Presentation on theme: "30 Most Important Articles in Emergency Management"— Presentation transcript:
1 30 Most Important Articles in Emergency Management Associate Professor Scot PhelpsMPA in Emergency & Disaster ManagementSchool of Public Affairs & AdministrationMetropolitan College
2 What I am Trying to do?Identify top articles in emergency managementPrefer peer-reviewed. Can include short “white papers” and government reportsEND GOAL: reproduce into “little red book” and distribute for free to practicing emergency managers to bridge the academic-practitioner gap
3 History & BackgroundEmergencies, Disaster and Catastrophes Are Different Phenomena. E.L. Quarantelli, 2000.Local Emergency Management Agencies: Research Findings on their Progress and Problems in the Last Two Decades. E. L. Quarantelli, 1988.Disaster Response: Principles of Preparation & Coordination. The Apathy Factor & Disasters are Different. Eric Auf der Heide.
4 Culture of DisastersDisaster Response: Principles of Preparation & Coordination. Communication with the Public . Eric Auf der Heide.Noah and Disaster Planning: The Cultural Significance of The Flood Story. Russell R. Dynes, 1998.
5 PlanningNFPA 1600, 2007 Standard on Disaster/Emergency Management and Business Continuity Programs. -National Fire Protection AssociationDisaster Response: Principles of Preparation & Coordination. The "Paper" Plan Syndrome. Eric Auf der Heide.“Characteristics of Effective Emergency Management Organizational Structures.” Public Entity Risk InstituteSeven Items Often Overlooked in Disaster Planning. Seven Lewis.
6 Planning, ContinuedMajor Criteria for Judging Disaster Planning and Managing Their Applicability in Development Societies. E. L. Quarantelli, 1998.Technological and Natural Disasters and Ecological Problems: Similarities and Differences in Planning For and Managing Them. E. L. Quarantelli, 1993.How Individuals and Groups React During Disasters: Planning and Managing Implications for EMS Delivery. E. L. Quarantelli, 1989. Pitching Preparedness. Philip Jan Rothstein
7 CommunicationDisaster Response: Principles of Preparation & Coordination. The Media: Friend and Foe & Inter-agency Communications. Eric Auf der Heide.Patterns of Media Coverage of the Terrorist Attacks on the United States in September of Christine M. Rodrigue, 2002.Dilemmas in Emergency Communication Policy. Peter Sandman, 2002.Obvious or Suspected, Here or Elsewhere, Now or Then: Paradigms of Emergency Events. Peter Sandman, 2003.
8 MitigationSocio-Economic Aspects of Hazard Mitigation. Kathleen J. Tierney, 1993.Issues for Post-Disaster Mitigation: The Need For a Process. Joanne M. Nigg, 1996.A Case Study of the Enactment of a State Building Code in South Carolina. Elliott MittlerA Case Study of Florida's Homeowners' Insurance Since Hurricane Andrew. Elliott Mittler
9 Private SectorGetting Down to Business Business Executives for National Security.Determinants of Business Disaster Preparedness in Two U.S. Metropolitan Areas. James M. Dahlhamer and Melvin J. D'Souza, 1995.Impacts of Recent U.S. Disasters On Businesses: The 1993 Midwest Floods and the 1994 Northridge Earthquake. Kathleen J. Tierney, 1995.Disaster Recovery Institute Professional Practices
10 GovernmentMulti-organizational Coordination During the Response to the March 28, 2000, Fort Worth Tornado: An Assessment of Constraining and Contributing Factors. David A. McEntire, 2001.
11 ResponseDisaster Response: Principles of Preparation & Coordination. Resource Management (281K). Eric Auf der Heide.The Importance of Social Capital in Disaster Response. Russell R. Dynes, 2002.
12 RecoveryThe Disaster Recovery Process: What We Know And Do Not Know From Research. E. L. Quarantelli, 1999.
13 FuturePrograms and Policies That Ought to Be Implemented For Coping With Future Disasters. E. L. Quarantell, 2003.
14 Books- I Hate them, But I Always Use These Two: The Fast Forward MBA in Project Management. Edward Verzuh, 2005.Disaster: Hurricane Katrina and the Failure of Homeland Security. Christopher Cooper & Robert Block, 2006.
15 Agree-Disagree-Have One to Add-Let Me Know! Scot Phelps
16 Emergencies, Disaster and Catastrophes Are Different Phenomena Clearly explains the differences between the three types of events, the impact on the community, and why response is so necessarily different.Key to understanding why Katrina was such a failure- FEMA is a disaster-response agency.
