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Chapter 1 and 2 Regular Economics Uncle Sam wants you to do better in economics.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 1 and 2 Regular Economics Uncle Sam wants you to do better in economics."— Presentation transcript:


2 Chapter 1 and 2 Regular Economics Uncle Sam wants you to do better in economics.

3 Chapter Objectives 4 factors of production 1.What are the 4 factors of production? [land, labor, capital, & entrepreneurial ability ] 3 basic questions 2. What are the 3 basic questions that determine economic systems? [What, How, and For Whom] 4 types of economic systems 3. Compare and contrast the 4 types of economic systems. Market [“individuals rule”] A. Market [“individuals rule”] Command [“government rules”] B. Command [“government rules”] Traditional [“customs rule”] C. Traditional [“customs rule”] Mixed D. Mixed Capitalism 1.) Capitalism Communism 2.) Communism Democratic Socialism 3.) Democratic Socialism 6 features of the free enterprise system 4. Explain the 6 features of the free enterprise system eight goals of our economy 5. Know the eight goals of our economy. C ircular F low P roduction P ossibilities C urve Models 6. E xplain the C ircular F low & P roduction P ossibilities C urve Models.

4 “No horn of plenty” Scarcity Choices What is given up ECONOMICS Unlimited Needs and Wants Demand In other words “THIS is not the case”. Choices L imited R esources Supply Or, “the study of how people make choices to get what they want”

5 Economicsmost discussed Economics is the academic discipline most discussed by the general public. least understood [“ Language of graphs ”] It is also one of the least understood. [“ Language of graphs ”] The economist’s lab is the real world. They don’t conduct controlled laboratory experiments. They are predicting human behavior. Physicists explore the physical world. Economics as a social science looks Physicists explore the physical world. Economics as a social science looks at the behavior of people in the marketplace. at the behavior of people in the marketplace. Economics is not an “exact science” but it gives “likely results”.


7 NECESSITIES Food Clothing ShelterLuxuries V. Gump Household

8 Food, clothing, shelter, Chrysler 300, mansion, Nintendo DSI, jewelry, iPod, projector, digital camera, good health, children, camcorder, laptop warmth, indoor plumbing, rollerblades, a sense of personal worth, Plasma TV, literacy, higher economics grade, iPhone 3GS, Flip video, Wii iPad “Need” those first three to survive. Unlimited Human Wants Limited Resources Land, L abor, C apital, E ntrepreneur R ent, W ages, I nterest, P rofits

9 Basic Economic Choices What to produce How to produce Who receives What, how, & for whom. Answers Determine The Type of Economic System MarketTraditionalCommand

10 When you pick Mr. or Ms. Right, you have 3.5 billion to pick from. When you pick Mr. or Ms. Right, you have 3.5 billion to pick from. “We’re looking for the perfect man.” What characteristics are you not going to want (abstract) in picking Mr. or Ms. Right. “There is the woman I want. She doesn’t even have to like sports.”

11 Subjectivity - personal perception. econ gurus objectively subjectively As we become econ gurus we must look at economic issues objectively - not subjectively.

12 bird Is this a leftward-looking bird? anteloperabbit rightward-looking antelope ? Or a rabbit ?

13 . Economics Economics – the study of the choices people make in an effort to satisfy their unlimited needs & wants from limited (scarce) resources. Good tangible Good is a physical object (tangible) that can be purchased. seen and felt [These can be seen and felt – car, book ] Product Service useful laborintangible Service is useful labor done for a fee (intangible). [These are activities, not items – lawyer or doctor servic Producers (suppliers)make goods/svcs Producers (suppliers) – people who make goods/svcs. Consumersbuy and use goods/services Consumers – people who buy and use goods/services. Supplier Consumer 3 4 1 2 Econ

