3 About Gender Mainstreaming Project In Planning & Development Division and Departments Project i Formulation ii Implementation iii Monitoring iv Evaluation “Build the capacity of the government officials to mainstream gender in the… …of government policies, plans, programme and project in all areas of development”.
4 Project Objectives Gender sensitization of senior and mid-level planning and development (P&D) officials at the federal, provincial and district levels. Developing capacity for gender analysis, planning, monitoring and evaluation. Establishing gender disaggregated databases using information and communication technology skills and competencies. Establishing knowledge based networking, e-forums, and a community of gender mainstreaming practitioners. Developing institutional mechanisms and procedures for systematic gender mainstreaming and accountability in government.
5 Capacity Development thru Gender Mainstreaming Project A high priority of the Project is to raise the awareness of senior officials and policy makers of the government. The training comprises of four categories, each with defined target group as follows: senior government professional civil servants working in the top tiers of government legislators managers and data managers Type Type of Training Duration Target Group S1 Gender Sensitization day Senior Government Managers S2 Gender Sensitization 1 day Professional Civil Servants S3 Advocacy/Sensitization 1 day Legislators S4 Sensitization 1 day Data Managers T1 Gender Analysis 2 days Senior Mid-level advisory staff T2 Gender Analysis 2 weeks Officers dealing with basic level project proposal/programme C1 Computer Skills 4 days Senior-mid level supervisory staff C2 Computer Skills 5 days Officers dealing with basic level project proposal/programme C3 Website development 1-1/2 day Selected Federal and Provincial Officers
6 Projects Supported by GSP
7 Overview of Gender Support Programme Political Participation Women’s Political School, MoWD (mega intervention to make women councilors and local government more effective). Interventions – providing ToT, training councilors, building support link., sharing info. and institutional strengthening. Institutional Strengthening of NCSW Gender Responsive Budgeting, MoF Gender Mainstreaming in the Planning Process, P&DD Achieving National & Int’l Commitments on Gender & Poverty Issues, MoWD Economic Empowerment Women’s Access to Capital and Technology (WACT). Enhance economic s tatus of urban and rural women through credit, promoting small and medium entrepreneurship, building capacity, facilitating ICT solutions and networking. Enabling Social Environment Gender Justice through Musahilat Anjuman (MA). Interventions – build capacity of MA members, enhance public engagement, promote women’s awareness of their rights, utilize services of the MA. Contribute to poverty eradication efforts through gender responsive governance and a rights-based approach to sustainable human development
8 1 Introduction Session
9 Introductions Icebreaker Norms
10 To clarify gender concepts and provide policy makers with a rationale as to why gender should be mainstreamed in policies, programmes and projects To build some basic skills for gender integration in policies, programmes and projects, and to identify ways to take forward the gender agenda; To identify ways to take forward the gender agenda. Overall Discussion Objectives
12 “ Life is a do-it-yourself project ” Your life today is the reflection of your attitudes and choices in the past. Your life tomorrow will be the result.
13 2 Why Gender Matters for Policy Makers Session
14 Every 20 minutes a woman dies …. from preventable complications of pregnancy and child birth More women die of communicable diseases than men. The infant mortality rate from 1995 to 2000 was 98 for girls and 93 for boys per 1,000 births. The literacy rate for women (39%) is nearly half that of men ( 63%). The sex difference in child mortality is one of the highest in the world, with death rates for girls aged 1-4 years being 66% higher than for boys in the same age group. Pakistan is one of the few countries in the world in which men outnumber women in the population and women have a lower life expectancy than men.
15 At the bottom of the pile… UNDP’s Gender Development Index (GDI), Pakistan ranks 120th out of 144 countries (it is below both India and Bangladesh) The Gender Empowerment Measure (GEM) it ranks 64th out of 78 countries
16 International Commitments MDGs – Millennium Development Goals (MDGs, 2000) CEDAW – in force on September 3, 1981 Pakistan ratified in 1996 Major Initiatives GRAPs – National and Provincial GRAPs (2004) Decentralization Support Program - TA2 GSP - Gender Support Programme ( ) Overview of GoP Commitments National Commitments MTDF – Mid Term Development Framework ( ) NPA – by Ministry of Women and Development, September NPDEW – by Ministry of Women and Development, 2002
