2 Learning Objectives Theoretical foundations of change management. Lewins planned approach to change Organisational Development Models of Organisational Change Emergent Approach of Change Role of change agent
4 The Individual Perspective School All behaviour is learned; In order to change behaviour, it is necessary to change the conditions that causes it (Skinner, 1974). Behaviour modification is used to modify the behaviour of individuals (rewards etc) Individual should also understand of themselves and the situation which they believe, will lead to changes in behaviour (Gestalf-field perspective).
5 The Group Dynamics School This school emphasis on bringing about organisational change through teams or work groups, rather than individuals (Bernstein, 1968). The focus of change must be at the group level and should concentrte on influencing and changing the group’s norms, roles and values (Cummings and Huse, 1989)
6 The Open Systems School They sees organisations as composed of a number of interconnected sub-systems. Any change in one part of the system will have an impact on other parts of the system and, in turn, on its overall performance (Scott, 1987). They emphasis on overall synergy through clearly defined lines of coordination to pursue overall business objectives.
8 Planned Change Planned Change Activities that are intentional and goal oriented. Goals of Planned Change: –Improving the ability of the organization to adapt to changes in its environment. –Changing the behavior of individuals and groups in the organization.
12 Field Theory This is an approach to understanding group behaviour by trying to map out the totality and complexity of the field in which the behaviour takes place.
13 Force Field analysis A method proposing that two sets of forces operate in any system-forces that operate for change (the driving forces) and forces that operate against change (the resisting forces). If the two sets of forces are equal in strength, then the system is in equilibrium
14 Force field analysis Source: Samulson, 2003
15 Group Dynamics Group behaviour, rather than that of individuals should be the main focus of change (Lewin, 1947). Action Research It is based on Gestalt psychology, which stresses that change can only successfully be achieved by helping individuals to reflect on and gain new insights into the totality of their situation. It stresses that for change to be effective, it must take place at the group level and must be a participative and collaborative process which involves all of those concerned (Lewin, 1947)
17 Kurt Lewin’s three-step change processKurt Lewin’s three-step change process Unfreezing Status quo(1) Changing Refreezing Status quo(2) Driving forces ↑ Restraining forces↓ Equilibrium status
18 Three distinct steps for achieving behavioural and attitudinal change Unfreezing the diagnosis stage Participants are made aware of problems in order to increase their willingness to change their behaviour. Changing the intervention stage Individuals experiment with new workplace behaviour. Re-freezing the reinforcement stage Individuals acquire a desired new skill or attitude and are rewarded for it by the organisation.
24 Can we use Lewins approach to all the three models of change? 24
28 The emergent approach to successful change Organisational structure Organisational culture Organisational learning Managerial behaviour Power and politics
29 Harvard Professor John P. Kotter’s eight-step plan for implementing change 1Establish a sense of urgency. 2Form a powerful coalition of managers. 3Create a vision to direct the change and the strategies for achieving that vision. 4Communicate the vision throughout the organisation. 5Empower others to act on the vision. 6Plan for visible, short-term performance improvements and crate those improvements. 7Consolidate improvements. 8Articulate the relationship between new behaviors and organisational success.
30 Change Agent People who act as a catalysts and assume the responsibility for managing the change process.