14 Good Service Mechanic giving car a tune-up

15 Good Service Hamburger

16 Resources Resources – anything used to satisfy wants or needs. [inputs] Factors of production Factors of production – building blocks (resources/inputs) used to produce products. They are inputs used when something is going to be made. There are thousands of inputs or factors of production, all of which can be landlaborcapital grouped under land, labor, or capital. Needs – necessities for survival. [food, clothing, and shelter ] Wants – simply something we want but not necessary for survival. [car, soccer ball ] Scarcity – when resources do not satisfy wants and needs. [Wants are greater than resources.] [Scarcity makes decisions necessary & opportunity costs unavoidable.]5 6 7 8

17 scarcity “The first lesson of economics is scarcity: There is never enough of anything to satisfy all those who want it. disregard the first lesson of economics The first lesson of politics is to disregard the first lesson of economics”. --Thomas Sowell

18 Land– Natural Resources Land – Natural Resources Acreage, rivers, lakes, ports, (oil, precious metals, minerals) Labor– Human Resources Labor – Human Resources Physical and mental talents that produce goods and services Capital – “stuff used to make other stuff” A ll manufactured goods & services used in producing consumer goods. Examples: Tools, machinery, equipment, trucks to carry goods, airplanes, etc. Entrepreneurship Entrepreneurship – the “boss” 1.Someone who takes the initiative in using or combining land, labor & capital to produce a good or service. 2. Someone who is innovative, a risk taker, and makes basic business decisions. Remember Remember -- ALL THESE RESOURCES ARE IN LIMITED SUPPLY. And who is the “World’s Best Boss”?

19 . Land natural resources Nature’s items“gifts of nature 1. Land [natural resources] – Nature’s items [“gifts of nature”] In the earth A. In the earth - coal, oil, fossil fuels, etc. On the earth B. On the earth – vegetation and water In the atmosphere C. In the atmosphere – sun, wind, and rain The Four Factors of Production Resources beget production, which beget income, which beget wealth. “Gifts of Nature” starting point [Land is the starting point of all production.” “Stuff” “Stuff” from which everything is made. Water Wind Sun Fossil fuels 9

20 . Laborhuman resources“effort” 2. Labor [human resources] {“effort”} “paid work” anyone who works [“paid work”] “brain-power” [Labor is the “brain-power” and “muscle-power” “muscle-power” of human beings] Physical A. Physical – pro athletes & lumberjacks Intellectual B. Intellectual – ministers, doctors & lawyers “Hired Help” 10 *Most important resource – 70% of input cost

21 . Real Capital v. Financial Capital FINANCIAL CAPITAL [stocks, bonds, and money] REAL CAPITAL [tools, machinery, & factories] Can produce something directly with these Can’t produce anything directly with these

22 . can be both a consumer good and a capital good A product can be both a consumer good and a capital good –depends on use. Jet aircraft Ex: Jet aircraft used by a movie star [like Jim Carey] to visit friends (consumer good). The same aircraft used by a business manager to serve customers [capital good]. F150 pick-up Ex: F150 pick-up to deliver produce [capital good] or take family to church [consumer good] Capital Resources “man-made inputs” 3. Capital Resources – all “man-made inputs” used in the (tools, machinery, and physical plants) production process (tools, machinery, and physical plants). Capital goods A. Capital goods – produced goods [machinery, buildings, & tools] produce other goods used to produce other goods. [crane, Ford plant, hammer] “future consumption” [products meant for “future consumption”] Consumer goods“immediate consumption” B. Consumer goods – products meant for “immediate consumption”. “man-made inputs” 11 12 13

23 . 4. Entrepreneurship starting a new businessintroducing a 4. Entrepreneurship – starting a new business or introducing a new product“Sparkplugs” new product. “Sparkplugs” who introduce the product or start the combines land, labor, and capital to new business. He combines land, labor, and capital to produceproducts produce products. Resource paymentsrent Resource payments. The resource owners receive rent [for wagesinterest the use of their land; wages [for their labor]; interest [payment profits for financial capital], and profits [for their entrepreneurial ability]. Rent Wages Interest Profits Land Labor Capital Entrepreneur 14 15

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