Presentation on theme: "Introduction to Information Systems"— Presentation transcript:
1 Introduction to Information Systems Chapter 1Introduction to Information Systems
2 Information Concepts (1) Data vs. InformationDataRaw factsDistinct pieces of information, usually formatted in a special wayInformationA collection of facts organized in such a way that they have additional value beyond the value of the facts themselves
3 Data ‘Discussion’ (1)(1) Distinct pieces of information, usually formatted in a specialway. All software is divided into two general categories: data andprograms. Programs are collections of instructions for manipulatingdata.Data can exist in a variety of forms -- as numbers or text on piecesof paper, as bits and bytes stored in electronic memory, or as factsstored in a person's mind.Strictly speaking, data is the plural of datum, a single piece of
4 information. In practice, however, people use data as both the singular and plural form of the word.(2) The term data is often used to distinguish binarymachine-readable information from textual human-readableinformation. For example, some applications make a distinctionbetween data files (files that contain binary data) and text files(files that contain ASCII data).(3) In database management systems, data files are the files thatstore the database information, whereas other files, such as indexfiles and data dictionaries, store administrative information, knownas metadata.
5 Homework Q Is the term “data”generally used in the singular or plural (a) in the textbook, and(b) in the zdwebopedia web site?
6 TerminologyProcessA set of logically related tasks performed to achieve a defined outcome(n) An executing program. The term is used loosely as a synonym of task.(v) To perform some useful operations on data.
7 Terminology Knowledge Knowledge base An awareness and understanding of a set of information and how that information can be made useful to support a specific taskKnowledge baseThe collection of data, rules, procedures, and relationships that must be followed to achieve value or the proper outcome
8 Types of Data Data Represented by Alphanumeric data Numbers, letters, and other charactersImage dataGraphic images or picturesAudio dataSound, noise, tonesVideo dataMoving images or pictures
10 Characteristics of Valuable Information Accurate, complete, economical, flexible, reliable, relevant, simple, timely, verifiable, accessible, secure
11 SystemSystemA set of elements or components that interact to accomplish goalsA combination of components working together
12 System ‘Discussion’(1) Refers to a combination of components working together. Forexample, a computer system includes both hardware and software.A Windows system is a personal computer running the Windowsoperating system. A desktop publishing system is a computerrunning desktop publishing software.(2) Short for computer system.(3) Short for operating system.(4) An organization or methodology. The binary numbering system,for instance, is a way to count using only two digits.
13 System ElementsInputsProcessing mechanismsOutputs
14 System Example System Elements Goal Inputs Processing elements Outputs MovieActors, director, staff, sets, equipmentFilming, editing, special effects, distributionFinished film delivered to movie studioEntertaining movie, film awards, profits
15 System Components and Concepts System boundaryDefines the system and distinguishes it from everything elseSystem typesSimple vs. complexOpen vs. closedStable vs. dynamicAdaptive vs. nonadaptivePermanent vs. temporary
16 System Performance and Standards EfficiencyA measure of what is produced divided by what is consumedEffectivenessA measure of the extent to which a system achieves its goalsSystem performance standardA specific objective of the system (next 2 slides)
19 System Variables and Parameters A quantity or item that can be controlled by the decision makerE.g. the price a company charges for a productSystem parameterA value or quantity that cannot be controlled by the decision makerE.g., cost of a raw material
20 Modeling a System Model Types of models An abstraction or an approximation that is used to represent realityTypes of modelsNarrative (aka descriptive)PhysicalSchematicMathematicalNext slide
22 Information System (IS) DefinitionA set of interrelated elements or components that collect (input), manipulate (process), and disseminate (output) data and information and provide a feedback mechanism to meet an objective(IS) Pronounced as separate letters, and short for Information Systems or Information Services. For many companies, IS is the name of the department responsible for computers, networking and data management. Other companies refer to the department as IT (Information Technology) and MIS (Management Information Services).
23 What is an Information System? Schematic model of an information systemFeedbackInputProcessingOutput
24 Input, Processing, Output, The activity of gathering and capturing dataWhatever goes into the computerProcessingConverting or transforming data into useful outputsOutputUseful information, usually in the form of documents and/or reportsAnything that comes out of a computer
25 Input ‘Discussion’(n) Whatever goes into the computer. Input can take a variety of forms, from commands you enter on a keyboard to data from another computer or device. A device that feeds data into a computer, such as a keyboard or mouse, is called an input device.(v) The act of entering data into a computer
26 Output ‘Discussion’(n) Anything that comes out of a computer. Output can be meaningful information or gibberish, and it can appear in a variety of forms -- as binary numbers, as characters, as pictures, and as printed pages. Output devices include display screens, loudspeakers, and printers.(v) To give out. For example, display screens output images, printers output print, and loudspeakers output sounds.
