2The Nature of Leadership The process by which a person use influence over others and inspires, motivates and directs their activities to achieve group or organizational goals.
3Question?What is an individual who is able to exert influence over other people to help achieve group or organizational goals?ManagerLeaderChiefOrganizerThe correct answer is “B” – leader. See next slide
4The Nature of Leadership An individual who is able to exert influence over other people to help achieve group or organizational goals
5The Nature of Leadership Personal Leadership StyleThe specific ways in which a manager chooses to influence others shapes the way that manager approaches the other principal tasks of management.The challenge is for managers at all levels to develop an effective personal management style.Leaders may delegate and support subordinates, while others are very authoritarian.
6The Nature of Leadership Distinction between managers and leadersManagers establish and implement procedures to ensure smooth functioning (performance)Leaders look to the future and chart (plan) the course (path) for the organization
7Leadership Across Cultures Leadership styles may vary among different countries or cultures.European managers tend to be more people-oriented than American or Japanese managers.Japanese managers are group-oriented, while U.S managers focuses more on profitability.
9Power: The Key to Leadership Legitimate Power :The authority that a manager has by virtue (benefit) of his or her position in the firm.Example: the power to hire or fire employees.
10Power: The Key to Leadership Reward Power:The ability of a manager to give or withhold tangible and intangible rewards.Effective managers use reward power to signal to employees that they are doing a good job.Example: awarding pay raises or providing verbal praise for good performance.
11Power: The Key to Leadership Coercive Power:The ability of a manager to punish others.Examples: Oral warningpay cuts, and dismissal (firing)Limited in effectiveness and application; can have serious negative side effects.
12Power: The Key to Leadership Expert Power:Power that is based on special knowledge, skills, and expertise that the leader possesses.Tends to be used in a guiding or coaching manner
13Power: The Key to Leadership Referent Power قوة الاقتداء والإعجاب :Power that comes from coworkers’ respect and loyaltyPossessed by managers who are likable and whom subordinates wish to use as a role model.
14Sources of Power and Influences قوة المركز الوظيفي+قوة الشخصية=مصادرة قوة القائد الرسميقوة المكافأةقوة الإكراهالقوة الشرعيةقوة الخبرةالقوة المرجعيةThis is a summary of Managerial Power—let’s first review Position Power
15Empowerment: An Component in Modern Management The process of giving employees at all levels in the organization the authority to make decisions, be responsible for their outcomes, improve quality, and cut costs.
16Empowerment: An Component in Modern Management Empowerment increases a manager’s ability to get things doneEmpowerment increases workers’ involvement, motivation, and commitmentEmpowerment gives managers more time to concentrate on their critical concerns
17Leadership Models النظريات القيادية Trait Model: نظريات السماتAttempt to identify personal characteristics that cause for effective leadership.Research shows that certain personal characteristics do appear to be connected to effective leadership.Many “traits” are the result of skills and knowledge and effective leaders do not necessarily possess all of these traits.
18Leadership Models Behavioral Model النظريات السلوكية: Identifies the two basic types of behavior that many leaders engaged in to influence their subordinatesيفترض مؤيدوا هذه النظريات أن أنشطة القائد وأفعالة وتصرفاته أثناء العمل تشكل أسلوباً أو نمطاً عاماً لقيادته وهي التي تحدد فاعليته وليست سماته.
19Leadership Models Behavioral Model: 1. Consideration : leaders show subordinates they trust, respect, and care about themManagers look out for the well-being of their subordinatesDo what they can to help subordinates feel good and enjoy the work they performBoth behaviors are independent; managers can be high or low on both behaviors.
20Leadership Models Behavioral Model: 2. Initiating structure: leaders take steps to make sure that work gets done, subordinates perform their work acceptably, and the organization is efficient and effectiveManagers assign tasks to groups and let subordinates know what is expected of them
21Contingency Models of Leadership النظريات الموقفية أو الظرفية What makes a manager an effective leader in one situation is not necessarily what that manager needs to be equally effective in another situation.Whether or not a manager is an effective leader is the result of the relationship between what the manager is like, what he does, and the situation in which leadership takes place
22Contingency Models of Leadership Fiedler’s Model:Effective leadership is depending on both the characteristics of the leader and of the situation.Leader style is the continuing, characteristic approach to leadership that a manager uses and does not readily (quickly) change.
23Contingency Models of Leadership Fiedler’s ModelRelationship-oriented style: التوجه نحو العلاقات/ العاملينleaders concerned with developing good relations with their subordinates and to be liked by them.Task-oriented style: التوجه نحو المهام / الانتاجleaders whose primary concern is to ensure that subordinates perform at a high level so the job gets done.
24House’s Path-Goal Theory A contingency model of leadership proposing that effective leaders can motivate subordinates to achieve goals by:Clearly identifying the outcomes that subordinates are trying to obtain from their jobs.Rewarding subordinates with these outcomes for high-performance and attainment of work goalsClarifying the paths leading to the attainment of work goals
25Motivating with Path-Goal Path-Goal identifies four leadership behaviors:Directive behaviors: set goals, assign tasks, show how to do things.Supportive behavior: look out for the worker’s best interest.Participative behavior: give subordinates a say in matters that affect them.Achievement-oriented behavior: Setting very challenging goals, believing in worker’s abilities.
26Motivating with Path-Goal Which behavior to be used depends on the nature of the subordinates and the kind of work they do