Presentation on theme: "Environmental Knowledge for Disaster Risk Management Challenges in Integrating Geospatial Technologies P. S. Roy Indian Institute of."— Presentation transcript:
Environmental Knowledge for Disaster Risk Management Challenges in Integrating Geospatial Technologies P. S. Roy (firstname.lastname@example.org) Indian Institute of Remote Sensing ISRO, Dept. of Space, Govt. of India Dehradun
We Live in Two Environments Natural Manmade Self-Regulated Managed And they are increasingly in conflict..
Major Issues & Challenges Bio-resources Deforestation Loss of species Loss of critical habitats Bio-resources Deforestation Loss of species Loss of critical habitats Snow & Glaciers Melting of Mountain Glacier Loss of Polar Ice cap Snow & Glaciers Melting of Mountain Glacier Loss of Polar Ice cap Ocean Rise in sea level Destruction of coral reefs Ocean Circulation Ocean Rise in sea level Destruction of coral reefs Ocean Circulation Climatology Global warming Extreme Weather Climatology Global warming Extreme Weather Atmosphere Atmospheric loading Loss of ozone layer Green house effect Atmosphere Atmospheric loading Loss of ozone layer Green house effect Physical Resources Land dynamics Unequal Water availability Soil degradation Biodiversity loss Physical Resources Land dynamics Unequal Water availability Soil degradation Biodiversity loss Ozone Depletion (DU) (1950 : 160 ; 2009 : 110; 2050: 220 ) Deforestation (mha/yr) – ( 1950 : 15 ; 2007 : 13; 2050 : 10 ) Per capita forest present & future (ha) (1950: 1.13; 2007: 0.62; 2050: 0.35) Species loss - Present : 40-200 / day; 5-20%; lost during last century Projected : 2050 : 15-35%; Global freshwater withdrawals Global freshwater withdrawals 1990 – 3500 km 3 ; 2000 – 4430 km 3 Agriculture water use : 70%, Expected Agriculture water use : 70%, Expected rise by 18% by 2050 to maintain rise by 18% by 2050 to maintain agriculture production ; agriculture production ; 26% global wetland lost 26% global wetland lost Global Mean Temp ( o C) (1950 : 13.96 ; 2009: 14.59; 2050:16.30) CO 2 (ppm) (1950 : 29; 2009 : 380; 2050 : 480) Sea level rise (1950 : 2cm ; 2009 : 9cm; 2050: 16cm ) 27 % of coral reef destructed Average glacier Thickness change (cm / yr) (cm / yr) 1990 – 40 ; 2050– 95; Food Security Water Security Enhanced Natural Disasters Social & Health Security
Knowledge Building for Disaster Risk Management FLOOD MAP DROUGHT MAP DAMAGEMAP HAZARDZONES RISKMAP Data (Observation) for Information Information for Decision Decision for Action Data Information [Model] DSS/SDSS [AI] Expert System [Process] Measurement, Monitoring, Modeling, Planning, Decision Making, Management
How Can Geospatial Technologies Help in Knowledge Building? EO Systems (spaceborne & airborne) – SENSORS with various SPATIAL, TEMPORAL SCALES, EM REGIONS – GEOPHYSICAL PRODUCTS from RS GIS – Link, view, analyse all geo-linked data GPS – LOCATIONS, MOBILE MAPPING (INTEGRATION) : Sensor-Web, Web-GIS, Crowdsourcing GI, Mobile Mapping, Spatial/ Non-spatial Databases, AWS, etc. APPLICATION : Modelling & Decision Making with knowledge
Regional Local Earth Observation From Space Multi-resolution Capability (Low Res.) (High Res.)
EARTH OBSERVATION FROM SPACE Time-Series & All-weather Observations 11.04.2008 (pre-flood) 20.08.2008 (post-flood) 22.08.2008 23.08.2008 24.08.200827.08.2008 29.08.2008 03.09.2008 05.09.2008 10.09.2008
High temporal resolution Large swath Medium temporal resolution Large swath Low temporal resolution Limited swath Low temporal resolution Very limited swath High spatial resolution Location specific information Coarse spatial resolution Regional level information Medium spatial resolution Local level information Depends on Phase of the disaster Type of the disaster Extent and severity …. Low spatial resolution Global level information Global to Local Spatial Vs. Temporal Resolutions – Trade-offs
Location Based Services and Mobile GIS Mobile Mapping – Integration of 4 Technologies Lightweight hardware GPS Telecommunications GIS
Automatic Weather Stations Affordable alternatives to get detailed weather information like rainfall, humidity, temperature, etc. Special sensors for measuring soil moisture Data transmission through communication satellites Consistency in data recording Enhanced frequency of coverage Coverage of inaccessible areas, all weather and all time operations
Soil Water Resources Depth to Water Table Cadastre Village Infrastructure Village boundaries Transport network Settlements Drainage system Canal network Census Information PRA/RRA data Geo-spatial Analysis Using GIS Integrated Geo-spatial Analysis SIMPLE QUERY SPATIAL QUERRYING SINGLE LAYER OPERATION MULTIPLE- LAYER OPERATIONS SPATIAL MODELING SURFACE ANALYSIS NETWORK ANALYSIS POINT PATTERN ANALYSIS GRID ANALYSIS Land use
EM Data Server INPUTS Decision Outcome Decision Maker Spatial Data National Informatics Centre Ministry of Industry Public Works Department Office of Registrar General of India Bureau of Economics and statistics Central Water Commission Indian Meteorological Department Ministry of agriculture Ministry of Home Affairs Ministry of Health ……. Survey of India Forest survey of India Public Works Department Indian Railways Ministry of shipping and surface transport Department of Space Land Records department Central Water Commission Ministry of Defense Indian Meteorological Department National Hydrographic Organization Ministry of agriculture Geological Survey of India Ministry of Home Affairs …….. Non-Spatial Data Spatial Output Statistical Report Expert System Shell Output Decision Analysis Spatial Analysis Information system Other GUI DSS/ SDSS NDEM Authorized user community Request Response EM Conceptual Framework
