Presentation on theme: "Issues for Carbon dioxide Storage in India"— Presentation transcript:
1Issues for Carbon dioxide Storage in India SavePlanet EarthfromCO bombardment2Dr. B. KumarProject Adviser/ConsultantCarbon SequestrationNational Geophysical Research Institute, IndiaHyderabad , IndiaPh (Off.), (Mob.)Fax:
2What is CO2 storage ?CO2 storage/Carbon Sequestration is the placement of CO2 into a depository in such a way that it remains safely stored and not released to the atmosphere. The viable options are storage of CO2 into underground geological formations, oceans, terrestrial ecosystems and bio - sequestration.
3Issues for CO2 Storage in India R&D TechnologiesGeology & TectonicsProtocols, Mechanisms & Forums- Kyoto Protocol; Clean development Mechanism (CDM); Carbon sequestration Leadership Forum (CSLF); UN Framework Convention Treaty on Climate Changes (UNFCC), Asia Pacific Partnership on Clean Development and Climate (AP6) etc.- India has signed the Kyoto Protocol in 2003 but is not obliged to reduce the emission by 2012 as the per capita emission is very low (~1 metric ton /year). India is a member of CSLF, CDM, AP6 and also stands by UNFCC.Safety & EnvironmentEconomics- The current cost estimates range from 20 to 80 US$/tCO2 for capturing the CO2 and 5 to 20 US$/tCO2 for transportation and storage
4Ice cores indicate that in the past 420,000 years, the concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere has ranged from 180 to 280 parts per million by volume (ppmv). The current CO2 atmospheric concentration is ~375 ppmv; this dramatic increase is primarily the result of human combustion of fossil fuels (Modified after Falkowski and others, 2000).
5Projected Temperatures for the 21st Century Are Significantly Higher Than at Any Time During the Last 1000 Years
6Carbon dioxide emissions – 2002 Description : Carbon dioxide emissions: Anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions stemming stemming out from the burning of fossil fuels, gas flaring and the production of production of cementSource : UN Common Database (CDIAC)Category : EnvironmentYear : 2002Units : Giga Metric Tons5. 81.2
7INDIA Carbon dioxide emissions per capita Description : Carbon dioxide emissions per capita Anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions stemming from the burning of fossil fuels, gas flaring and the production of cement.Source : UN Common Database (CDIAC)Category : Environment Ranking : 54 (2002)Unit of measurement: Metric tons per capitaIndia has signed and ratified the Kyoto Protocol in2003 but is not obliged to cut emissions up to 2012.India is also a member of CSLF,CDM, AP6 & standsby UNFCC.(Tons CO2 perperson)INDIA
8Physical and geochemical processes that enhance storage security Geological StorageDeep underground formationsDepleted oil and gas reservoirsCoal bedsDeep Saline formationsIndustrially generated CO2 is pumped intodeep under ground formations anddissolves in the native formation fluids.Some of the dissolved CO2 wouldchemically react and become part ofsolid mineral/ coal matrix. Oncedissolved or reacted to formminerals, CO2 is no longer buoyant andwould not rise to the ground surface.Physical and geochemical processesthat enhance storage security
10Storage Security Mechanisms and Changes Over Time When the CO2 is injected, it forms a bubblearound the injection well, displacing the mobilewater laterally and vertically within the injectionhorizon.The interactions between the water and CO2phase allow geochemical trapping mechanismsto take effect.Over time, CO2 that is not immobilized byresidual CO2 trapping can react with in situ fluidto form carbonic acid i.e., H2CO3 called solubilitytrapping that dominates from tens to hundredsof years.Dissolved CO2 can eventually react withreservoir minerals if an appropriate mineralogyis encountered to form carbon-bearing ionicspecies i.e., HCO3– and CO32– called ionictrapping which dominates from hundreds tothousands of years.Further breakdown of these minerals couldprecipitate new carbonate minerals that wouldfix injected CO2 in its most secure state i.e.,mineral trapping which dominates overthousands to millions of years.Storage expressed as a combination of physical and geochemicaltrapping. The level of security is proportional to distance fromthe origin. Dashed lines are examples of million-year pathwaysSource: IPCC Report
