Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Approaches to Change Management

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "Approaches to Change Management"— Presentation transcript:

1 Approaches to Change Management
Managing Change Approaches to Change Management Lecture 4 Chapter 8 & 9

2 Learning Objectives Theoretical foundations of change management.
Lewins planned approach to change Organisational Development Models of Organisational Change Emergent Approach of Change Role of change agent

3 3

4 The Individual Perspective School
All behaviour is learned; In order to change behaviour, it is necessary to change the conditions that causes it (Skinner, 1974). Behaviour modification is used to modify the behaviour of individuals (rewards etc) Individual should also understand of themselves and the situation which they believe, will lead to changes in behaviour (Gestalf-field perspective).

5 The Group Dynamics School
This school emphasis on bringing about organisational change through teams or work groups, rather than individuals (Bernstein, 1968). The focus of change must be at the group level and should concentrte on influencing and changing the group’s norms, roles and values (Cummings and Huse, 1989)

6 The Open Systems School
They sees organisations as composed of a number of interconnected sub-systems. Any change in one part of the system will have an impact on other parts of the system and, in turn, on its overall performance (Scott, 1987). They emphasis on overall synergy through clearly defined lines of coordination to pursue overall business objectives.

7 7

8 Planned Change Planned Change Activities that are intentional and goal oriented. Goals of Planned Change: Improving the ability of the organization to adapt to changes in its environment. Changing the behavior of individuals and groups in the organization.

9 9

10 10

11 11

12 Field Theory This is an approach to understanding group behaviour by trying to map out the totality and complexity of the field in which the behaviour takes place.

13 Force Field analysis A method proposing that two sets of forces operate in any system-forces that operate for change (the driving forces) and forces that operate against change (the resisting forces). If the two sets of forces are equal in strength, then the system is in equilibrium

14 Force field analysis Source: Samulson, 2003

15 Group Dynamics Group behaviour, rather than that of individuals should be the main focus of change (Lewin, 1947). Action Research It is based on Gestalt psychology, which stresses that change can only successfully be achieved by helping individuals to reflect on and gain new insights into the totality of their situation. It stresses that for change to be effective, it must take place at the group level and must be a participative and collaborative process which involves all of those concerned (Lewin, 1947)

16 16

17 Kurt Lewin’s three-step change process
Refreezing Status quo(2) Unfreezing Status quo(1) Driving forces ↑ Restraining forces↓ Equilibrium status Changing

18 Three distinct steps for achieving behavioural and attitudinal change
Unfreezing the diagnosis stage Participants are made aware of problems in order to increase their willingness to change their behaviour. Changing the intervention stage Individuals experiment with new workplace behaviour. Re-freezing the reinforcement stage Individuals acquire a desired new skill or attitude and are rewarded for it by the organisation.

19 19

20 20

21 21

22 22

23 23

24 Can we use Lewins approach to all the three models of change?

25 25

26 26

27 27

28 The emergent approach to successful change
Organisational structure Organisational culture Organisational learning Managerial behaviour Power and politics

29 Harvard Professor John P
Harvard Professor John P. Kotter’s eight-step plan for implementing change 1 Establish a sense of urgency. 2 Form a powerful coalition of managers. 3 Create a vision to direct the change and the strategies for achieving that vision. 4 Communicate the vision throughout the organisation. 5 Empower others to act on the vision. 6 Plan for visible, short-term performance improvements and crate those improvements. 7 Consolidate improvements. 8 Articulate the relationship between new behaviors and organisational success.

30 Change Agent People who act as a catalysts and assume the responsibility for managing the change process.

31 31

32 32

Download ppt "Approaches to Change Management"

Similar presentations

Ads by Google