Data server INPUTS Database Manag. System Spatial Output Statistical Report Multi-criteria Spatial Modeling Logical operators EXPERT SYSTEM SHELL Decision Outcome SDSS SOFTWARE DECISION MAKER Evaluation & validation Yes No Output Health facility Hospitals Diagnostics centers Medical shops Doctors/Medical staff information Blood banks Eye banks Surgical instrument shops Infrastructure Admin boundary Roads Rail and Railway station Police station Airports/helipads Settlement Drainage/surface water bodies DEM Relief shelter locations Education centers Fire stations Forensic Lab Mining areas Industry locations Census Population Density Income level occupation Utility Power lines pipelines communication network Non spatial data IDRN link Sensitive Areas Input Request Converting Knowledge base into DSS / SDSS
Climate Change Research Initiatives Mapping Indicators of Climate Change using Space inputs Glacial Retreat in Himalaya Change in Polar Ice Cover Upward Shift in Timberline & Vegetation in Alpine zone Bleaching of Coral Reefs Desertification Disasters - Flood, Drought GHGs & Other Gases - Variability of atmospheric CO/ CO 2 / NO 2 / CH 4 Biomass burning/ forest fire Terrestrial Carbon Atmospheric Aerosols & Trace gases Impact on Food Security Hydrology Coastal Zone Ocean Productivity Land Surface Changes in Regional Climate Simulations over India Role of Indian Ocean in Climate variability Monitoring the Agents of Climate Change Modeling the impact of climate change
Wetlands Geomorphology Forest & Vegetation Soils Land Degradation Land Use /Land Cover AWiFS -1 : 250000 LISS III - 1 : 50000 NR Census Layers * User Projects National Database to address Environmental Issues & their Web Dissemination ISRO & Multi-institutional Initiatives
The interoperability framework for accessing and utilizing sensors and sensor systems in a space-time context via Internet and Web protocols A set of web-based services may be used to maintain a registry of available sensors. The same web technology standards for describing the sensors’ outputs, platforms, locations, and control parameters, thus ensuring interoperability.. Some Solutions: Sensor Web
Past 2-D flat map displays – User as observer from 2-D description to 4-D interaction Future Effective 3-D visualization 4-D incorporation of time: “The time has come for time.” – Via agent-based modeling / cellular automata? Or how? agents (e.g. vehicles, fires or people) interacting over time in a raster (cell)- based environment according to established rules 5, 6 and 7-D incorporation of touch (pressure, texture, temperature), sound and smell into modeling/simulation environment) User as participant – Users (researchers, professionals, the public) interact with the model; – Participatory GIS: the public as the planner. Move from 2-D description to 4-D interaction and beyond?
Operational Database Data Cleaning Data Preparation Training Set Knowledge Discovery in Database (KDD) Process Data Warehouse Data Mining Extracted Pattern Verification & Evaluation Operational Database Adapting Advanced Methods for Knowledge Discovery from large databases Data Mining Artifical Intelligence Expert System
Distributed Geoprocessing, Spatial Analysis and Modelling OperationalData-2 OperationalData-3 OperationalData-n OperationalData-1 Platform Independent Solution for Geo- spatial analysis User Defined Products DSS/SDSSOutputs Outcomes from Expert System InformationDisplay Geo-visualizations Many more…
An Example of Drought Assessment and Early Warning System RS Satellite Systems NDVI Soil Moisture measurement & Changes Space Based Inputs Ground Observation Network Meteorological Data Receiving Stations Drought Monitor & Early Warning System Real-time data Real time data Distributed Geoprocessing contd..
Using Crowdsourcing & VGI Technologies in Disaster Applications Challenge New mechanism for voluntarily producing & disseminating geographic information using ICT/web-based mapping services (Goodchild, 2007). Especially useful in disaster/ emergency applications where real-time updated information (in case of a disaster) is required or where spatial information is not adequate. Examples – Wikimapia, OpenStreetMap, Google MyMaps, etc. Success Stories – Haiti Earthquake of 2010, Wild Fires of Sanata Barbara (USA) in 2007-09, etc. Integration of crowdsourced & authoritative data? Data quality? Credibility of contributor?
Resourcesat – 2 LISS III, LSS IV, AWiFS Indian EO Missions - The Near Future RISAT-1 C-band SAR MEGHA-TROPIQUES SAPHIR, SCARAB & MADRAS INSAT-3D VHRR, Sounder Geo HR Imager 50m resolution SARAL Ka band Altimeter 2011-12 2012-16 Resourcesat-3 LISS-3 WS RISAT 3/4 LX SAR Cartosat- 2C/ 2D 80 cm res. Scatsat Ku Band Scatterometer Cartosat- 3 30 cm res. Oceansat-3 Ku Band Scatterometer Resourcesat - 2 R LISS III, LSS IV, AWiFS GHGSAT Spectrometer (being planned) IMS-ATM Being Planned ISTAG MAGIS, MAVELI, MAPI
Integrate what we know in to a knowledge system Represent Understand patterns, relations, processes Manage Communicate We Need Better Ways to…
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