11Potential CO2 storage reservoirs CO2 Stored in Geological FormationsPOWER PLANTCO2Potential CO2 storage reservoirs
12CO2 sequestration in depleted oil/gas reservoirs can enhance production of oil/gas. Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) can be either miscible or immiscible depending primarily on the pressure of the injection gas into the reservoir.Miscible phase: CO2-EOR, the CO2 mixes with the crude oil causing it to swell and reduce its viscosity, whilst also increasing or maintaining reservoir pressure. The combination of these processes enables more of the crude oil in the reservoir to flow freely to the production wells from which it can be recovered.Immiscible phase: CO2-EOR, the CO2 is used to re-pressure the reservoir and as a sweep gas, to move the oil towards the production well.CO2 enhanced oil recovery
13In India, the Oil & Natural Gas Corp In India, the Oil & Natural Gas Corp. (ONGC) has proposed CO2-EOR for Ankleshwar Oil Field in Western India.The CO2 is planned to be 600,000m3/d and is sourced from ONGC gas processing complex at Hazira.The experimental and modeling studies have indicated an incremental oil recovery of ~ 4 % over the project life of 35 years besides the potential to sequester 5 to 10 million tons of CO2CO2 Pipeline fromHazira PlantFirst row of oil Producer.To be closed after reachingGOR of 500 v/vSecond row of oil Producer. To be continued on production till GOR reaches 500 v/vCO2 moves through formation mobilizing residual oil by swelling, vaporization and reduction in residual oil saturationAnkleshwar Sands S3+4 : MMtWaterflood Recovery : 54%Envisaged Tertiary Recovery : 5-7%CO2 InjectorAfter, Suresh Kumar, Abstract, IWCCS-07
14Weyburn–Midale CO2 Monitoring and Storage Project, Canada It is one amongst the largest ongoing projects for CCS in the world.The Encana Cooperation has been injecting 5,000 tonnes of CO2 per day into in the Weyburn oil field for the dual purpose of enhancing oil recovery and the CO2 storage while increasing the field’s production by an additional 10,000 barrels per day.About 30 million tones of CO2 will be injected and permanently stored over the life of project producing at least million barrels of incremental recovered oil.Injection of CO2 in the Oil Producing Formations of the Weyburn FieldAfter, EERC, North Dakota.
15Enhanced Coalbed Methane Recovery (ECBM) Coal beds typically contain large amounts of methane rich gas that isadsorbed onto the surface of the coal. The injected CO2 efficientlydisplaces methane as it has greater affinity to the coal than methane.CO2 enhancedcoal bed methaneproduction
16Density of CO2 and CH4 as a function of pressure for various Temperatures based on data from Vargaftik et al. (1996).
17The Coal Bed Methane Potential of India : ~ 1000 bcm DGH, Annual Report,
18CO2 Storage in Deep Saline Aquifers Saline aquifers at depths of ≥ 800 m provide a suitable alternative for thestorage of CO2.The high porosity and permeability of the aquifer sands along with low porositycap rocks such as shales provide favorable conditions for CO2 storage.The CO2 can be stored in the miscible and/or mineral phase.With time, CO2 gets dissolved in the brines and reacts with the porefluids/minerals to form geologically stable carbonates.Studies in IndiaThe Department of Science & Technology , India has initiated studies aiming at identification of deep underground saline aquifers and their suitability for CO2 sequestration in Sedimentary basins of India namely Ganga, Rajasthan and Vindhyan basins.The Central Ground Water Board and Geological Survey of India have established the presence of saline aquifers up to depths of ≥ 300m below ground level in the Ganga basin.Deep Resistivity studies carried out at 9 sites around New Delhi have shown the presence of saline aquifers at depths of 800m and beyond, around Palwal and Tumsara.ICOSAR Bulletin, Vol. 2
19Storage of CO2 in Saline Aquifer (Sleipner Project) Utsira Aquifer is located 800 m belowthe bed in the North Sea.~I million tonnes of CO2 injected peryear since 1996CO2 separated from Natural Gasproduced from Sleipner West is injectedin the Utsira aquiferCharacteristics of the Utsira SandMio-Pliocene age.High porosity sand (21-37%) cappedwith low porosity shale.Estimated to be capable of storing600,000 MT of CO2 .Seismic reflection dataprior to sequestrationAfter 2 million tonnes ofCO2 injection, showingamplitudes of high reflectioncorresponding to CO2saturated rocks.
