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Inclusive Markets and Paradigm Maintenance: Informal Enterprise, Economic Inclusion and Islamic Extremism in Nigeria Kate Meagher London School of Economics.

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Presentation on theme: "Inclusive Markets and Paradigm Maintenance: Informal Enterprise, Economic Inclusion and Islamic Extremism in Nigeria Kate Meagher London School of Economics."— Presentation transcript:

1 Inclusive Markets and Paradigm Maintenance: Informal Enterprise, Economic Inclusion and Islamic Extremism in Nigeria Kate Meagher London School of Economics

2 Making Growth Inclusive Market-led dev’t has brought jobless growth, expanding informality and poverty Rise of more inclusive approaches to development – post-2015 buzzword Inclusive markets/BoP as solution to unemployment and informality – connect poor into global markets Dynamics of inclusion create new dynamics of exclusion

3 Considering Inclusive Markets Inclusive Markets: Poverty as market failure – solution is greater integration of poor into markets beyond redistribution, aid dependence Incorporate poor as agents of dev’t Focus on structural transformation – link business and finance to BoP to create jobs, foster entrepreneurship, financial inclusion

4 New Dynamics of Exclusion Processes of inclusion selective – selectively engage and reshape institutions, workers, subjectivities Dark side of inclusive markets: Open up new inequalities between regions, workers, consumers extractive effects on included; displacement, marginalization, criminalization of those who don’t qualify for inclusion

5 A Tale of Two Nigerias National inclusion: Inclusive market success story -- MINT – high grwth rates, rising investor engagement Parallel tale of poverty, illiteracy and Islamic terrorism Inclusion: solution or problem? exacerbated regional inequality – North: ed. disadvantage, economy gutted by SAP Fractious, uned. labour force, poor gov’ce – unattractive to investors Consider dynamics of exclusion unleashed by inclusive markets

6 Methodology Fieldwork in April 2014 in Kano and Kaduna 8 common informal activities – stratified into modern, trad., survival 53 interviews with associations and rank and file Survey of 187 operators Core issue: inclusion generating new patterns of competition in IE among those who don’t qualify

7 Contestation over Access to IE Saturation of informal economy Nearly 1/3 don’t own own enterprise, esp. survivalists Avg 12 years in business – absorbed as workers not entrepreneurs Contestation by state indigenes over access to IE crowding into activities once dominated by migrants – 55% indigenes Resentment against entry of non- indigenes – take jobs, reduce incomes Activity Type Years in This Activity Owner Work for others Share of Indigenes Modern Traditional Survival Average

8 Education High levels of education in IE 42% seced or higher In lowly activs, 12% post-sec. Lucrative activ’s – 61% at least seced; ~20% post sec. In lucrative activ's, graduates crowding out traditional actors – monopolize market opp’ties

9 New Religious Movements Rise of fundamentalist Islamic movements -- competitive ethos, intolerant Eroding econ networks between Muslims and Christians dominating lucrative activ’s, monopolizing associations, marginalizing Christians, other Muslims, poor

10 Internal Dynamics of Exclusion efforts to promote graduate entrepreneurshp, link informal services into GVCs (transport, butchers) Ignore existing stresses on N. Nigerian IE Channelling graduates into IE, upgrading, exacerbates crowding out of traditional operators

11 Beyond Inclusion National inclusion selective – put investors over needs of poor and unemployed regional dynamic of marginalization, internal dynamic of competition over scarce informal jobs Inclusive policies make things worse – indigenes, fundamentalists and graduates crowd out losers -- radicalization Inclusive markets offer adverse terms and perverse dynamics of exclusion -- another ‘Faustian bargain’?


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