17 Local Emergency Management Agencies: Research Findings on their Progress and Problems in the Last Two DecadesDiversity of emergency management organizationsHistorical perspectiveReflect local political realitiesValue of plans vs. planningCrisis perspective vs. Social “Back to Normal” perspectiveChaos vs. Organization
18 Disaster Response: Principles of Preparation & Coordination Disaster Response: Principles of Preparation & Coordination. The Apathy Factor & Disasters are DifferentOrganizations Change InternallyOrganizations Share Tasks and ResourcesInvolvement of Non-emergency RespondersCrossing of Jurisdictional BoundariesNon-routine Tasks Situation Analysis Multi-organizational Resource Management Inter-agency Communications Logistical Support Search and Rescue Triage and Casualty Distribution Casualty Lists Issuance of Passes Hazardous Material Problems Handling of the Dead Other Tasks
19 Disaster Response: Principles of Preparation & Coordination Disaster Response: Principles of Preparation & Coordination. Communication with the PublicWarningThe Absence of PanicReluctance to EvacuatePremature ReturnReasons for Hesitancy to EvacuateContext of the Warning MessageConsistencyLegitimacySpecificityCourses of ActionRelativesReverse 911 (Push information)Call centers (Pull information)
20 Noah and Disaster Planning: The Cultural Significance of The Flood Story Floods as a sign of God’s displeasure vs.. floods as natural act (doesn’t point to culture and govt.)“Obedient to God’s Control”Disasters as Renewal-Travis Bickle “someday a real rain will come and wash all the scum off the streets.”3 Models of Disasters:End of the World ModelMass Media Model-One HeroCommand and control model
21 NFPA 1600, 2007 Standard on Disaster/Emergency Management and Business Continuity Programs The relevant standard for emergency management/business continuity programs
22 Disaster Response: Principles of Preparation & Coordination Disaster Response: Principles of Preparation & Coordination. The "Paper" Plan SyndromeThe “Paper Plan” Syndrome“Paper Plans” vs. Disaster ResponsePlanning Based on Valid Assumptions About Human BehaviorInter-Organizational PerspectiveRealistic Support for Disaster PlanningInvolvement of Disaster Plan Users
23 Characteristics of Effective Emergency Management Organizational Structures (1) Roles of Elected Officials Defined Strong and Definitive Lines of Command Similar Routine / Disaster Organizational Structures Emergency Management Procedures Are as Close toRoutine Operational Procedures as Possible Good Interpersonal Relationships Emergency Management Planning = Ongoing Activity All Hazard Approach Disaster Prevention and Mitigation Motivation Provided for Involvement in the Emergency Management Program Citizen Involvement Strong Coordination Among Participating Agencies Public / Private Cooperation Multiple Use of Resources Public Information Function Clearly Defined Ongoing Monitoring for Potential Disasters Internal Alerting Procedures Ability to Alert the Public Maximized Active Intergovernmental Coordination Ability to Maintain Comprehensive Records During a Disaster Eligibility for State and Federal Subsidies Considered
24 Seven Items Often Overlooked in Disaster Planning Missing things “too close to see.”Ignoring employee’s relevant personal-life situationsFailure to track out-of-the-ordinary situationsIntuitively assuming how other departments functionNot learning the needs of emergency organizations outside of the companyForgetting “unforgettable” eventsIgnoring “external” factors
25 Major Criteria for Judging Disaster Planning and Managing Their Applicability in Development Societies10 Fundamentals of Planning:Process, Not ResultDisasters are not the same as EmergenciesGeneric rather than SpecificEmergent resource coordination rather than Command and ControlPrinciples not DetailsBased on what is likely (not worst case)Vertically & Horizontally IntegratedIdentify likely problems/simple solutionsUse knowledge not myths (panic-disorder-dependency)Planning & Management are not the same.
26 Technological and Natural Disasters and Ecological Problems: Similarities and Differences in Planning For and Managing ThemCrisis vs. Non-CrisisConsensus crisis vs. conflict crisisAgent specific response vs. capability specific response (all hazards)Hazard (act) vs. Disaster (impact)Social construct of disastersFind the social solutionDisaster response is a social/political issue and not a technical issueSocial solutions can be proactiveInternal vs. external factorsIn the context of society’s rulesTypologyHow many affected (proportion)?Social centrality of those affectedTime & Space of community involvementRecurrenceAffected populationLength of involvementUnfamiliarityPredictabilityDepth
27 How Individuals and Groups React During Disasters: Planning and Managing Implications for EMS DeliveryMyths:PanicPassivityAntisocialTraumatizedSelf-Centered“People respond well in disasters, organizations may not.”“Disasters are Different”Organizational impact:quickly relate to far more and different groupsadjust to losing a part of their autonomy;apply different performance standards;operate within a closer public and private sector interface;respond to being directly impacted themselves“Plan generically”“Be integrated into the COMMUNITY”“Emergent resource coordination- NOT command & control”“General principles, not details”“Planning as process, not planning as document”“Anticipate problems and think through solutions”“What is really likely to happen-think horses not zebras” (not worst-case)“It is not what I know I don’t know that worries me, it is what I don’t know I don’t know that worries me.”