27 Feedback Feedback Forecasting Output that is used to make changes to input or processing activitiesForecastingA proactive approach to feedbackUse for estimating future sales or inventory needs
28 Manual vs. Computerized Systems Manual systems still widely usedE.g., some investment analysts manual draw charts and trend lines to assist them in making investment decisionsComputerized systemsE.g., the above trends lines can be drawn by computerEvolutionMany computerized system began as manual systemsE.g., directory assistance (“411”)
29 Computer-based Information Systems A CBIS is composed of…HardwareSoftwareDatabasesTelecommunicationsPeopleProceduresTogether they are…Configured to collect, manipulate, store, and process data into information
30 Technology Infrastructure Another term for CBISConsists of the shared information system (IS) resources that form the foundation of the information system
31 Parts of a CBIS Five parts Hardware Software Database TelecommunicationsNetworks
32 Parts of a CBIS Five parts Hardware Software Database TelecommunicationsNetworks
33 HardwareHardwareComputer equipment used to perform input, processing, and output activitiesThe objects that you can actually touch, like disks, disk drives, display screens, keyboards, printers, boards, and chips.
34 Hardware ‘Discussion’ Hardware refers to objects that you can actually touch, like disks, disk drives, display screens, keyboards, printers, boards, and chips. In contrast, software is untouchable. Software exists as ideas, concepts, and symbols, but it has no substance.Books provide a useful analogy. The pages and the ink are the hardware, while the words, sentences, paragraphs, and the overall meaning are the software. A computer without software is like a book full of blank pages -- you need software to make the computer useful just as you need words to make a book meaningful.
35 Parts of a CBIS Five parts Hardware Software Database TelecommunicationsNetworks
36 SoftwareSoftwareComputer programs that govern/determine/control the operation of the computerComputer instructions or data
37 Software ‘Discussion’ (1) Software is computer instructions or data. Anything that can be stored electronically is software. The storage devices and display devices are hardware.The terms software and hardware are used as both nouns and adjectives. For example, you can say: "The problem lies in the software," meaning that there is a problem with the program or data, not with the computer itself. You can also say: "It's a software problem.“
38 Software ‘Discussion’ (2) The distinction between software and hardware is sometimes confusing because they are so integrally linked. Clearly, when you purchase a program, you are buying software. But to buy the software, you need to buy the disk (hardware) on which the software is recorded.Software is often divided into two categories. Systems software includes the operating system and all the utilities that enable the computer to function. Applications software includes programs that do real work for users. For example, word processors, spreadsheets, and database management systems fall under the category of applications software.
39 Parts of a CBIS Five parts Hardware Software Database TelecommunicationsNetworks
40 Database Database An organized collection of facts and information A collection of information organized in such a way that a computer program can quickly select desired pieces of data
41 Database ‘Discussion’ (1) A database is a collection of information organized in such a way that a computer program can quickly select desired pieces of data.You can think of a database as an electronic filing system. Traditional databases are organized by fields, records, and files. A field is a single piece of information; a record is one complete set of fields; and a file is a collection of records. For example, a telephone book is analogous to a file. It contains a list of records, each of which consists of three fields: name, address, and telephone number.
42 Database ‘Discussion’ (2) An alternative concept in database design is known as Hypertext. In a Hypertext database, any object, whether it be a piece of text, a picture, or a film, can be linked to any other object. Hypertext databases are particularly useful for organizing large amounts of disparate information, but they are not designed for numerical analysis.To access information from a database, you need a database management system (DBMS). This is a collection of programs that enables you to enter, organize, and select data in a database.
44 Parts of a CBIS Five parts Hardware Software Database TelecommunicationsNetworks
45 Telecommunications Telecommunications The electronic transmission of signals for communications; enables organizations to link computer systems into effective networksRefers to all types of data transmission, from voice to video
46 Parts of a CBIS Five parts Hardware Software Database TelecommunicationsNetworks
47 NetworksNetworkUsed to connect computers and computer equipment in a building, around the country, across the world, to enable electronic communicationsA group of two or more computer systems linked together
48 Network ‘Discussion’ (1) There are many types of computer networks, including:local-area networks (LANs) : The computers aregeographically close together (that is, in the same building).wide-area networks (WANs) : The computers are farther apart and are connected by telephone lines or radio waves.
49 Network ‘Discussion’ (2) In addition to these types, the following characteristics are also used to categorize different types of networks:topology : The geometric arrangement of a computer system. Common topologies include a bus, star, and ring.protocol : The protocol defines a common set of rules and signals that computers on the network use to communicate. One of the most popular protocols for LANs is called Ethernet. Another popular LAN protocol for PCs is the IBM token-ring network .architecture : Networks can be broadly classified as using either a peer-to-peer or client/server architecture.
50 Network ‘Discussion’ (3) Computers on a network are sometimes called nodes.Computers and devices that allocate resources for a network are called servers.