17 WHY Do the Disparities Persist?
18 Case Studies 12
19 Gender-Blind Development Renovation of water courses in Mardan Aga Khan Education Services (AKES) in the Northern Areas Water supply scheme in Balochistan Sindh’s education policy for rural areas A rice research project in Punjab
20 Gender refers to the economic, social and cultural attributes and opportunities associated with being a man or a woman in a given society. Unpacking Gender
21 FearlessWeak SmokeBeautiful Physically strongShort Grow beardBear children Economically independentEconomically dependent Hoarse and manly voiceSweet and melodious voice TallLong hair Short hairBreast feeding AggessiveCook AdventurousCaring Loud and forcefulObedient Hard-heartedCompromising
22 FearlessWeak SmokeBeautiful Physically strongShort Grow beardBear children Economically independentEconomically dependent Hoarse and manly voiceSweet and melodious voice TallLong hair Short hairBreast feeding AggessiveCook AdventurousCaring Loud and forcefulObedient Hard-heartedCompromising
23 Society is Organized Around….. Reproductive Activities (“INSIDE”): Recognized as ‘Natural’ Productive Activities (“OUTSIDE”): Recognized as ‘Work’ Community Managing Activities (“INSIDE/OUTSIDE”): Recognized as ‘Natural Community Politics Activities (“Outside”): Recognized as ‘Work’
24 SEXGENDER Biological Determined Given Unchanging Universal Social Construct Learnt Dynamic Differs
25 Engendering Development Means Recognizing…. Women and men often have different needs and priorities due to their different status and roles in society Development interventions have to be based on an understanding of gender roles Women and their needs and priorities have to be given as much importance as those of men Only then is humane, just and sustainable development possible
26 What are Gender Issues? When gender roles result in: invisibility of either gender u n e q u a l burdens of work unequal result in access to resources unequal benefits and/or control of resources ?
27 Message for Policy Development Professionals Resources and facilities usually benefit those who are best placed to exploit them. Although development interventions claim to be neutral, it tends to benefit those who are: better off educated well-informed more accessible having greater access All of the above are more likely to be men than women An unconscious bias against the disadvantaged, especially against women
28 When water flows it takes the path of least resistance ….similarly to whom resources will flow is determined by our values, beliefs and commitments
30 How can policy makers & planners ensure that the needs and expectations of all members of society are met equitably?
31 Understanding Gender Mainstreaming “ …the process of assessing the implications for women and men of any planned action, including legislation, policies or programs, in all areas and at all levels. It is a strategy for making women’s as well as men’s concerns and experiences an integral dimension of the design, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of policies and programs in all political, economic, and societal spheres so that women and men benefit equally and inequality is not perpetuated.”
34 Situation Assessment and Analysis Were gender disaggregated data and gender analysis used in the background and justification of the policy, program or project?
35 Story behind the Numbers
36 1. Once upon a time the sex-disaggregated data for a National TB Program Conclusion? Action? Case Study
37 The question you did not ask: Do these differences in notification rates reflect a true difference in TB incidence for women and men? Need for gender statistics
38 3. Gender statistics were collected, followed by gender analysis and gender-related issues emerged as follows: Differences in clinical symptoms in women and men: Sputum test regime: women tend not to come back to the clinic to complete their sputum test Quality of sputum produced by men and women Understanding of and belief about TB Health-care seeking behavior and TB diagnosis Compliance with treatment and recovery after treatment.
41 Project Goals/Objectives, Strategy and Project Management Are the needs of both women and men reflected in the goals, objectives and strategies of the Project? Is there a clear policy for mainstreaming women? Has appropriate budgeting been assigned for sufficient for the development of both men and women? Does the strategy consider men’s and women’s practical and strategic gender needs?
43 Project Implementation Will both men and women participate in the implementation? Are those who will implement the Program or Project gender aware? Has adequate and appropriate resources been aligned to work with both men and women?
45 Monitoring/Evaluation Does the monitoring and evaluation strategy have a gender perspective? Do the indicators measure the gender dimension of each objective? Have appropriate methods and resources been assigned to obtain information from both gender? Is there provision for a communication strategy? Does the project redress a previous unequal sharing?
46 Government Officials Must Not Assume It means that all government officials…… at all levels, no longer simply assume that either gender (especially women) will automatically benefit from a proposed policy or program. Rather, it is consciously thinking about how this will happen.
57 Feedback Q.1. How would you rate the following sessions? (tick your feedback) Q.2 Please inform us of those aspects of the session that you found most useful (e.g. contents, concepts, use of case studies, participatory aspect of the event, material, etc). Q.3 Please identify one step that you would like to take in order to mainstream gender in your organization’s policy, programme or planning processes. Q.4 What support could the Gender Mainstreaming Project extend to your organization with regard to mainstreaming gender?