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Chapter Eight Decision Making and Creative Problem Solving.

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1 Chapter Eight Decision Making and Creative Problem Solving

2 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.Chapter Eight | 2 Chapter Objectives Specify at least five sources of decision complexity for modern managers. Explain what a condition of risk is and what managers can do to cope with it. Define and discuss the three decision traps: framing, escalation of commitment, and overconfidence. Discuss why programmed and nonprogrammed decisions require different decision-making procedures and distinguish between the two types of knowledge in knowledge management.

3 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.Chapter Eight | 3 Chapter Objectives (cont’d) Explain the need for a contingency approach to group-aided decision making. Identify and describe five of the ten “mental locks” that can inhibit creativity. List and explain the four basic steps in the creative problem-solving process. Describe how causes of problems can be tracked down with fishbone diagrams.

4 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.Chapter Eight | 4 Challenges for Decision Makers Decision Making –Decision making is the process of identifying and choosing alternative courses of action to meet the demands of a situation. –Judgment and discretion are fundamental to decision making. Trends in Decision Making –Accelerating: Managers report making more decisions and having less time to make them.

5 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.Chapter Eight | 5 Challenges for Decision Makers (cont’d) Dealing with Complex Streams of Decisions –Multiple criteria to be satisfied by a decision –Intangibles that often determine decision alternatives –Risk and uncertainty about decision alternatives –Long-term implications of the effects of the choice of a particular alternative –Interdisciplinary input, which increases the number of persons to be consulted before a decision is made

6 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.Chapter Eight | 6 Challenges for Decision Makers (cont’d) Dealing with Complex Streams of Decisions (cont’d) –Pooled decision making increases the number of persons playing a part in the decision process. –Value judgments by differing participants in the process create disagreement over whether a decision is right or wrong, good or bad, and ethical or unethical. –Unintended consequences occur because the results of purposeful actions cannot always be predicted.

7 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.Chapter Eight | 7 Figure 8.1: Sources of Complexity for Today’s Managerial Decision Makers

8 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.Chapter Eight | 8 Coping with Uncertainty Types (Conditions) of Uncertainty –Certainty: Exists when a solid factual basis allows prediction of a decision’s outcome –Risk: Exists when a decision is made on the basis of incomplete but reliable information Objective probabilities are based on reliable data. Subjective probabilities are based on judgment. –Uncertainty: Exists when no reliable data exist on which to base a decision

9 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.Chapter Eight | 9 Figure 8.2: The Relationship Between Uncertainty and Confidence

10 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.Chapter Eight | 10 Information Process Styles Thinking Style –Being deliberative, logical, precise, and objective when making a decision Suited to routine tasks requiring attention to detail and systematic implementation Intuitive Style –Being creative, following hunches and visions in decision making Best for rapidly changing situations requiring creativity and intuition

11 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.Chapter Eight | 11

12 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.Chapter Eight | 12 Avoiding Perceptual and Behavioral Decision Traps Framing Error –The way in which information is presented influences one’s interpretation of it, which, in turn, may alter a decision based on the information. Escalation of Commitment –Continuing on a course of action can lock a person into a losing position (“throwing good money after bad”). Overconfidence –Believing too much in one’s own capabilities is a trap.

13 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.Chapter Eight | 13 Figure 8.3: Why Escalation of Commitment Is So Common Source: Adapted from discussion in Barry M. Shaw and Jerry Ross, “Understanding Behavior in Escalation Situation,” Science, 246 (October 13, 1989):

14 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.Chapter Eight | 14 Making Decisions Types of Decisions –Programmed decisions: repetitive and routine decisions A decision rule identifies the situation and specifies how the decision will be made. –Useful for establishing solutions (in “if-then” terms) to standard, recurring problems that are solved only once –Speed up decisions by removing requirement to go through comprehensive problem solving over and over again

15 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.Chapter Eight | 15 Making Decisions (cont’d) Types of Decisions (cont’d) –Nonprogrammed decisions Decisions made in complex and nonroutine situations –Questions to ask: What decision needs to be made? When does it have to be made? Who will decide? Who needs to be consulted? Who will ratify or veto the decision? Who will need to be informed?

16 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.Chapter Eight | 16 A General Decision-Making Model Rational (Logical) Decision Model Steps –Scan the situation; identify a signal that a decision should be made. Receipt of authoritative communications from superiors Cases referred for decision by subordinates Cases originating from the manager –Classify the decision. If it is routine, apply the appropriate decision rule; if it is not, generate a nonprogrammed decision through problem solving. –Monitor and follow-up as necessary.

