevents cancer. It should be regular but need not be strenuous.Regular, brisk walking is ideal.
107Vitamin D and SunshineSunlight is necessary for the conversion of 7-dehydrocholesterol in the dermis to 25-hydroxycholecalciferol which is, in turn, converted to 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol by the kidneys.
108Vitamin D Prevents Cancer High levels of Vitamin D are associated with increased apoptosis in rectal epithelium.Take Home Point: Vitamin D helps the body rid itself of old or damaged cells so that they do not live on to become cancer.Miller EA, et al. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev Feb;14(2): Calcium, vitamin d, and apoptosis in the rectal epithelium.
109Sunshine Helps the Body Fight Cancer Vitamin D inhibits angiogenesis and adjacent tissue invasion.Lower rates of lung cancer metastasis.Nakagawa K, et al. Carcinogenesis Feb 17;22-oxa-1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 inhibits metastasis and angiogenesis in lung cancer.
110Sunshine Lowers Breast Cancer Risk Women with a Vitamin D gene mutation have 2X the risk of developing breast and other cancers.BBC News.
111Vitamin D and Breast Cancer Survival Norwegian StudyPremenopausal women diagnosed with breast cancer in the summer had a 15-25% lower relative risk of dying from their disease compared with those diagnosed during the winter.Porojnicu AC, et al. Breast Cancer Res Treat Sep 21; Changes in risk of death from breast cancer with season and latitude : Sun exposure and breast cancer survival in Norway.
112Vitamin D and Breast Cancer Survival Norwegian StudyThose living in the southeast region of the country with its 1.5X higher annual UV exposure also had a 25% lower RR of death.No benefit from Vitamin D food supplement during winter for northerners.Porojnicu AC, et al. Breast Cancer Res Treat Sep 21; Changes in risk of death from breast cancer with season and latitude : Sun exposure and breast cancer survival in Norway.
113Sunshine and Prostate Cancer Vitamin D has been shown to reduce cytokine-related inflammation associated with prostate cancer carcinogenesis.Nonn L, et al. Cancer Res Apr 15;66(8): Inhibition of p38 by vitamin D reduces interleukin-6 production in normal prostate cells via mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase 5: implications for prostate cancer prevention by vitamin D.
114Melatonin and Breast Cancer Melatonin has been found not only to neutralize the effects of estrogens on the breast, but also to block the local biosynthesis of estrogens from androgensSimilar effect to estrogen blocking medicationsCos S, et al. Cancer Detect Prev Apr 26. Estrogen-signaling pathway: A link between breast cancer and melatonin oncostatic actions.
115Melatonin and CancerMelatonin helps fight breast and colon cancer, and possibly cancers of the prostate, stomach, rectum, skin and lung.Early morning sunlight is particularly important for increased secretion of melatonin secretion at night.
118Mental and Physical Health Interact Mental stress raises inflammation:“To balance the immune system, one must balance the mind and emotions.”Inflammation increases cancerTake Home Point: Mental imbalane can increase the risk of cancer.TAKE HOME POINT: “A merry heart doeth good like a medicine, but a broken spirit drieth the bones.Veldhuijzen. Ann Rheum Dis Feb 11. Increased C reactive protein in response to acute stress in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.
119Spiritual Health (Faith) Helps the Body Fight Cancer Self-reported or perceived 'religiousness', as defined in the study was associated with a 30% improvement in cancer survival.Take Home Point: Improved spiritual health (trust) helps the body fight cancer.Kune GA, et al. J R Soc Med Nov;86(11): Perceived religiousness is protective for colorectal cancer: data from the Melbourne Colorectal Cancer Study.
120The Perfect TrianglePhysical, Mental and Spiritual Health work together to create “WHOLE PERSON HEALTH”When one aspect is defective or missing, then the other parts are affected.
121“Faith cometh by hearing and hearing by the word of God.” Romans 10:17
123In summary:Healthy choices in lifestyle can exhibit a great influence to decrease cancer incidence.Cancer survival can even be affected by healthy changes in diet and lifestyle.These principles can be remembered with the acronym, ‘W A N T R E S Ttm’.And Remember: Health Change is Progressive
124NOTE:CAUTION: These talks are for your information only and do not serve to create a doctor-patient relationship, if you are ill or on medication and wish to significantly change your lifestyle you should do so under the direction of your regular physician.
125Copyright 2006.Federal law and Christian ethics dictate that no part of this presentation may be reproduced or used in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, without permission of the publishers.