52 Internet and Intranet Internet Intranet The world’s largest telecommunications networkA network of networksFree exchange of informationA global network connecting millions of computersIntranetA network that uses Internet technology within an organizationA network belonging to an organization
53 People and Procedures People Procedures The most important element in most computer-based information systemsIncludes people who manage, run, program, and maintain the systemE.g., IT professionals (you!)ProceduresIncludes the strategies, policies, methods, and rules for using the CBIS
54 Business Information Systems TypesTransaction processing systemsE-commerce systemsManagement information systemsDecision support systemsExpert systems
55 Transactions Processing Systems Any business-related exchangeE.g., generating a weekly payrollTransaction processing system (TPS)An organized collection of people, procedures, software, databases, and devices used to record completed for for business related exchanges
57 Business Information Systems TypesTransaction processing systemsE-commerce systemsManagement information systemsDecision support systemsExpert systems
58 E-Commerce System E-commerce Involves any business transaction executed electronicallyConducting business on-lineFor example, between…CompaniesCompanies and consumersBusiness and the public sectorConsumers and the public sectorExample for placing a purchase order
61 Business Information Systems TypesTransaction processing systemsE-commerce systemsManagement information systemsDecision support systemsExpert systems
62 Management Information Systems An MIS is…An organized collection of people, procedures, software, databases, and devices used to provide routine information to managers and decision makers
63 Schematic of MIS Marketing management Manufacturing management informationsystemManufacturingmanagementInformationsystemCommondatabasesFinancialmanagementInformationsystemOrdermanagementinformationsystemTPS
64 MIS ‘Discussion’ Short for management information system or management information services, and pronounced as separate letters, MISrefers to a class of software that provides managers with tools fororganizing and evaluating their department. Typically, MIS systemsare written in COBOL and run on mainframes or minicomputers.Within companies and large organizations, the departmentresponsible for computer systems is sometimes called the MISdepartment. Other names for MIS include IS (Information Services)and IT (Information Technology).
65 Business Information Systems TypesTransaction processing systemsE-commerce systemsManagement information systemsDecision support systemsExpert systems
66 Decision Support Systems A DSS is…An organized collection of people, procedures, software, databases, and devices used to support problem-specific decision makingA DSS helps a manger “do the right thing”
67 Business Information Systems TypesTransaction processing systemsE-commerce systemsManagement information systemsDecision support systemsExpert systems
68 Expert Systems An expert system is… A computer application that performs a task that would otherwise be performed by a human expertgives the computer the ability to make suggestions and to act like an expert in a particular fieldExamples: diagnose human illnesses, make financial forecasts, schedule routes for delivery vehiclesExpert systems typically include “artificial intelligence” (next slide)
69 Artificial Intelligence (1) The branch of computer science concerned with making computersbehave like humans. The term was coined in 1956 by John McCarthyat the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Artificial intelligenceincludesgames playing: programming computers to play games such as chess and checkersexpert systems : programming computers to make decisions in real-life situations (for example, some expert systems help doctors diagnose diseases based on symptoms)natural language : programming computers to understand natural human languages
70 Artificial Intelligence (2) neural networks : Systems that simulate intelligence by attempting to reproduce the types of physical connections that occur in animal brainsrobotics : programming computers to see and hear and react to other sensory stimuliCurrently, no computers exhibit full artificial intelligence (that is, areable to simulate human behavior). The greatest advances haveoccurred in the field of games playing. The best computer chessprograms are now capable of beating humans. In May, 1997, an IBMsuper-computer called Deep Blue defeated world chess champion
71 Artificial Intelligence (3) Gary Kasparov in a chess match.In the area of robotics, computers are now widely used in assemblyplants, but they are capable only of very limited tasks. Robots havegreat difficulty identifying objects based on appearance or feel, andthey still move and handle objects clumsily.Natural-language processing offers the greatest potential rewardsbecause it would allow people to interact with computers withoutneeding any specialized knowledge. You could simply walk up to a
72 Artificial Intelligence (4) computer and talk to it. Unfortunately, programming computers tounderstand natural languages has proved to be more difficult thanoriginally thought. Some rudimentary translation systems thattranslate from one human language to another are in existence, butthey are not nearly as good as human translators. There are alsovoice recognition systems that can convert spoken sounds intowritten words, but they do not understand what they are writing;they simply take dictation. Even these systems are quite limited --you must speak slowly and distinctly.
73 Artificial Intelligence (5) In the early 1980s, expert systems were believed to represent thefuture of artificial intelligence and of computers in general. To date,however, they have not lived up to expectations. Many expertsystems help human experts in such fields as medicine andengineering, but they are very expensive to produce and are helpfulonly in special situations.Today, the hottest area of artificial intelligence is neural networks,which are proving successful in a number of disciplines such as voicerecognition and natural-language processing.
74 Artificial Intelligence (6) There are several programming languages that are known as AIlanguages because they are used almost exclusively for AIapplications. The two most common are LISP and Prolog.
75 Working with Systems (1) Systems developmentThe activity of creating or modifying an existing business systemSystems investigation and analysisDefines the problems and opportunities of an existing systemSystems designDetermine how a new system will work to meet business needs
76 Working with Systems (2) Systems implementationCreating and acquiring system components defined in the designSystems maintenance and reviewChecks and modifies the system so that it continues to meet changing business needs