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Head to Toe Skin Assessment Karen R. Brown BS, RN, CWS Wound/Ostomy Specialist.

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Presentation on theme: "Head to Toe Skin Assessment Karen R. Brown BS, RN, CWS Wound/Ostomy Specialist."— Presentation transcript:

1 Head to Toe Skin Assessment Karen R. Brown BS, RN, CWS Wound/Ostomy Specialist

2 SKIN ASSESSMENTS Objectives: Describe essentials for maintenance of healthy skin Discuss pressure ulcer risk assessment tools Describe appropriate documentation of skin assessment

3 A large amount of the dust in you home is actually dead skin Skin Facts Each square inch of human skin consists of twenty feet of blood vessels Humans shed about 600,000 particles of skin every hour - about 1.5 pounds a year. By 70 years of age, an average person will have lost 105 pounds of skin. A large amount of the dust in you home is actually dead skin

4 Skin Assessment Skin assessment important in the prevention of pressure ulcers, IAD, MADS,Intertrigo, etc. A complete skin assessment should include: Assessing for localized heat Edema Induration (hardness) Excessive moisture

5 SKIN ASSESSMENT Skin Care is important to protect the skin from breakdown: Not massaging skin Not turning the patient back onto a still reddened surface from previous pressure loading Not vigorously rubbing skin that is at risk for skin breakdown

6 What tools do we use? Eyes Hands Ears excellent history taking and data gathering Braden Scale Nutrition Assessment Tool

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8 Immobility/decreased mobility CONFINED TO BED/CHAIR Preventative Actions Look at skin at least once a day. Bathe only when needed for comfort or cleanliness. Prevent dry skin.

9 SKIN ASSESSMENT For a person in a chair : 1. Change position every hour or as often as possible. 2. Use foam, gel, or air cushion to relieve pressure. Reduce friction by: Lifting, rather than dragging, when repositioning. Using cornstarch on skin. Involve physical therapy as needed.

10 NO DONUT SHAPED CUSHIONS Donuts are for eating Not sitting on

11 For a Bed Bound Patient Change position at least every 2 hours. Use a special mattress that contains foam, air, gel, or water. Raise the head of bed as little and for as short as a time as possible.

12 Loss of Bowel or Bladder Control Clean skin as soon as soiled with urine or stool. Assess and treat urine leaks. If moisture cannot be controlled: 1. Use absorbent pads and/or briefs with a quick-drying surface. 2. Protect skin with a cream or ointment.

13 Poor Nutrition Eat a balanced diet. If a normal diet is not possible, talk to health care provider about food supplements

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15 Lowered Mental Awareness Choose preventative actions for the person with lowered mental awareness. For example, if the person is chair- bound, refer to the specific preventative actions outlined in Risk Factor 1.

16 Support Surfaces

17 SKIN ASSESSMENT DOCUMENTATION

18 SKIN ASSESSMENT SKIN ASSESSMENT SKIN FOLDS DOCUMENT PRESENCE OF: MOISTURE RASH CANDIDA LESIONS 2007 Medline Industries, Inc.

19 xerosis Caused by epidermal water loss Loss of natural moisturization factors LOCATION: Usually lower legs Sometimes trunk and hands Xerosis is a dermatosis exhibited as dry scaly skin with or without erythema (redness) and pruritus (itching)

20 xerosis Clinically looks like Scaling, flaking skin Dull, white color and increased skin markings

21 DOCUMENT changes in skin color excess skin moisture skin turgor changes in skin texture DOCUMENT changes in skin color excess skin moisture skin turgor changes in skin texture

22 SKIN ASSESSMENT DOCUMENT ULCER LOCATIONS OVER BONY PROMINENCES HISTORY OF PREVIOUS ULCERATIONS

23 SKIN ASSESSMENT PALPATE FOR WARMTH, TENDERNESS, BOGGINESS EDEMA DOCUMENT EVERY DETAIL

24 ASSESS MEDICAL DEVICES DOCUMENT TYPE OF DEVICE LOCATION TYPE OF SECUREMENT DEVICE

25 ASSESS MEDICAL DEVICES TUBE SITE EROSION HYPERGRANULATION TISSUE

26 BARIATRIC SKIN ASSESSMENT incontinence-related dermatitis secondary to inability to perform personal hygiene, pressure ulcers (including sites other than bony prominences), venous Insufficiency/ulceration, and/or lymphedema.

27 BARIATRIC SKIN ASSESSMENT The bariatric patient may not be able to clean the perineal area well enough or maybe not at all.

28 BARIATRIC SKIN ASSESSMENT Pressure ulcers not over bony prominences Increased propensity for venous ulcers with or without lymphedema Malnourishment

29 INCONTINENCE ASSOCIATED DERMATITIS (IAD) Incontinence- associated dermatitis is a common problem affecting as many as half of the patients with urinary or fecal incontinence who are managed with absorptive products.

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31 SKIN CARE PROTOCOLS  Clean after soiling and at routine intervals  Avoid hot water  Use mild cleansers non- irritating and non-drying agents  Use moisturizers for dry skin  Use barrier ointments/ sprays  Powder bedpans

32 SKIN CARE PROTOCOL  Use heel/elbow protectors or socks  Use lift sheets or pads to move patient  Limit head elevation to 30 degrees and use knee gatch if available  Use overhead trapeze (prevent dragging patient up in bed)  Use footboards  Use light weight clothing and covers (layering is best)  Minimize environmental factors leading to drying such as low humidity/exposure to cold

33 References Gray M, Ratliff C, Donovan A. Perineal skin care for the incontinent patient. Adv Skin Wound Care. 2002;15: Ghadially R. Aging and the epidermal permeability barrier: implications for contact dermatitis. Am J Contact Dermat. 1998;9(3): Brown DS. Perineal dermatitis risk factors: clinical validation of a conceptual framework. Ostomy Wound Manag.1995;41(10):46-48, 50, European Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel and National Pressure Ulcer. Treatment of pressure ulcers: Quick Reference Guide. Washington DC: National Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel; 2009.

34 References Portable Instructional Education (PIE). Home Health Care 1 st Edition. (CD) Wound Ostomy and Continence Nurses Society, WOCN National Office, Mt. Laurel, NJ; 2008.


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