28 Pitching Preparedness Making a CaseInvestment JustificationLearning from ExperienceGetting GraphicRe-Focus Improves FocusReady for ResultsThe Bottom Line
29 Disaster Response: Principles of Preparation & Coordination Disaster Response: Principles of Preparation & Coordination. The Media: Friend and Foe & Inter-agency CommunicationsDisasters are a Media EventThe Media as “friend”The Media as “foe”Interference with Disaster OperationsHow the Media Operates in DisastersInformation-seeking BehaviorThe Media are Different in DisastersThe “Command Post” PerspectiveImproving Disaster Media OperationsCentralizing Public CommunicationCOMMUNICATIONS PROBLEMS IN DISASTERSRELATIONSHIP OF COMMUNICATION TO COORDINATIONTHE IMPORTANCE OF "PRE-INCIDENT" COMMUNICATIONSTECHNICAL ASPECTS
30 Patterns of Media Coverage of the Terrorist Attacks on the United States in September of 2001 Terrorism Meta-themesDisasterCrimeWar10 ThemesContextDiplomacyImpactInvestigationMilitaryMitigationReactionsReconstructionResponseRestoration
31 Dilemmas in Emergency Communication Policy 1. Candor versus secrecy2. Speculation versus refusal to speculate3. Tentativeness versus confidence4. Being alarming versus being reassuring5. Being human versus being professional6. Being apologetic versus being defensive7. Decentralization versus centralization8. Democracy and individual control versus expert decision-making9. Planning for denial and misery versus planning for panic10. Erring on the side of caution versus taking chances
32 Obvious or Suspected, Here or Elsewhere, Now or Then: Paradigms of Emergency Events 1. Obvious/here/future2. Obvious/here/past3. Obvious/elsewhere/now4. Suspected/here/now5. Suspected/here/future6. Suspected/here/past
33 Socio-Economic Aspects of Hazard Mitigation Level of mitigationLong-term viewRisk and mitigation are loosely coupledMitigation is not seen as important in societyDisasters and champions play an important roleMitigation must be viewed in a social contextMitigation is planned social change
34 Issues for Post-Disaster Mitigation: The Need For a Process Recovery as a social processNeed to have mitigation plan during recovery, but need to develop it ahead of time because you’re rushed during recovery.A Suggested Strategy for pre-planning post-disaster mitigation
35 A Case Study of the Enactment of a State Building Code in South Carolina Describes PROSPECTIVE mitigation measures and the problems with the political process
36 A Case Study of Florida's Homeowners' Insurance Since Hurricane Andrew Describes the RETROACTIVE mitigation response to Hurricane Andrew measures and how political decisions in each phase of the disaster process affected each other
37 Getting Down to Business Public-Private CollaborationThe American private sector must be systematically integrated into the nation’s response to disasters, natural and man-made alike. Government alone cannot manage major crises nor effectively integrate the private sector after a crisis occurs.The Task Force believes that building public/private collaborative partnerships, starting at the state level, is one of the most important steps that can be taken now to prepare the nation for future contingencies. Unfortunately, with few exceptions, durable, collaborative relationships do not today exist.Surge Capacity/Supply Chain ManagementAmerica’s existing commercial supply chains can provide a wider range of goods and services on demand than any level of government can possibly match. During national disasters, these supply chains have provided goods and services both with and without payment from an end user.Government at all levels should incorporate such capabilities into disaster response planning. For the most part, government has so far failed to do so.Legal & Regulatory EnvironmentBusiness requires a predictable legal regime to operate efficiently in an emergency situation, whether that business is engaged in charitable or profit-motivated activities. The current legal and regulatory environment is conducive to neither predictability nor efficiency.
38 Determinants of Business Disaster Preparedness in Two U. S Determinants of Business Disaster Preparedness in Two U.S. Metropolitan AreasSize of firm directly related to preparednessAge of firm (over/under 6) directly related to preparednessChain stores more likely to be preparedFirms that either manage an activity (lodging) or respond are more likely to be prepared.Own or lease?Prior experience with disasterFinance, Insurance, Real Estate more likely
39 Impacts of Recent U.S. Disasters On Businesses: The 1993 Midwest Floods and the 1994 Northridge EarthquakeThe two disasters had very different impact patterns. In Los Angeles, physical earthquake damage was quite widespread. In Des Moines, physical flooding was confined to a relatively small segment of the business community, but lifeline service interruption was very extensive.Business properties may escape direct damage and yet suffer extensive disruption as a result of lifeline service outages.Other factors such as disruption in the flow of materials into and out of the business and the loss of customers contributed to business disruption.Large businesses were more likely to carry such insurance coverage than smaller ones.The business owners surveyed also showed a tendency not to use Federal disaster loan assistance and other formally-designated sources of recovery aid.Following the floods and the earthquake, business owners generally used their personal savings to offset their losses. It thus appears that one of the significant short-term effects of disasters is to drain profits and divert resources that could otherwise be used to finance business expansion.The Los Angeles data in particular suggest that small businesses are especially vulnerable to disaster-related losses and disruption.