17 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.Chapter Eight | 17 Figure 8.4: A General Decision-Making Model

18 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.Chapter Eight | 18 A General Decision-Making Model (cont’d) Knowledge Management –Developing a system to improve the creation and sharing of knowledge critical for decision making –Tacit knowledge: Personal, intuitive, and undocumented private information –Explicit knowledge: Readily sharable public information in verbal, textual, visual, or numerical form

19 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.Chapter Eight | 19 Figure 8.5: Key Dimensions of Knowledge Management (KM)

20 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.Chapter Eight | 20 A General Decision-Making Model (cont’d) Improving the Flow of Knowledge –The flow of constructive tacit knowledge between coworkers is a priority. –Knowing what you know, what you don’t know, and how to find what you know yields better and more timely decisions.

21 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.Chapter Eight | 21 A General Decision-Making Model (cont’d) Improving the Flow of Knowledge (cont’d) Organizational learning Organization cultures Training Communication Empowerment Participative management Virtual training Communication

22 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.Chapter Eight | 22 Group-Aided Decision Making: A Contingency Perspective Collaborative Computing –Teaming up to make decisions via a computer network programmed with groupware Group Involvement in Decisions –Analyzing the problem –Identifying components of the situation –Estimating components of the situation –Designing alternatives –Choosing an alternative

23 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.Chapter Eight | 23 Group-Aided Decision Making: A Contingency Perspective (cont’d) The Problem of Dispersed Accountability –Group-aided decision making: The group does everything except make the decision. –Group decision making: The group actually makes the final decision collectively. Results in loss of personal/individual accountability –Individual accountability is required when: The decision will have significant organizational impact. The decision has legal ramifications. A competitive award is tied to the decision.

24 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.Chapter Eight | 24

25 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.Chapter Eight | 25 A Contingency Approach Is Necessary Individuals Versus Groups –Groups do better quantitatively and qualitatively than the average individual. –Exceptional individuals tend to outperform the group. –Group decision-making performance does not always exceed individual performance, making a contingency approach to decision making advisable.

26 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.Chapter Eight | 26 Figure 8.6: Individual Versus Group Performance: Contingency Management Insights from 61 Years of Research

27 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.Chapter Eight | 27 Managerial Creativity What Is Creativity? –The reorganization of experience into new configurations –Three domains of creativity: Art Discovery Humor

28 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.Chapter Eight | 28 Managerial Creativity Fear and avoiding publicity Forgetting how to play Becoming too specialized Not wanting to look foolish Saying “I’m not creative” Looking for the “right” answer Always trying to be logical Strictly following the rules Insisting on being practical Avoiding ambiguity Mental Locks

29 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.Chapter Eight | 29 Creative Problem Solving Steps in Creative Problem Solving –Identifying the problem –Generating alternative solutions –Selecting a solution –Implementing and evaluating

30 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.Chapter Eight | 30 Creative Problem Solving (cont’d) Identifying the Problem –What is a problem? Defined by the gap between the actual and the desired state of affairs Stumbling Blocks for Problem Finders –Defining the problem according to a possible solution –Focusing on narrow, low-priority areas –Diagnosing problems in terms of their symptoms

31 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.Chapter Eight | 31 Creative Problem Solving (cont’d) Pinpointing Causes with Fishbone Diagrams –A TQM process improvement tool that shows possible problem causes and their interactive relationships Generating Alternative Solutions –Brainstorming –Free association –Edisonian method –Attribute listing –Scientific method –Creative Leap

32 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.Chapter Eight | 32 Creative Problem Solving (cont’d) Selecting a Solution –Resolving the problem Satisfice: To settle for a solution that is good enough rather than the best possible –Solving the problem Optimize: Systematically identifying the solution with the best combination of benefits –Dissolving the problem Changing the situation in which the problem occurs so that the problem (and the conditions that cause it) no longer exists

33 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.Chapter Eight | 33 Creative Problem Solving (cont’d) Implementing and Evaluating the Solution –Effective and efficient resolution removes the gap between actual and desired states. –If problem persists, recycling through the problem- solving steps becomes necessary. Trying other feasible solutions Redefining the problem and beginning the problem-solving cycle again

34 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.Chapter Eight | 34 Terms to Understand Decision making Law of unintended consequences Condition of certainty Condition of risk Objective probabilities Subjective probabilities Condition of uncertainty Framing error Escalation of commitment Programmed decisions Decision rule Nonprogrammed decisions Knowledge of management Tacit knowledge Explicit knowledge Collaborative computing Creativity Problem solving Problem Causes Satisfice Optimize Idealize


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