20CO2 sequestration in Onshore Hunton Aquifer Devonian-Silurian carbonates of the “Hunton Aquifer” contain a number of highly porous intervals.Favorable sequestration attributes of the Huntonaquifer include; relatively high porosity (up to 15%), permeability, lateral continuity over a multistate area, thickness (up to 2000+feet) and confinement of the aquifer intervals between two aquitard intervals.Estimated CO2 sequestration volumes range up to 42 billion tons (726 trillion cubic feet).Stratigraphy of Hunton AquiferAfter MIDCARB Project
21Evaluation of Basalt Formations of India for environmentally safe and ‘Geological CO2 Sequestration in Basalt Formationsof India: A Pilot Study’ObjectiveEvaluation of Basalt Formations ofIndia for environmentally safe andirreversible long time storage of CO2.
22Why Basalts are attractive proposition for CO2 sequestration ? Deccan Basalts cover an area of 500x103 sq.km. and form one of the largest flooderuptions in the world.Composed of typically 48 flows.The thickness of basalts varies from fewhundreds of meters to > 1.5 km.Basalts provide solid cap rocks and thushigh level of integrity for CO2 storage.Basalts react with CO2 and convert theCO2 into the mineral carbonates thatmeans high level of security.Intertrappeans between basalt flows providemajor porosity and permeability along withvescicular, brecciated zones with in the flows.Tectonically the traps are consideredto be stable.Geophysical studies have revealed presenceof thick Mesozoic and Gondwana sedimentsbelow the Deccan Traps.
23Deccan basalts vs Columbia River basalts The most common flow type of the Deccan Trap and ColumbiaRiver Basalt is the Pahoeho sheet flows. Due to the lesserviscosity and less strain it forms large horizontal sheets.Both Deccan Flood Basalts and Columbia River Basalts aretholeiitic (cinopyroxene and plagioclase) in nature and theeruptions are of fissure type.Both are continental basalts. Columbia RiverBasalt is fully continental and Deccan Trapsare partly continental.Both the basaltic flows have traveledas much as 300 to 500 km from theirsources.Chemical composition of both thebasalts are similar .
24Major Flood Basalt Provinces NameVolumeAgeLocalityCRB(1.7x105km3)MioceneNW USKeeweenawan(4x105km3)PrecambrianSuperior areaDeccan(106km3)Cret.-EoceneIndiaParana(area > 106km2)early Cret.BrazilKarroo(2x106km3?)early JurassicS. Africa
25CO2 Storage in Basalt Formations CO2 is injected in basalt formations above its critical temperature and pressureMinimum depth800 mSupercritical CO2Physico – chemical propertiesbetween those of liquid and gas.Dense gasSolubility approaching liquid phaseDiffusivity approaching gas phaseHydrodynamicTrappingSolubilityTrappingMineralisation
26Variation of CO2 density with depth, (based on the density data of Angus et al., 1973). Carbon dioxide density increases rapidly at approximately 800 m depth, when the CO2 reaches a supercritical state.Cubes represent the relative volume occupied by the CO2, and down to 800 m, this volume can be seen to dramaticallydecrease with depth. At depths below 1.5 km, the density and specific volume become nearly constant.
