Presentation on theme: "30 Most Important Articles in Emergency Management Associate Professor Scot Phelps MPA in Emergency & Disaster Management School of Public Affairs & Administration."— Presentation transcript:
30 Most Important Articles in Emergency Management Associate Professor Scot Phelps MPA in Emergency & Disaster Management School of Public Affairs & Administration Metropolitan College
What I am Trying to do? Identify top articles in emergency management Prefer peer-reviewed. Can include short “white papers” and government reports END GOAL: reproduce into “little red book” and distribute for free to practicing emergency managers to bridge the academic- practitioner gap
History & Background Emergencies, Disaster and Catastrophes Are Different Phenomena. E.L. Quarantelli, 2000.Emergencies, Disaster and Catastrophes Are Different Phenomena.E.L. Quarantelli, Local Emergency Management Agencies: Research Findings on their Progress and Problems in the Last Two Decades. E. L. Quarantelli, 1988.Local Emergency Management Agencies: Research Findings on their Progress and Problems in the Last Two DecadesE. L. Quarantelli, Disaster Response: Principles of Preparation & Coordination. The Apathy Factor & Disasters are Different. Eric Auf der Heide. The Apathy Factor Disasters are DifferentEric Auf der Heide.
Culture of Disasters Disaster Response: Principles of Preparation & Coordination. Communication with the Public. Eric Auf der Heide. Communication with the Public Eric Auf der Heide. Noah and Disaster Planning: The Cultural Significance of The Flood Story. Russell R. Dynes, 1998.Noah and Disaster Planning: The Cultural Significance of The Flood StoryRussell R. Dynes, 1998.
Planning NFPA 1600, 2007 Standard on Disaster/Emergency Management and Business Continuity Programs. - National Fire Protection AssociationNFPA 1600, 2007 Standard on Disaster/Emergency Management and Business Continuity Programs. National Fire Protection Association Disaster Response: Principles of Preparation & Coordination. The "Paper" Plan Syndrome. Eric Auf der Heide.The "Paper" Plan SyndromeEric Auf der Heide. “Characteristics of Effective Emergency Management Organizational Structures.” Public Entity Risk Institute. 2003“Characteristics of Effective Emergency Management Organizational Structures.” Public Entity Risk Institute Seven Items Often Overlooked in Disaster Planning. Seven Lewis.Seven Items Often Overlooked in Disaster PlanningSeven Lewis.
Planning, Continued Major Criteria for Judging Disaster Planning and Managing Their Applicability in Development Societies. E. L. Quarantelli, 1998.Major Criteria for Judging Disaster Planning and Managing Their Applicability in Development SocietiesE. L. Quarantelli, Technological and Natural Disasters and Ecological Problems: Similarities and Differences in Planning For and Managing Them. E. L. Quarantelli, 1993.Technological and Natural Disasters and Ecological Problems: Similarities and Differences in Planning For and Managing ThemE. L. Quarantelli, How Individuals and Groups React During Disasters: Planning and Managing Implications for EMS Delivery. E. L. Quarantelli, How Individuals and Groups React During Disasters: Planning and Managing Implications for EMS DeliveryE. L. Quarantelli, Pitching Preparedness. Philip Jan RothsteinPitching PreparednessPhilip Jan Rothstein
Communication Disaster Response: Principles of Preparation & Coordination. The Media: Friend and Foe & Inter-agency Communications. Eric Auf der Heide.The Media: Friend and Foe Inter-agency CommunicationsEric Auf der Heide. Patterns of Media Coverage of the Terrorist Attacks on the United States in September of Christine M. Rodrigue, 2002.Patterns of Media Coverage of the Terrorist Attacks on the United States in September of 2001Christine M. Rodrigue, Dilemmas in Emergency Communication Policy. Peter Sandman, 2002.Dilemmas in Emergency Communication PolicyPeter Sandman, Obvious or Suspected, Here or Elsewhere, Now or Then: Paradigms of Emergency Events. Peter Sandman, 2003.Obvious or Suspected, Here or Elsewhere, Now or Then: Paradigms of Emergency Events. Peter Sandman, 2003.