40 Disaster Recovery Institute Professional Practices Project Initiation and Management Risk Evaluation and ControlBusiness Impact AnalysisDeveloping Business Continuity StrategiesEmergency Response and OperationsDeveloping and Implementing Business Continuity PlansAwareness Programs and TrainingMaintaining and Exercising the Business Continuity PlansCrisis CommunicationsCoordination with External Agencies
41 Multi-organizational Coordination During the Response to the March 28, 2000, Fort Worth Tornado: An Assessment of Constraining and Contributing FactorsTHE NEED FOR COORDINATIONWarning and EvacuationMedical Response and Incident ManagementSearch and RescueDamage Assessment and Disaster DeclarationPublic Safety and Perimeter ControlDebris Removal and Clean upShelteringDonations Management and Disaster AssistanceUtility RestorationPublic Information and Business ResumptionCONSTRAINTSinformation challenges,a lack of communication between the field and emergency operations center,equipment failures,language barriers, andcommand and control mentality.CONTRIBUTING FACTORSpolitical support for emergency management,preparedness measures,networking and cooperative relationships,technology, andthe nature and use of the emergency operations center.
42 Disaster Response: Principles of Preparation & Coordination Disaster Response: Principles of Preparation & Coordination. Resource ManagementTHE PROBLEM OF OVER-RESPONSEThere are five main reasons why resource excesses may occur in disasters:The resources surviving in the disaster-stricken community are greater than expected.People react to disasters with a spirit of concern and generosity. Assuming that resources are deficient and the community is incapacitated, outsiders send resources into the disaster area in large amounts---even if they have not been specifically requested.The determination of responsibility and establishment of procedures for assessing and requesting the overall resources needed are often neglected.Because of the lack of clearly defined contact points, absence of compatible radio frequencies, non-functional or overloaded telephone circuits, and communications overload, it is often difficult for those offering help to contact someone who can tell them whether or not they are needed. Assuming it is almost certain that help is needed and that too many resources are better than too few, they choose in favor of responding.It is often difficult for the recipients of unsolicited assistance to refuse it.
43 The Importance of Social Capital in Disaster Response Obligations & Expectationsreordered prioritiescitizenship demandssocial demandsfamily obligationsInformation Potentialdemand upflow up(?)hears/understands/believes/personalizes/decidesvenueNorms & SanctionsAuthority RelationsAppropriate Social OrganizationIntentional Organizations3 Views: Destruction of Human Capital, Physical Capital, or Social Capital.Social capital between people, least affected in disaster.Hazards are a geophysical concept, disasters are a social concept
44 The Disaster Recovery Process: What We Know And Do Not Know From Research 10 General themes:Disaster victims tend to judge in relativistic terms.Certain preimpact social locations or placements affect being helped in the recovery process..Social networks count.Class counts.Family is the predominant source of support.Money counts.Age counts.There is a difference, and no necessarily strong correlation between perceptual/symbolic recovery and economic recovery.The more temporary housing relocations occur, the more difficulties there will be in the recovery period.There can be positive as well as negative consequences from involvement in the recovery process, social psychologically as well as socioeconomically.
45 The Disaster Recovery Process: What We Know And Do Not Know From Research The 3 “R’s”:Restoration-thingsRehabilitation-peopleRestitution-societyFor Those Assisting:Almost all of the assistance provided informally is less noticed and reported, than giving formal agenciesA very typical characteristic is the emergent quality of disaster response.There tends to be relatively little coordination among the formal organizations involved in recovery efforts.Often overlooked are the personnel or staff problems of recovery organizationsAlso, unless there is systematic record keeping and a formal critique, there will be few lessons learned.Decisions on priorities in recovery activities often are not well understood by victims.Recovery assistance is strongly affected by political considerations.
46 Programs and Policies That Ought to Be Implemented For Coping With Future Disasters Disasters as social eventsAll-hazards approachMitigation is importantDisaster planning needs to be integrated with social change and development planningNeed to understand how disaster problem are the same or different from environmental problemsNeed to understand the benefits and limits of computing & technology