27Mineralization reactions in basalt formations CO2(g) CO2(aq)CO2(aq) + H2O HCO3- + H+(Ca,Mg,Fe)x SiyOx+2y +2xH+ +(2y-x)H2O x(Ca,Mg,Fe)2+ + yH4SiO4(aq)(Ca,Mg,Fe)2+ + HCO (Ca,Mg,Fe)CO3 + H+Induction Time for Calcite PrecipitationDepth, (m)T, °Ctp, d8003596490038822100042678110048534120056397130067275Lab. scale &geo-chemicalmodeling studies byPNNL, USACalcite deposition onbasaltBasalt is rich in Ca, Mg & Fe SilicatesMineralisation reaction rate is fast on geological time scaleMineralisation is appeared to be controlled by mixingbehaviour of CO2 and not by kinetics of the reactions
28Methodology Site identification Planning of Schedule Evaluation of available geological, geophysicaland tectonic data to identify one or two areas inbasalt formations of Western India with basaltthickness of 800 m.Adsorbed soil gas surveysMagnetotelluric studiesDrill location analysisIdentification of most suitable site, land acquisitionand permissionPlanning of ScheduleFor borehole drillingand CO2 injectionDetailed engineering planning for borehole drilling,piping and cementingIdentification of vendors for drilling, casing,cementing of borehole, supply and injection of CO2Theoretical simulation and modelingPre-characterization of shallow surface soils andground waters by geochemical & isotopic studies.High-resolution seismic studies
29Borehole drilling and injection of CO2 Drilling of 8-10’’ dia. borehole up to depth of 800 50 mBorehole loggingCore samplingLining and cementing of boreholePre-injection modelingInjection of ~ 100 tons of CO2 per day at a pressureof 2000 psi for 10 days along with tracersBorehole drillingandinjection of CO2Drilling of 2’’ dia observation boreholesPost injection characterization of soil andground waterMonitoring, modeling and verification ofmineralizationDocument basalt formations of India as ageological sequestration option.Post injectioncharacterization,monitoring & modeling
31SignificanceThe Indian study will globally establish basaltformation as potential storage for CO2 by leveragingstudy carried out in Columbia River basalt groupunder US-Dept. of Environment.
32CO2Sequestration in Methane Hydrates Methane Hydrates are class of solids in which methanemolecules occupy cages made up of hydrogen- bondedwater molecules.CO2 can also be stored as hydrates with simultaneousconversion of in situ methane hydrates into natural gas.At temperatures below 10°C, there is a pressure range inwhich methane hydrate is unstable while CO2 hydrate isstable.The heat released from the formation of CO2 gas hydrateis greater than that needed for CH4 hydrate dissociation:CH4(H2O)n CH4 + nH2O; Hf = KJ/moleCO2(H2O)n CO2 + nH2O ; Hf = KJ/molewhere n is the hydration number for CH4 hydrate and CO2hydraten is dependent on pressure, temperature and thecomposition of the gas in the gas phase which impliesthat under certain pressure and temperature conditions,the replacement of CH4 in the hydrate with CO2 isthermodynamically possible.After Gas Technology Institute, USA
33Ocean SequestrationCO2 is soluble in ocean water, and oceans absorb andemit huge amounts of CO2 into the atmosphere throughnatural processes. Ocean Sequestration has huge potentialas a carbon storage sink, however, enough R&D have to becarried out to understand about the physio-chemical processeswhich occur between seawater and pumped CO2.Storage of CO2 in deep oceans has been suggested as a means of reducing inputs of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere.
34Terrestrial Sequestration Terrestrial carbon sequestration is defined as either the net removalof CO2 from the atmosphere or the prevention of CO2 net emissions fromthe terrestrial ecosystems into the atmosphere. The following ecosystemsoffer significant opportunity for carbon sequestration:Forest landsAgricultural landsBiomass croplandsDeserts and degraded landsWetlands and peat lands-- Storage of C in soils and plants has the potential to offset CO2 emissionsto the atmosphere in the coming decades while new ‘clean’ energyproduction and CO2 sequestration technologies are developed anddeployed.What is needed is basic research to improve our fundamentalunderstanding of natural phenomena controlling soil C sequestration andbasic and applied R&D to bring new management and technology tothe challenge.