Mitigation Socio-Economic Aspects of Hazard Mitigation. Kathleen J. Tierney, 1993.Socio-Economic Aspects of Hazard MitigationKathleen J. Tierney, Issues for Post-Disaster Mitigation: The Need For a Process. Joanne M. Nigg, 1996.Issues for Post-Disaster Mitigation: The Need For a ProcessJoanne M. Nigg, A Case Study of the Enactment of a State Building Code in South Carolina. Elliott Mittler A Case Study of the Enactment of a State Building Code in South CarolinaElliott Mittler A Case Study of Florida's Homeowners' Insurance Since Hurricane Andrew. Elliott Mittler A Case Study of Florida's Homeowners' Insurance Since Hurricane AndrewElliott Mittler
Private Sector Getting Down to Business Business Executives for National Security.Getting Down to BusinessBusiness Executives for National Security. Determinants of Business Disaster Preparedness in Two U.S. Metropolitan Areas. James M. Dahlhamer and Melvin J. D'Souza, 1995.Determinants of Business Disaster Preparedness in Two U.S. Metropolitan AreasJames M. Dahlhamer and Melvin J. D'Souza, Impacts of Recent U.S. Disasters On Businesses: The 1993 Midwest Floods and the 1994 Northridge Earthquake. Kathleen J. Tierney, 1995.Impacts of Recent U.S. Disasters On Businesses: The 1993 Midwest Floods and the 1994 Northridge EarthquakeKathleen J. Tierney, Disaster Recovery Institute Professional PracticesDisaster Recovery Institute Professional Practices
Government Multi-organizational Coordination During the Response to the March 28, 2000, Fort Worth Tornado: An Assessment of Constraining and Contributing Factors. David A. McEntire, 2001.Multi-organizational Coordination During the Response to the March 28, 2000, Fort Worth Tornado: An Assessment of Constraining and Contributing FactorsDavid A. McEntire, 2001.
Response Disaster Response: Principles of Preparation & Coordination. Resource Management (281K). Eric Auf der Heide.Resource Management (281K)Eric Auf der Heide. The Importance of Social Capital in Disaster Response. Russell R. Dynes, 2002.The Importance of Social Capital in Disaster Response.Russell R. Dynes, 2002.
Recovery The Disaster Recovery Process: What We Know And Do Not Know From Research. E. L. Quarantelli, 1999.The Disaster Recovery Process: What We Know And Do Not Know From ResearchE. L. Quarantelli, 1999.
Future Programs and Policies That Ought to Be Implemented For Coping With Future Disasters. E. L. Quarantell, 2003.Programs and Policies That Ought to Be Implemented For Coping With Future Disasters.E. L. Quarantell, 2003.
Books- I Hate them, But I Always Use These Two: The Fast Forward MBA in Project Management. Edward Verzuh, Disaster: Hurricane Katrina and the Failure of Homeland Security. Christopher Cooper & Robert Block, 2006.
Agree-Disagree-Have One to Add- Let Me Know! Scot Phelps
Emergencies, Disaster and Catastrophes Are Different Phenomena Clearly explains the differences between the three types of events, the impact on the community, and why response is so necessarily different. Key to understanding why Katrina was such a failure- FEMA is a disaster-response agency.