35Bio-sequestration : The solar energy is collected using Fresnel lens devices/parabolic concentratorand a fibre optic light delivery system isused to stimulate biological organisms likecyanobacteria or micro-algae in abio-generator to produce useful by-productsfrom carbon dioxide.For uniform growth of the organisms, thedistribution of photosynthetic photon fluxlight in the wavelength range of 400–700nm needs to be delivered to the bioreactor.The photo-bioreactor system makes use ofthe natural process ‘photosynthesis’to convert light, heat and carbon dioxide touseful products, such as carbohydrates,hydrogen and oxygen.6CO2 (aq) + 6H2O(l)+ light + heat C6H12O6(aq) +6O2(g)Assuming that the carbon uptake rate of 1.5g/day for the particular micro-organism,Synechocystis aquatilis, up to 2.2 ktonneC/year could be sequestered from theenvironment.Bio-sequestration :The concept of photosynthetic conversionto fix carbon dioxide using bacteria ormicro-algae under a controlled environment.Conceptual diagram of Photosyntheticconversion of carbon dioxide to biomass.(After Energy Conv. and Manag.46 (2005) 403–420)
36Breakthrough Technologies Biomimetic Sequestration- It implies the use of a particular aspect of biological process for resolving a specific non biological problem. The Carbonic Anhydrase (CA) is used as a catalyst for the conversion of CO2 into bicarbonates and later to carbonates or amino acids.Iron FertilizationIron Fertilization implies the introduction of iron to the upper ocean to increase productivity of marine food chain which in turn increases CO2 sequestration from the atmosphere into the oceans. Marine plankton growth is enhanced by physically distributing the iron particles in other wise nutrient rich but iron deficient ocean water using suitable delivering systems based on biomaterials.Soil Productivity ?
37Conclusions- CO2 storage R&D is still in early stage in India and developing cost effective technologies for CCS are the major challenges to the scientist and researchers.The environmental risks involved in the storage of CO2 particularly in geological formations and oceans have to be evaluated in detail by monitoring and modeling in terms of long term stability.Funding mechanisms to support R&D projects for CCS have to be evaluated. 0.5% cess on power generation in the line of oil cess may be good enough to sustain the same. The cess can be operated by Energy Security Development Board, under the aegis of Ministry of Power.‘If every country was to spend just 2-3% of their GDP,the impact of possible global climate change could bemitigated’- R.K.Pachauri, Economic Times Corp. Excellence Awardfor , New Delhi (29th Oct., 2007)
38International Partners FRANCE: Institut de Physique du Globe de ParisINDIA: National Geophysical Research InstituteRUSSIA: Vernadsky Institute of Geochemistry andAnalytical Chemistry of the Russian Academyof SciencesCANADA: BioCap CanadaSemiarid Prairie Agricultural Research CentreNETHERLANDS: Wageningen Universiteit, Lab of Soil Scienceand GeologyNORWAY: Det Kongelige Olge - Og EnergidepartementInstitute for Energy TechnologyNorwegian University of Science & TechnologyResearch Council of Norway, HanshaugenSINTEF Petroleum Research
39 Recommendations Develop collaborative project RecommendationsDevelop collaborative projecton geological sequestration of CO2with US laboratories.Set up centers of excellenceand carbon capture.Organize IInd Workshop onCarbon Sequestration duringJanuary 2007.
40RecommendationsCarbon capture and storage research offers an opportunityto mitigate global concerns about climate change andsustainable futureSuggested expansion of support to research and CO2infrastructure from DST and other concerned sectors ofeconomy, under the National Programme on CO2Sequestration ResearchEstablish Centre for Advanced Studies in India for CCStechnology to lead R&D projects on Carbon Capture,Geological Sequestration of CO2, Monitoring, Modeling &Simulation studies and Clean Energy DevelopmentOrganize a special session on India’s initiatives on CarbonCapture and Storage R & D during 2008 at an internationalevent.Give more thrust to basalt pilot study using sub-basaltimaging techniques and establish baseline forconcentration of CO2 in atmosphere and soil anddissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) in shallow aquifer.Facilitate inter and intra-networking between national andinternational projects on CCS technology.Indian CO2 Sequestration Applied Research Network tohave institutional members and hold periodic meetings todevelop an activity profile and framework for support.Develop new knowledge partners with multi-disciplinaryand multi-stage collaborations for sustainable energyfuture.