Local Emergency Management Agencies: Research Findings on their Progress and Problems in the Last Two Decades Diversity of emergency management organizations Historical perspective Reflect local political realities Value of plans vs. planning Crisis perspective vs. Social “Back to Normal” perspective Chaos vs. Organization
Disaster Response: Principles of Preparation & Coordination. The Apathy Factor & Disasters are Different Organizations Change Internally Organizations Share Tasks and Resources Involvement of Non-emergency Responders Crossing of Jurisdictional Boundaries Non-routine Tasks Situation Analysis Multi-organizational Resource Management Inter-agency Communications Logistical Support Search and Rescue Triage and Casualty Distribution Casualty Lists Issuance of Passes Hazardous Material Problems Handling of the Dead Other Tasks
Disaster Response: Principles of Preparation & Coordination. Communication with the Public Warning The Absence of Panic Reluctance to Evacuate Premature Return Reasons for Hesitancy to Evacuate Context of the Warning Message Consistency Legitimacy Specificity Courses of Action Relatives Reverse 911 (Push information) Call centers (Pull information)
Noah and Disaster Planning: The Cultural Significance of The Flood Story Floods as a sign of God’s displeasure vs.. floods as natural act (doesn’t point to culture and govt.) “Obedient to God’s Control” Disasters as Renewal-Travis Bickle “someday a real rain will come and wash all the scum off the streets.” 3 Models of Disasters: –End of the World Model –Mass Media Model-One Hero –Command and control model
NFPA 1600, 2007 Standard on Disaster/Emergency Management and Business Continuity Programs The relevant standard for emergency management/business continuity programs
Disaster Response: Principles of Preparation & Coordination. The "Paper" Plan Syndrome The “Paper Plan” Syndrome “Paper Plans” vs. Disaster Response Planning Based on Valid Assumptions About Human Behavior Inter-Organizational Perspective Realistic Support for Disaster Planning Involvement of Disaster Plan Users
Characteristics of Effective Emergency Management Organizational Structures (1) Roles of Elected Officials Defined  Strong and Definitive Lines of Command  Similar Routine / Disaster Organizational Structures  Emergency Management Procedures Are as Close to Routine Operational Procedures as Possible  Good Interpersonal Relationships  Emergency Management Planning = Ongoing Activity  All Hazard Approach  Disaster Prevention and Mitigation  Motivation Provided for Involvement in the Emergency Management Program  Citizen Involvement  Strong Coordination Among Participating Agencies  Public / Private Cooperation  Multiple Use of Resources  Public Information Function Clearly Defined  Ongoing Monitoring for Potential Disasters  Internal Alerting Procedures  Ability to Alert the Public Maximized  Active Intergovernmental Coordination  Ability to Maintain Comprehensive Records During a Disaster  Eligibility for State and Federal Subsidies Considered
Seven Items Often Overlooked in Disaster Planning Missing things “too close to see.” Ignoring employee’s relevant personal-life situations Failure to track out-of-the-ordinary situations Intuitively assuming how other departments function Not learning the needs of emergency organizations outside of the company Forgetting “unforgettable” events Ignoring “external” factors
Major Criteria for Judging Disaster Planning and Managing Their Applicability in Development Societies 10 Fundamentals of Planning: Process, Not Result Disasters are not the same as Emergencies Generic rather than Specific Emergent resource coordination rather than Command and Control Principles not Details Based on what is likely (not worst case) Vertically & Horizontally Integrated Identify likely problems/simple solutions Use knowledge not myths (panic-disorder- dependency) Planning & Management are not the same.
Technological and Natural Disasters and Ecological Problems: Similarities and Differences in Planning For and Managing Them Crisis vs. Non-Crisis Consensus crisis vs. conflict crisis Agent specific response vs. capability specific response (all hazards) Hazard (act) vs. Disaster (impact) Social construct of disasters –Find the social solution –Disaster response is a social/political issue and not a technical issue –Social solutions can be proactive –Internal vs. external factors –In the context of society’s rules Typology –How many affected (proportion)? –Social centrality of those affected –Time & Space of community involvement –Recurrence Affected population –Length of involvement –Unfamiliarity –Predictability –Depth
How Individuals and Groups React During Disasters: Planning and Managing Implications for EMS Delivery Myths: –Panic –Passivity –Antisocial –Traumatized –Self-Centered “People respond well in disasters, organizations may not.” “Disasters are Different” Organizational impact: –quickly relate to far more and different groups –adjust to losing a part of their autonomy; –apply different performance standards; – operate within a closer public and private sector interface; –respond to being directly impacted themselves “Plan generically” “Be integrated into the COMMUNITY” “Emergent resource coordination- NOT command & control” “General principles, not details” “Planning as process, not planning as document” “Anticipate problems and think through solutions” “What is really likely to happen-think horses not zebras” (not worst- case) “It is not what I know I don’t know that worries me, it is what I don’t know I don’t know that worries me.”
Pitching Preparedness Making a Case Investment Justification Learning from Experience Getting Graphic Re-Focus Improves Focus Ready for Results The Bottom Line
Disaster Response: Principles of Preparation & Coordination. The Media: Friend and Foe & Inter- agency Communications Disasters are a Media Event The Media as “friend” The Media as “foe” Interference with Disaster Operations How the Media Operates in Disasters Information-seeking Behavior The Media are Different in Disasters The “Command Post” Perspective Improving Disaster Media Operations Centralizing Public Communication COMMUNICATIONS PROBLEMS IN DISASTERS RELATIONSHIP OF COMMUNICATION TO COORDINATION THE IMPORTANCE OF "PRE-INCIDENT" COMMUNICATIONS TECHNICAL ASPECTS
Patterns of Media Coverage of the Terrorist Attacks on the United States in September of 2001 Terrorism Meta- themes Disaster Crime War 10 Themes Context Diplomacy Impact Investigation Military Mitigation Reactions Reconstruction Response Restoration
Dilemmas in Emergency Communication Policy 1. Candor versus secrecy 2. Speculation versus refusal to speculate 3. Tentativeness versus confidence 4. Being alarming versus being reassuring 5. Being human versus being professional 6. Being apologetic versus being defensive 7. Decentralization versus centralization 8. Democracy and individual control versus expert decision-making 9. Planning for denial and misery versus planning for panic 10. Erring on the side of caution versus taking chances
Obvious or Suspected, Here or Elsewhere, Now or Then: Paradigms of Emergency Events 1. Obvious/here/future 2. Obvious/here/past 3. Obvious/elsewhere/now 4. Suspected/here/now 5. Suspected/here/future 6. Suspected/here/past
Socio-Economic Aspects of Hazard Mitigation Level of mitigation Long-term view Risk and mitigation are loosely coupled Mitigation is not seen as important in society Disasters and champions play an important role Mitigation must be viewed in a social context Mitigation is planned social change
Issues for Post-Disaster Mitigation: The Need For a Process Recovery as a social process Need to have mitigation plan during recovery, but need to develop it ahead of time because you’re rushed during recovery. A Suggested Strategy for pre- planning post-disaster mitigation
A Case Study of the Enactment of a State Building Code in South Carolina Describes PROSPECTIVE mitigation measures and the problems with the political process
A Case Study of Florida's Homeowners' Insurance Since Hurricane Andrew Describes the RETROACTIVE mitigation response to Hurricane Andrew measures and how political decisions in each phase of the disaster process affected each other
Getting Down to Business Public-Private Collaboration –The American private sector must be systematically integrated into the nation’s response to disasters, natural and man-made alike. Government alone cannot manage major crises nor effectively integrate the private sector after a crisis occurs. –The Task Force believes that building public/private collaborative partnerships, starting at the state level, is one of the most important steps that can be taken now to prepare the nation for future contingencies. Unfortunately, with few exceptions, durable, collaborative relationships do not today exist. Surge Capacity/Supply Chain Management –America’s existing commercial supply chains can provide a wider range of goods and services on demand than any level of government can possibly match. During national disasters, these supply chains have provided goods and services both with and without payment from an end user. –Government at all levels should incorporate such capabilities into disaster response planning. For the most part, government has so far failed to do so. Legal & Regulatory Environment –Business requires a predictable legal regime to operate efficiently in an emergency situation, whether that business is engaged in charitable or profit-motivated activities. The current legal and regulatory environment is conducive to neither predictability nor efficiency.
Determinants of Business Disaster Preparedness in Two U.S. Metropolitan Areas Size of firm directly related to preparedness Age of firm (over/under 6) directly related to preparedness Chain stores more likely to be prepared Firms that either manage an activity (lodging) or respond are more likely to be prepared. Own or lease? Prior experience with disaster Finance, Insurance, Real Estate more likely
Impacts of Recent U.S. Disasters On Businesses: The 1993 Midwest Floods and the 1994 Northridge Earthquake The two disasters had very different impact patterns. In Los Angeles, physical earthquake damage was quite widespread. In Des Moines, physical flooding was confined to a relatively small segment of the business community, but lifeline service interruption was very extensive. Business properties may escape direct damage and yet suffer extensive disruption as a result of lifeline service outages. Other factors such as disruption in the flow of materials into and out of the business and the loss of customers contributed to business disruption. Large businesses were more likely to carry such insurance coverage than smaller ones. The business owners surveyed also showed a tendency not to use Federal disaster loan assistance and other formally-designated sources of recovery aid. Following the floods and the earthquake, business owners generally used their personal savings to offset their losses. It thus appears that one of the significant short-term effects of disasters is to drain profits and divert resources that could otherwise be used to finance business expansion. The Los Angeles data in particular suggest that small businesses are especially vulnerable to disaster-related losses and disruption.
Disaster Recovery Institute Professional Practices Project Initiation and Management Risk Evaluation and Control Business Impact Analysis Developing Business Continuity Strategies Emergency Response and Operations Developing and Implementing Business Continuity Plans Awareness Programs and Training Maintaining and Exercising the Business Continuity Plans Crisis Communications Coordination with External Agencies
Multi-organizational Coordination During the Response to the March 28, 2000, Fort Worth Tornado: An Assessment of Constraining and Contributing Factors THE NEED FOR COORDINATION – Warning and Evacuation – Medical Response and Incident Management – Search and Rescue – Damage Assessment and Disaster Declaration – Public Safety and Perimeter Control – Debris Removal and Clean up – Sheltering – Donations Management and Disaster Assistance – Utility Restoration – Public Information and Business Resumption CONSTRAINTS – information challenges, – a lack of communication between the field and emergency operations center, – equipment failures, – language barriers, and – command and control mentality. CONTRIBUTING FACTORS – political support for emergency management, – preparedness measures, – networking and cooperative relationships, – technology, and – the nature and use of the emergency operations center.
Disaster Response: Principles of Preparation & Coordination. Resource Management THE PROBLEM OF OVER-RESPONSE There are five main reasons why resource excesses may occur in disasters: The resources surviving in the disaster-stricken community are greater than expected. People react to disasters with a spirit of concern and generosity. Assuming that resources are deficient and the community is incapacitated, outsiders send resources into the disaster area in large amounts---even if they have not been specifically requested. The determination of responsibility and establishment of procedures for assessing and requesting the overall resources needed are often neglected. Because of the lack of clearly defined contact points, absence of compatible radio frequencies, non-functional or overloaded telephone circuits, and communications overload, it is often difficult for those offering help to contact someone who can tell them whether or not they are needed. Assuming it is almost certain that help is needed and that too many resources are better than too few, they choose in favor of responding. It is often difficult for the recipients of unsolicited assistance to refuse it.
The Importance of Social Capital in Disaster Response Obligations & Expectations –reordered priorities –citizenship demands –social demands –family obligations Information Potential –demand up –flow up(?) –hears/understands/believes/personalizes/decides –venue Norms & Sanctions Authority Relations Appropriate Social Organization Intentional Organizations 3 Views: Destruction of Human Capital, Physical Capital, or Social Capital. Social capital between people, least affected in disaster. Hazards are a geophysical concept, disasters are a social concept
The Disaster Recovery Process: What We Know And Do Not Know From Research 10 General themes: –Disaster victims tend to judge in relativistic terms. –Certain preimpact social locations or placements affect being helped in the recovery process.. –Social networks count. –Class counts. –Family is the predominant source of support. –Money counts. –Age counts. –There is a difference, and no necessarily strong correlation between perceptual/symbolic recovery and economic recovery. –The more temporary housing relocations occur, the more difficulties there will be in the recovery period. –There can be positive as well as negative consequences from involvement in the recovery process, social psychologically as well as socioeconomically.
The Disaster Recovery Process: What We Know And Do Not Know From Research The 3 “R’s”: –Restoration-things –Rehabilitation-people –Restitution-society For Those Assisting: Almost all of the assistance provided informally is less noticed and reported, than giving formal agencies A very typical characteristic is the emergent quality of disaster response. There tends to be relatively little coordination among the formal organizations involved in recovery efforts. Often overlooked are the personnel or staff problems of recovery organizations Also, unless there is systematic record keeping and a formal critique, there will be few lessons learned. Decisions on priorities in recovery activities often are not well understood by victims. Recovery assistance is strongly affected by political considerations.
Programs and Policies That Ought to Be Implemented For Coping With Future Disasters Disasters as social events All-hazards approach Mitigation is important Disaster planning needs to be integrated with social change and development planning Need to understand how disaster problem are the same or different from environmental problems Need to understand the benefits and limits of computing & technology